SADC Economic Development
SADC Economic Development Overview of the SADC 3.1 Introduction SADC has been in existence since 1980, when nine states in Southern Africa formed the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) with the aim of coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on the then apartheid South Africa. On 17 August, 1992 the organisation was transformed from a Coordinating Conference into a Development Community giving the organisation a legal character. The Member States are Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. As per Article 5 of the SADC Treaty, the organisation has as its mission “to promote sustainable and equitable economic growth and socio economic development through efficient productive systems, deeper cooperation and integration, good governance, and durable peace and security, so that the region emerges as a competitive and effective player in international relations and the world economy.” The following are the objectives of the SADC as set by the Section 5 of the SADC Treaty: The achievement of development and economic growth, alleviation of poverty, enhancement of the standard and quality of life of the people of the region and to support the socially disadvantaged through regional integration; The evolvement of common political values, systems and institutions; The promotion and defence of peace and security; The promotion of self-sustaining development on the basis of collective self-reliance, and the interdependence of Member States; The achievement of complementarity between national and regional strategies and programmes; The promotion and maximization of productive employment and utilisation of resources of the region; The achievement of sustainable utilisation of natural resources and effective protection of the environment; The strengthening and consolidation of the long-standing historical, social and cultural affinities and links among the people of the region. All the above objectives converge to a single main objective of building a region where a high degree of harmonisation exists and to enable pooling of resources for the achievement of collective self-reliance to improve the living standards of the people belonging to the region. However, this is a complex task which needs to be carried out with great care and Article 4 of the SADC Treaty does provide some principles to which SADC and its Member States are expected to abide. These are: Sovereign equality of all Member States; Solidarity, peace and security; Human rights, democracy and the rule of law; Equity, balance and mutual benefit; Peaceful settlement of disputes. A number of measures and means have been identified in order to better achieve the aims. These are: The harmonisation of political and socio-economical policies and plans of Member States; The mobilisation of the people of the region and their institutions to take initiatives for the development of economic, social and cultural ties across the region and full participation in the implementation of the programmes and the projects of the SADC; The creation of appropriate institutions and mechanisms for the mobilisation of requisite resources for the implementation of the programmes and operation of SADC and its institutions; The development of policies aimed at the elimination of hurdles for the free movement of capital and labour, goods and services; The promotion of regional development of human resources; The promotion of the development, transfer and mastery of technology; The improvement of economic management and performance through regional cooperation; The promotion of the coordination and harmonisation of the international relations of Member States; The security of international understanding, cooperation and support. 3.2 Socio-Economic Situation in SADC 3.2.1 Political Situation Southern Africa has experienced political unrest for several decades which led to economic decline and social instability. But now a great deal of political stability is prevailing over the region, a factor which can surely lead to economic recovery. 3.2.2 Main Economic Characteristics and Current Economic Development Selected Macroeconomic Indicators Population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Despite a slow start in 1990-1992, the average regional GDP growth rate during the 1990s and beginning of 2000s has been significantly positive. SADC Structure of Production SADC countries are not different from the other developing countries where the primary sector dominates. Statistics on SADC show that only Mauritius and South Africa have manufacturing sectors at approximately 25% of GDP. In addition there is limited production of diversified range of product in SADC economies. Per Capita Income SADC’s average level of per capita income is very low and has been declining in most countries over the last three decades, the main contributing factors being underdeveloped production structures, poor economic performance, macroeconomic problems and unfavourable international economic environment. Inflation and Interest Rates Due to sound macroeconomic policies, especially in the early 1990s, most SADC economies have performed well in stabilising inflation rates. But the tight monetary policy intended to the levels of inflation low means that interest rates remain high in all SADC Member States. Savings and Investment Savings and investments are central determinants of the rate and pattern of economic growth in SADC countries. Between 1980 and the early 2000s regional Gross National Savings fell short of regional Gross Domestic Capital Formations. Individually, wide disparities between savings and investment rates existed between the countries. Concerning foreign direct investment (FDI), most countries are attracting resource-seeking foreign investment flows. Fiscal Balances Most SADC countries continued to experience high budget deficits during 1990-2000 despite high efforts to bring them to acceptable levels. The reason for this was because of the countries’ commitment to eradicate poverty through increased public provision of health and education facilities. External Trade and the Terms of Trade Total merchandise trade of the SADC increased between 1991 and 1998, trade being relatively more important part of GDP in small countries than in large countries. Statistics show that the majority of SADC members have experienced a long term decline in their terms of trade, the trend being particularly persistent between 1980 and 2000. Intra- regional trade in SADC is influenced by both the SADC Trade Protocol and bilateral trade agreements, which Member States have negotiated prior to entry into force of the Trade Protocol. External Debt and Aid Most SADC countries have seen their external debt burden increase over the last two decades and in many countries the debt burden has become extremely onerous. Key Integration and Development Enablers 3.3.1 Peace, Security, Democracy and Good Political Governance SADC Member States are committed to “promote common political values, systems and other shared values which are transmitted through institutions that are democratic, legitimate and effective”. To this effect, SADC acknowledges that in conditions of political intolerance, absence of a proper legal system, corruption and war, economic growth and development will not be realised. Economic and Corporate Governance Good economic and corporate governance are fundamental for the realisation of deeper integration and poverty eradication in the SADC region. There is some shared understanding that the unification of the Region’s economies through the SADC FTA and the quest to achieve deeper levels of integration will not be realised in the absence of good economic and corporate governance. Other Prerequisites for Deeper Integration and Poverty Eradication There are several other prerequisites that will facilitate the move towards deeper integration and poverty eradication. Some of them are: Diversification of regional economies through, inter alia, industrial development and value addition; Trade liberalisation and development; Liberalisation in the movement of factors of production; Research, science and technology innovation, development and diffusion; The creation of an enabling institutional environment; Productivity and competitiveness improvements; Private sector development and involvement; The above prerequisites are interrelated and each one supports each other. If treated in isolation, none can successfully impact on the integration agenda. All of them are important for leading towards sustainable development. But they require careful timing if they are to be effective for deeper integration. Regional Integration in SADC: Possible Benefits and Obstacles The possible benefits that will accompany a regional integration of exchanges among the SADC Member States are numerous. Investors may gain in terms of diversified risk in a larger market, reduced costs, higher returns and superior cross-border capital flows. It should be noted that the efficiency and competitiveness of the markets will also be improved. A broader range of shares will be available to investors and the issuers would gain access to a larger number of investors. Large share issues will be possible through regionalisation which previously could not be absorbed on a national basis. These types of transactions can further promote the development of the capital market and lead to increased liquidity. In addition to all the benefits already mentioned, the integration of capital markets can also help to achieve integration in other areas. For instance, policy areas such as taxation, accounting standards, corporate governance and legal practices can be harmonised which would enhance the regional integration. However, a major setback in the achievement of these benefits is the pace at which the regional integration will be carried out. If an integrated stock market is created too early without proper consideration for the future or without taking into consideration the present state of the individual members, this can lead to create a large illiquid market. Since liquidity is one of the most essential elements for a strong link between stock market development and long term economic growth, it would not be wise to compromise with it. It is argued that in order to avoid failure, by heading too quickly towards regional integration, progress should be made firstly in the developing capital markets at the national level. The collective investment vehicles must be stimulated and public must be made aware of the benefits of investment through education and publicity campaigns. In short, the illiquidity constraints must be dealt with. It is a known fact that many of the SADC Member States’ national exchanges are characterised by inappropriate institutional capacity to enforce stock market regulations, low stock market infrastructure, inefficient access to information or communication technology. These limitations will have to be taken into consideration when harmonisation of regulatory and policy frameworks and infrastructure are made. Other obstacles that have reduced, if not, prevented the possibility of capital market integration in Africa till now is the fact that there are overlapping memberships in the different regional groupings. Apart from SADC there are COMESA, SACU and EAC. This has lead to duplication of effort and on many occasions, inconsistent aims towards the integration of the markets. Furthermore there is resistance towards the regional development plans at the national government level of the different States. Governments fear the idea of losing the national sovereignty that a national exchange possesses. Thus, the differences among the Member States in their commitments to regional integration due to factors such as sovereignty concerns and limited available resources may delay the progress.
Effects Of Globalisation And Terrorism On Human Rights Politics Essay
essay help online free Looking at the above topic one will say it is a straightforward question, but there is more to it than one may think. In this easy we will start by finding out what the two main key words are: Which are globalization and terrorism? Also, try to find out what each means. Globalization is the process in which government of different nations interact and integrate with each other, on the other we can say globalization is internationalization, liberalization, universalization and the westernization since it has been of far and has spreads so far and attracted so much attention. It is also classify as the growth of relations between people, from financial and investment market, which operate internationally, and within one network. However, globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture through acculturation (Nicholson 2nd Edition 2002). However the word ‘terrorism’ is politically and emotionally charged and of difficulty of providing a precise definition, studies have found 1000 of definitions for terrorism and yet the concept cannot be agree on the right term with how terrorism can be define, since terrorism itself is very controversial and it is very important because, terrorism is an incredibly complex phenomenon due to the act of violence. Which when confronts government and international community with extremely painful dilemmas and notoriously difficult policy decisions have to be made (Wilkinson 2006). Terrorism can be briefly defined as a systematic use of murder, injury, and destruction or threat, to create a climate of terror. They often sought to avoid the indiscriminate terror against innocent civilian either on moral grounds or because they feared losing public support for their cause (Wilkinson 1993). In view of which is biggest threat to human right we cannot just conclude that terrorism or globalization is within trying to find out the impact of both. We shall consider the effect of globalization and it implication and the spread of it causes, as we stated that globalization is the internationalization, liberalization, universalization and the westernization as well as the growth of relation between people (Kofman and Youngs 2008). The spread of technological advances and dynamic entrepreneurship are the driving forces behind globalization, which has brought in it threat to human right. For their part, according to Marxist who regards capitalism as the engine of globalization and while other clam it have the primary cause in the knowledge structures and cultural politics (Scholte 2000). A further account of globalization as a threat to human right would combine elements from different approaches, resulting in multifaceted explanation which may prefer a more concise formula where the dynamic force of globalization are reduce to a single driving force. In other cases of globalization where other historical trend has be a major player; social relations involve complex interconnections that cannot be reduce since this has given terrorist the freedom to information and technology to help improve their network. The argument about the threat of globalization to human right can be elaborated as, “The spread of rationalism as a dominant knowledge framework, certain turns in capitalist development, technological innovations in communications and data processing; and the construction of enabling regulatory framework” which has contributed in differently in 40,30,20,and 7 percentages respectively and other factors take 3 per cent are the cause of globalization (Scholte 2000 pp 90). Globalization has occurred in part because of certain powerful patterns of social consciousness which has affected the human right race; nevertheless, globalization could not have occurred in the absence of the extensive innovations development in respect of transport, communications and data processing. However we cannot leave out industrialization which in general has figured more centrally in the transformation in the environmental problems, as other suggested the technological change has been the most prominent courses of globalization. To start with the normative of globalization that affect human right and in what ways and to what extent has contemporary globalization increased or decreased in relations to human safety and confidence. Absolute security is of course no longer available due to the inflation of technological advancement created by globalization no social order can remove all the uncertainty, destruction and death. In contrast, of contemporary globalization, which has been associated with the inflow of information, communication and data connectivity has made globalization being threat to human right and lack of freedom of moving without any fear (Scholte 2000). We will now look at another key word in the topic being discuss “Terrorism” in relations of being threat of human right, as defined earlier, the word Terrorism and Globalization share at least one thing in common which is the complexity of their definitions. However, terrorism can be characterized, first, by the use of violence. That violence’s are in many forms and more often and indiscriminately targets non-combatants, who are civilians with right to life. Reaching a consensus on what constitute the act of terrorism is very difficult; the legitimacy of terrorist means and methods is foremost reason for disagreement, some are of the view that terrorist acts are legitimate only if they in accordance of the ‘just war’ tradition. Terrorism, however is one of the biggest threat to human right since it action are more often not supported and luck of objectives because their goals for change are based on radical ideas that do not have any widespread appeal. In order for terrorist group to influence change, terrorist must provoke drastic responses that acts of violence which will intend act as a catalyst for change and weaken their opponent’s, one example of these is the bombing in Madrid, Spain 2004, its influence on the outcome of the elections (Baylis , Smith , Owens 2008). The extent of social, culture, and political change brought about by globalization including the increasing interconnectedness and homogeneity in the international system, remain a subject of much disagreement and debate such that the disagreement, in true has influence the discussion of the extent to which level globalization has contributed to the rise of modern terrorism. However, there is little doubt that the technology growth has been associated with globalization and to this extent has improved the effectiveness of terrorist groups. The impact of terrorism on globalization and on human right has been very high and the AI Qaeda or ‘The Base,’ received global recognition as a result of the attacks in New York and Washington on September 11, 2001. In closer look at the effect of the terrorist action of September 11, 2001 was brought about by the spread of globalization and it association with society becoming increasingly interconnected and terrorist have find it as a mains. We cannot say terrorism is a threat to human right without talking about the major areas where terrorist have operated more often, back to the example of 9/11 the main attack was from the Aviation industries and the reason why we should look at aviation security as an increased factor of globalization which is opening grounds for terrorist to operate from. On the other hand, one will say it is needed for development and growth of nations. There are lessons to be learnt from any form of airline hijacker (terrorist) since it is one of the biggest threats to lives and human right in general (Wilkinson 1993). The technological advances associated with globalization have improved the capabilities of terrorist group to plan and coordinate their operations before any information is link out. In particular technology have improved to the extent that terrorist now have the internet to use as a main to empower individual and cell with the ability to post tracts on the world wide web. Another form of empowerment for terrorist group brought about by globalization is the volume, range and sophistication of propaganda materials. Nowadays terrorist have the ability to build it own website like “Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement”. Once again technology associated with globalization can now enabled terrorist group to coordinate their attack in different part of the world at the same time, the attack on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998. Globalization and its technological advancement has also seen the commercially availability of radios and handheld phones, which allowed terrorist cell to operate independently at a substantial distance. Terrorist groups have able to leverage technological development designed to shield identity from unauthorized commercial or private exploitation (Baylis, Smith, Owens 2008). Globalization has undoubtedly pose threat to human right but the threat of terrorism on human right can be counted as more, one can also argued that globalization has come with a lot of technological changes but as to if these changes were of any threat to human right is to be a question of the day, however terrorism could be classify as the biggest threat to human right. In the sense that whenever there is an act of terrorism or when terrorist attack it replication are massive and outrageous living the affected family with so much worries, so is the displacement of people and the fear and panic among other who were not directly affected. These are just the few ways terrorism poses a threat on human right.
Technology Changing Human Behavior: Theory
Table of Contents Introduction Main body Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The two videos “Piano Stairs” and “The World’s Deepest Bin” can be seen as examples of classical conditioning. Thus, people’s behavior is shaped with the help of certain stimuli (Harasim 33). In this case, the stimuli are sounds. People find it more interesting to use stairs when music is produced. They also have fun when they put rubbish in a funny rubbish bin. The experiments are aimed at changing people’s behaviors to healthier or more socially accepted ones. Interestingly, people choose the behavior taught with pleasure as the technology provides the stimuli that encourage people to change. Main body Similar experiments can be held in the workplace setting. For example, many employers try to encourage employees who smoke to quit this bad habit. There are various programs and plans. It is possible to equip the areas for smoking with certain sensors. Thus, when there is somebody in the room, some unpleasant music or sounds should play (too loud, too creepy, and so on). People will soon try to avoid the area and will quit smoking (at least, at work). Of course, it is important to make sure that there are smoke sensors across the premises. It is also necessary to introduce larger fines for smoking in non-smoking areas. This classical conditioning could work. Of course, to make the effect lasting, the music should be there for a long period. At least, the experiment will have to continue for three or four months. Operant conditioning may be required. For example, some researchers stress that external rewards have a significant impact on shaping people’s behavior (Deci 105). It is also important to encourage employees to be in the office rather than in the smoking areas. Praise or even some small rewards can be given to those who quit smoking at work. As for the classroom environment, classical conditioning can also be used. There is often a problem that students do not pay attention to materials displayed by the teacher. To shape this undesirable behavior, it is possible to equip a room with a monitor that traces the movements of students. There are such technologies. For example, there is an application that traces the smile of a person and takes a photo of a smiling person only. The monitor should also divide the class into squares where each student is a square. Those who watch the video (slides, look at the board, and so on) will be depicted as green squares and those who look at another thing will be depicted as red squares. Of course, all students will want to be (or, at least, seem) good students and will have to look at the necessary thing. Again, if to take into account the ideas of some researchers, this behavior can be prolonged with the help of rewards. Operant conditioning can make the necessary behavior a norm. Students may be praised for paying attention and they can even get good marks or additional points. Conclusion In conclusion, it is possible to note that the use of technology for shaping behaviors is an effective strategy. Classical conditioning can be very efficient. At the same time, it is important to remember that operant conditioning can be used to make the desired behavior a norm. Thus, the use of certain stimuli is beneficial for shaping behavior. However, to make people behave in a certain way for a long time, it will be necessary to add a reward or even punishment. Works Cited Deci, Edward L. “Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.” Journal of personality and Social Psychology 18.1 (1971): 105-115. Print. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Harasim, Linda. Learning Theory and Online Technologies. New York, NY: Routledge, 2012. Print. “Piano Stairs.” YouTube, uploaded by Rolighetsteorin. 2009. Web. “The World’s Deepest Bin.” YouTube, uploaded by Rolighetsteorin. 2009. Web.
PHI 208 St Johns College Wk 1 Professional Ethics in Corporate America Research Paper
PHI 208 St Johns College Wk 1 Professional Ethics in Corporate America Research Paper.
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapter 1 of the textbook. This chapter will introduce you to the basic form and subject matter of ethical reasoning and assist you as you select an ethical question, examine the context, issues, and arguments surrounding the question, and attempt to defend an answer to the question. Please read these assignment instructions before writing your paper as they contain very precise and specific instructions on both the content and format requirements. You should download the provided outline and use that to structure your paper, as well as consult the assignment guidance and modeled example for additional help. Finally, before submitting your assignment please use the checklist to ensure that you have completed all of the requirements.OverviewThis course has three written assignments that build upon one another and are designed to take you step-by-step through a process of writing a paper that identifies an ethical question, examines the context, issues, and arguments surrounding the question, and attempts to defend an answer to that question using strong moral reasoning.This first written assignment is a six-part exercise comprised of the following sections:Ethical QuestionIntroductionPosition StatementReasons in Support of Your PositionOpposing Position StatementReasons in Support of the Opposing PositionThe assignment should be 500 words, written in essay form, with six clearly labeled sections as indicated below, and include a title page and reference page.Part 1: Ethical QuestionBefore writing the paper, you will need to spend some time thinking about the specific ethical issue you want to focus on throughout this course.Begin this task by viewing the list of approved ethical topics and questions provided in the Week 1 Announcement titled: “Written Assignment Ethical Topics and Questions List.” Take some time looking over the list and browsing through some of the material in the corresponding chapters of the textbook in which each topic is addressed and decide which to focus on.Once you have done this, choose one of the ethical questions associated with that topic. If you wish to do so, you may formulate your own ethical question, but it must be on one of the topics listed in the announcement. Be sure to carefully study the provided questions and model your own question after them in terms of specificity and ethical focus.”Place the ethical question under the Part 1: Ethical Question heading at the top of the paper.Part 2: IntroductionIn this section of your paper, you should introduce the topic and question at issue by doing the following (not necessarily in this exact order):Explain its relevance and importance.Define any key terms and concepts.Provide any relevant context and background information.Briefly reference an idea, quote, or analysis of the issue that you have found in one of the required resources on the topic. Required resources include the textbook chapter focused on that topic (6, 7, 8, 9, or 10), the “Primary Sources” listed at the end of Chapters 6-9, and the “readings listed under “Further Reading” at the end of each section in Chapter 10.The introduction will be the longest section of this assignment and should be at least 300 words in one or two paragraphs. Place the introduction material under the Part 2: Introduction.Part 3: Position StatementYour work on the introduction section has likely unearthed various positions one might take on the ethical question you have chosen. In this section, you will formulate a position statement.A position statement is a one sentence statement that articulates your position on the issue and directly answers the question you have raised. For example, if the question was, “What is a physician’s obligation with respect to telling the truth to his or her patients?” a position statement might be “A physician may never directly lie to a patient, but it may be moral for a physician to withhold information if the physician reasonably believes doing so directly benefits the patient.” A different position statement might be: “A physician may use any means necessary, including lying to a patient, if the physician believes that will produce the best overall results.” However, the following statement would not be a sufficient position statement: “A physician must always respect the rights of his or her patients.” The reason this is not a sufficient position statement is that it does not directly answer the question concerning truth telling.Think of the position statement as the strongest claim you would make if you were a prosecuting attorney making your opening statement to a jury, where you want to state precisely and directly the position you want them to believe.Place the position statement under the Part 3: Position Statement heading.Part 4: Reasons in Support of Your PositionNow that you have articulated a position on the issue, write a short paragraph—just a few sentences—that presents and explains one or two of the strongest reasons in support of your position statement.You want your supporting reason to explain why someone should support the position you are taking on the ethical question. A supporting reason is a consideration that helps to show why your position is stronger than another position.One way to approach this is to imagine yourself in friendly conversation with someone who does not necessarily agree with your position (perhaps they disagree, or perhaps they are undecided). When you state your position, they might ask why you think that; the kind of response you would give is a supporting reason.Supporting reasons can include many things including, but not limited to: an appeal to moral principles such as duty, justice, fairness and equality; the positive or negative effects of certain actions on policies; or a summary of facts, statistics or evidence and an explanation of how they support your view.Place the supporting reason(s) under the Part 4: Reasons in Support of Your Position heading.Part 5: Opposing Position StatementNow that you have provided reasons to support your position statement, in this section you will take a step back from all of that and articulate a statement that expresses an opposing or contrary statement.Think of the opposing position statement as the strongest claim you would make if you were the defense attorney making your opening statement to the jury immediately after they have heard the prosecutor’s statement.Place the opposing position statement under the Part 5: Opposing Position Statement heading.Part 6: Reasons in Support of the Opposing PositionIn this section, write a short paragraph—just a few sentences—that presents and explains one or two of the strongest reasons in support of the opposing position statement.A strong opposing reason is a reason anyone would need to consider, even if they do not agree with the opposing position.In other words, do not simply contradict claims that you make in Part 4, especially factual claims! You should strive to identify and articulate considerations in support of the opposing position that you think are accurate and true, or at least plausible, even if you still believe your own position has the most support overall.If the reason(s) in support of the opposing position are ones you consider obviously false or indefensible, you should look for better reasons.Put yourself in the position of a defense attorney who has to make the best possible case to the jury in defense of his or her client.Place the opposing reasons under the Part 6: Reasons in Support of the Opposing Position heading.In your paper,Identify the ethical question.Introduce the topic and question.Formulate a position statement.Explain the strongest reasons in support of the position statement.Formulate an opposing position statement.Explain the strongest reasons in support of the opposing position statement.The Ethical Question paperMust be 500 to 600 words in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the APA Style (Links to an external site.) resource.Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedFor further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)guide.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment
PHI 208 St Johns College Wk 1 Professional Ethics in Corporate America Research Paper