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US Political Polarization: Republicans and Democrats

US Political Polarization: Republicans and Democrats. Partisanship has always existed in the United States. Though, there have been periods of decline and resurgence. But since the 1970s America has seen an increase in “party unity” votes in Congress. From 2009 to 2012 party unity votes was around 70%, a clear indication of polarization in Washington.[1] The ideological differences that exist within Congress is also indicative of the attitude of the general public. A majority of people are willing to call themselves Democrats or Republicans. “Party identification, like other attitudes, affects beliefs as well as opinions.”[2] Party affiliation is a significant tool to predict tendencies of voters, those that associate themselves with the Republican Party tend to vote Republican and those associated with the Democratic Party tend to vote Democrat. Presidential performance ratings are indication of polarization amongst the parties. Republicans tend to give a higher approval rating for Republicans and lower rating for Democrats, and the opposite is true for Democrats.[3] Elections and politics in America have become more polarized than ever before. The foundation that created a more polarized America can be found in the changes in the media, campaign financing, and the way candidates are elected. The history of news media is one of an evolution of technology, practices, and regulatory environments that transformed the views of America. Years ago, the choices for Americans to get their news were limited to a few TV networks and local newspapers. The government instituted regulations over the broadcast news, such as the equal time provision-which required stations to provide equal access to candidates for office. The long standing FCC policy called the fairness doctrine perhaps was the most impactful in broadcast news. The policy created a condition in which news outlets were not targeting distinct core beliefs. Instead, the policy “required that stations devote a share of airtime to public affairs programming, and that they do so in a manner that is balanced and equitable.” [4] So essentially, people received the similar information at the same time. In the past the national news was delivered by few weekly papers but technological advances brought a great potential market of viewers. The introduction of cable and internet made mass communication easier and cheaper. In 2010, nearly every household in America had access to either: radio, television, and at least one mobile device.[5] Americans enjoy a greater variety of view points, and this abundance of new implies political polarization can occur. Consumers of new media rely on news source they find as reliable and tend to avoid information that contradicts their prior beliefs. Fox news a conservative news outlet has a high believability percentage among Republicans (77% in 2012) and a low believability percentage among Democrats (37% in 2012).[6] Liberal media outlets have a similar ratings, high believability among Democrats and low believability among Republicans. It is safe to assume those with conservative beliefs are more likely to tune into a conservative media outlet and those with liberal views are more likely to tune into a liberal media outlet. These media outlets provide a common narrative on current events, a narrative that is suited for their audience. The audiences in turn are being told what they want to hear. And with the capabilities of the internet, the media outlets are able to target specific audiences and tailor information to reinforce what they already believe. This abundance of new outlets and targeting by the media contributes to political polarization. Modern campaigns for federal office are generally very expensive. Assembling campaign teams, raising funds, hiring consultants and technical specialists are all activities that cost money. There is no way for most candidates to organize and run a competitive campaign without the flow of money. Currently, money spent on major federal campaigns comes from private sources.[7] Money coming in from private sources raises a couple of problems in elections. Money is distributed unequally, so it threatens democratic equality, meaning, someone with more money could have more influence on the outcome. This also raises the concern that elected officials are more willing to serve their contributors than their constituents. This is entirely possible and could lead to elected officials taking more extreme positions on issues in order to please their contributors. For its part the federal government has stepped in to regulate the flow of campaign financing, creating the FEC to enforce law and to collect and publish detailed information on campaign contributions. A 2010 Supreme Court decision banned all limits on independent spending led to the creation of SuperPACs. SuperPacs are essentially independent committees pushing their own agenda to support a candidate or attack a candidate. Unfortunately, candidates have no control over the SuperPACs and how they spend their money. Nearly $1.3 billion was spent independently on federal campaigns by parties and PACs in 2012.[8] The money generated by the SuperPACS is mostly spent to purchase television adverstising. In 2012, over 3 million political ads aired from January 1 through Election Day.[9] There was a substantial increase in volume and cost of political ads from 2008 to 2012 and a substantial increase in attack ads from 51% of ads aired in 2008 were attack ads to 61% in 2012.[10] At the same time, nonparty independent expenditures in congressional elections grew from $120 million in 2008 to $500 million in 2012.[11] Perhaps there is a correlation between attack ads and raising campaign funds. A campaigns ability to demonize an opponent, which provokes fear and anger among his constituents, is enough to motivate the candidate’s base to donate and turn out to vote. Polarization in Congress is not new. The extent of Congressional polarization depends on many factors, one being Primary Elections. Elections in Primaries differ than those in a general election. In Primary elections candidates tend to shift their positions either to the left or right end of the spectrum. Once they secured their party’s nomination, they shift their position to a more moderate position to attract independent voters. Candidates follow this method of campaigning because Primary constituents are more extreme than those in a general election.[12] Elections in the America preserves American democracy. Allowing citizens to pick their representatives and replace those that under performed. “The threat of replacement provides elected officials with a powerful incentive to listen to their constituents.”[13] Some voters may punish representatives that make an unpopular vote on issues by replacing him with another representative. This competition in primaries help create polarization within Congress.[14] When faced with competition in the primary election candidates tend to take extreme positions. Republicans candidates that face no competition/opponent had an average primary position .77 and those that encountered an opponent had an average primary position of .85[15], a position further from the center. This is because primary voters care more about a candidate’s positions than the general election voting base. The 2010 Tea Party phenomenon is an example of extreme and engaged primary constituents. The Tea Party movement knocked mainstream conservatives out of the picture, which in turn, hurt the Republican Party in the general election because of their extreme positions. The extremism and activism that exists in primary elections contributes to the political polarization in America. The ideological divide between Republicans and Democrats, Conservatives and Liberals is real. Polarization is not only present in the branches of government but also among the people. The political system that has been created has contributed greatly to the growth of polarization. The foundations can be traced back to the media’s influence over the public, financing of campaigns and the manner in which the public selects representatives. [1] Barry Burden, “The Polarizing Effects of Congressional Primaries,” in Galderisi et al. (eds.), CONGRESSIONAL PRIMARIES AND THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION (2001). [2] (KJKV).pg.466. [3] (KJKV).Pg. 447 [4] (KJKV).pg. 629 [5] (KJKV).pg. 640 – It is entirely possible that despite having a mobile phone, the device may not be able to surf the Web, which limits the potential information sharing in that household. [6] (KJKV).pg. 638 [7] (KJKV).pg. 508 [8] (KJKV).pg. 511 [9] Erika Franklin Fowler and Travis N. Ridout, “Negative, Angry, and Ubiquitous: Political Advertising in 2012” [10] Erika Franklin Fowler and Travis N. Ridout, “Negative, Angry, and Ubiquitous: Political Advertising in 2012” [11] (KJKV).pg. 510 [12] Gary C. Jacobson, “The Electoral Origins of Polarized Politics: Evidence From the 2010 Cooperative Congressional Election Study.” American Behavioral Scientist 56(12) 1612–1630. [13] (KJKV)Pg. 521 [14] Barry Burden, “The Polarizing Effects of Congressional Primaries,” in Galderisi et al. (eds.), CONGRESSIONAL PRIMARIES AND THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION (2001). [15] Barry Burden, “The Polarizing Effects of Congressional Primaries,” in Galderisi et al. (eds.), CONGRESSIONAL PRIMARIES AND THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION (2001). US Political Polarization: Republicans and Democrats
Capstone – Critical Analysis Application Assignment prior to the Discussion.

Application: Critical Analysis I
Note: Please complete the Application Assignment prior to the Discussion question this week.
Often there are many contributing causes in the development of a specific problem/issue. These causes may be complex and may involve individuals, institutions, and/or environmental factors, for example. This complexity increases the difficulty in creating a solution for the problem. Thus, prior to developing solutions, there must be a critical analysis of the problem/issue. The analysis must address the many potential causes of the problem/issue and determine which had the most impact on its development. Critical analysis relies on the literature and resources that address the specific problem.
In this Application, you will focus on a critical analysis of the problem utilizing the findings from the literature collected in Weeks 4 and 5.
To prepare:Review the resources you collected and summarized in Weeks 4 and 5.Review the questions in the “Critical Analysis Template,” located in the Resources area on the left navigation bar.Think about the causes of the problem or the issue you have identified, and consider who or what are the major contributors to this problem.Think about the impacts of the problem.The assignment:By Day 7, briefly describe, in 2-3 pages, the problem/issue and the problem statement you developed.Identify the major contributors to the problem (who, what) and briefly explain how they contribute to/cause the problem.Explain at least two causes of the problem.Explain at least two effects of the problem.
Capstone – Critical Analysis Application Assignment prior to the Discussion

1. What did participants think about the role of men and women in terms of orgasm during sex? 2. What role did the clitoris play in this research? 3. What did the authors think were the implications of this research (meaning what should be done given this information? What could be done to improve sexual satisfaction for everyone?)

Stratford Wk 1 What Steps Does a Nurse Take to Become Culturally Competent Analysis

Stratford Wk 1 What Steps Does a Nurse Take to Become Culturally Competent Analysis.

I’m working on a nursing multi-part question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Homework Week 1:Watch multicultural Sim video (7 min.)And answer the following questions:1. What steps does a nurse take to become culturally competent?2.Was the nurse in the simulation culturally competent? If so, why? If you think not, why?3.Is there anything you would have done differently if you were the nurse?Upload your answers. Do not just answer yes or no.Homework week 2Answer the following questions and upload your answers:What kind of assessment is she doing?Why did she start with the abdomen?Why listen first?What did you see that the nurse did well in the video?What would you have done differently?Watch the video at:
Stratford Wk 1 What Steps Does a Nurse Take to Become Culturally Competent Analysis

Identify an innovative product that you want to develop: Apple Air Pods (1) Provide an overview of the company’s

essay helper free Identify an innovative product that you want to develop: Apple Air Pods (1) Provide an overview of the company’s (Apple) innovation strategy. Provide three examples that illustrate your innovation strategy. (2) Describe your organizational culture and how innovation and creativity are communicated to the members of the organization. (3) Describe your company’s innovation process including all stages and gates. If the company does not have an innovation process, provide a recommendation for one that includes all stages and gates. (4) Describe or propose three different annual events or programs the organization has (or should have) incorporated in its strategic plan to generate and collect ideas. (5) Provide a Voice of Customer Research Plan to support the first three stages of the company’s innovation plan. Communicate the importance of each research method used. (6) Outline the components of a business case that should be used by the organization to evaluate new product ideas. (7) Recommend the types of metrics the organization should use to monitor and evaluate financials, processes, and success. Indicate why each metric was chosen and how the metrics will be used. (8) Identify and define the tools that the organization uses (or should use) to implement its innovation plan. Attached is an outline for the paper that has already been submitted to the professor and received full credit. It contains some of my initial thoughts based on learnings in the class to help guide you. REQUIREMENTS: 8-10 pages At least 5 scholarly references APA 7

INR 2002 MDC Dictatorland The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon Book Analysis

INR 2002 MDC Dictatorland The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon Book Analysis.

Introduction (1 page): The introduction is the most important part of any well-written paper. It is meant to capture the attention of the reader as well as lay out your arguments. It should not be generic, and it should be free from language such as “in this paper I will discuss.” Make it interesting. Be creative. Follow your introduction with a brief summary of the main points and circumstances involved with the issue. Make sure to include the domestic, regional and international actors, response, etc. The summary must be succinct, concise and clear. This section will be the most difficult portion of the assignment since you must summarize a great deal of information in no more than half of a page.
Some things to keep in mind: what are your initial impressions of the book? What are your thoughts on the first chapter? 
Reflection (3 pages): Your analysis/reflection includes two components.

The first component includes an the application of concepts. How are concepts such as political power, anarchy, sovereignty, collective good problems, deterrence, etc. addressed in the book? You must analyze/highlight at least THREE international relations concepts from our textbook. How do these concepts help you understand international politics?  
The second component involves your pondering where you think the issue is headed in regard to domestic/regional/international response. Which international relations theory (e.g. classical realism, constructivism, Marxism, neoliberalism, etc.) best reflects the theoretical lens applied by the author? Illustrate your argument by referencing and analyzing a specific passage of the book. 
Overall, I will be looking for creative, insightful and thoughtful responses that balance opinion and analysis.

Conclusion (1/2 to 1 page): What is the book’s main contribution to our understanding of international relations? Select a favorite quote or two and analyze them. How do these quotes illustrate or capture the main thesis of the book?
INR 2002 MDC Dictatorland The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon Book Analysis

Air Canada Case Study

Analysis of alternatives Partnership with WestJet Differentiated pricing/fares Partnership with the Canadian government Partner with major security agencies Partnership with WestJet Air Canada faces serious competition both locally and internationally, and therefore the company has to adopt strategies which will enable it maintain its market leadership in Canada and market share internationally. Its major rival in the domestic market, Canada, is WestJet although there are other small players in the market. Air Canada would better achieve its local growth ambitions by partnering with WestJet. Evaluation Partnership between Air Canada and WestJet would create several benefits for both companies: It would help eliminate unhealthy competition which could further hurt the industry as a whole and Air Canada in particular. Air Canada survives in the market by offering lower priced Tonga fares; however, this pricing strategy could also be exploited by WestJet to offer relatively lower prices, making the industry less profitable as other airline companies also adopt the strategy as they try to remain competitive. Thus, by partnering with WestJet, the two companies will be able to use their different preferential rates to attract more customers; and given Air Canada’s market leadership, it will make significant gains from this partnership. Strong partnership between these two companies which are the major players in the Canadian airline market would help prevent new entrants. Air Canada will lower its marketing and advertising costs as it will be able to use WestJet’s marketing and advertisement channels, thereby reducing its cost of operations. Differentiated pricing/fares The new agreement between the Canadian government and the European Union offers an excellent opportunity for Air Canada to establish more direct routes to European countries within the EU. This would certainly help the company lower the cost of its operations. Thus, it can use this opportunity to extend its differentiated pricing strategy to international flights. Evaluation Extending the differentiated pricing strategy to its international flights by making some of its products (fares) to be relatively cheaper will enable it attract more customers. This strategy will be viable since the lower cost operations in direct flights will compensate for the lower priced tickets. Differentiated pricing will help it build its reputation and enable it to compete favourably in the low-frill as well as budget travel segment in the international market. Partnership with the Canadian government Government regulations especially on taxes and charges imposed on airliners in Canada remain a major threat to Air Canada’s profitability. Therefore, partnering with the government by allowing it to own shares in the company’s stake should be explored. Evaluation Bringing the government on board as shareholders though not necessarily major shareholders would help the government better understand the impacts of the charges and taxes it imposes on the industry. It would now be easier to lobby the government to review these charges and taxes so as to lower them or provide subsidies which will enable the company reduce the costs of its operations within the country and improve its profitability. Partner with major security agencies New security challenges especially the terrorism threats remain major challenge facing the airline industry and calls for advanced and more efficient strategies for dealing with the threat. Therefore partnering with major security agencies both locally and internationally with other security agencies like the FBI, CIA, and other major security agencies would help deal with security threats. Evaluation Partnering with security agencies will help Air Canada implement and improve its capacity to use advanced explosive detection equipment like backscatter X-ray machines as well as explosive trace-detection portal equipment to screen its passengers and their luggage. Advanced security equipment will enable Air Canada’s security personnel detect any weapon hidden anywhere on the passenger whether underneath the clothes or even in shoes and luggage. Partnering with major security agencies experienced in terrorist attacks prevention would enable the company improve detection of weapons and explosives before there are used on its assets, planes included. Air Canada will be able to better to ensure the safety of its passengers and assets, and as a result, build its reputation in the industry. Recommendations The best and less costly strategy that Air Canada should implement is differentiated pricing strategy in international travels. Why This strategy will enable the company provide lower priced tickets in some international routes thereby building its reputation as it attracts more customers. It will be cheap to implement given the opportunities for expanding its direct routes which have been made possible by the Canadian government and the European Union agreement. Direct routes are generally less costly as compared to connecting flights or routes. Air Canada’s partnership with Lufthansa, Continental and United airlines allows it use its partners established routes, which makes the costs of its operations even cheaper, and therefore making it possible to provide lower priced fares in particular routes. Where Air Canada will adopt this strategy in its international flights to Europe. When Air Canada will implement this strategy after introducing more direct roots to European Union cities/countries. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How Implementing this strategy will require that the company studies the costs of its operations in the newly created direct flights against those of its major competitors in the international market so as to find routes which lower priced fares can be best implemented to achieve competitive advantage. Finally, Air Canada will adopt the best marketing strategies and advertisement channels to advertise its lower priced fares to reach the target demographics.