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US Immigration Policy: History and Arguments

Recent years have made it clear that the current immigration system is broken and fails to meet America’s modern needs. Though it is based on family reunification, unfortunately current U.S. immigration law often results in the tragic separation of families or the forced departure of children with full U.S. citizenship when an “illegal” parent is deported. It is not only families that are affected by current policy. America’s workforce is a shared effort between citizens and immigrants. Admission of skilled workers enables the fulfillment of positions that Americans are not sustaining. In addition, current immigration policy allows for the provision of refuge for people who are at risk for political, racial of religious persecution from their country of origin (Congressional Budget Office, 2006). It is unfortunate that majority of the refugees end up settling in the inner cities where they adopt to living in communities embedded with crime (Baldoz et al.) According to Bill Ong Hing a Professor of Law and Asian American Studies at the University of California, children of refugees have grown up in crime ridden society, they commit a crime, get charged and serve time but later they are deported back to the country that they had originally fled. U.S. borders are out of control at a time of increased threats of terrorism. Vast numbers of immigrants cross the borders and enter into America; some die due to the harsh desert conditions while others remain in America illegally creating an underground society that is vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. These policies are not beneficial to either immigrants or American citizens and need to be modified in order to create a nationwide banister of hopeful equality so that entrance into the United States can be achievable by legal means without jeopardizing the rights and benefits of current citizens. Some believe that American immigration policy should be stricter; such terms to include the expulsion of illegal immigrants and placement of a border fence around United States; however, by providing a path for those who are here illegally to get legal status, a much more viable plan can be set to action leading to successful immigration into the United States. By increasing the number of available visas to immigrants and temporary nonimmigrant workers, creating tighter border security, expanding cooperation with developing nations and even imposing tougher penalties to employers who hire and abuse undocumented immigrants, we can provide such a benefit to all who wish to reside in the Land of Opportunity. DEFINITIONS “Immigrant” is a technical legal term given to a foreign national who has been granted permission to remain in the United States permanently. Such a person is a legal permanent resident (LPR) and is given a green card as a proof of legal status. A “non-immigrant” is a foreign national who is admitted to United States for a short period of time. They are given “Visas” according to their reason for entry. For example a student will get class F, visitor class B, and a temporary worker class H. Upon arrival at the port of entry, they are given an I-94 card, which is a small white card placed in the passport. The card indicates how long the foreign national is authorized to stay in United states (U.S.) either with a specific date the foreign national is to leave or with a notation such as D/S (duration of stay) which means that the person is permitted to stay as long as he or she maintains her status. “Alien” is a term given to someone who isn’t a United States Citizen. This term includes temporary visitors, legal permanent residents and undocumented individuals. Many advocates feel that this term has a negative connotation; therefore, the term foreign national/immigrant or undocumented will be used throughout this paper. “Undocumented” is a term given to foreign nationals who are present in the U.S. without lawful status. The term can also refer to those who entered the U.S. without inspection (EWI) by crossing the border, those who overstay their allotted time in the U.S. or those who violated the terms of their legal status. With very limited exceptions (notably asylum and immediate relative of a U.S. citizen’s partition) a person who is not in lawful status in the U.S. cannot change from being in the U.S. unlawfully to being a lawful individual (Congressional Budget Office, 2006). HISTORY In order to understand the issue of immigration, it is essential to pore over the background and history of immigration. According to Greenblatt (2008), United States was created as a nation of immigrants who left Europe for political, religious and economic reasons. After gaining independence, America had an open door immigration policy for 100 years (Greenblatt, 2008) The Early Laws The first actual naturalization law in the United States was the March 26, 1790 Naturalization Act restricting immigration to “free white persons.” Residency requirements were established so foreigners could prove their economic worth over a legislated period of time. In 1870 the law was changed to allow a limited number of Africans to enter. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 specifically excluded Chinese as they were deemed an inferior race and undesirable. This Act was repealed in 1943 when the Magnuson Act recognized the importance of China’s alliance with the US in the war against Japan. In 1865, the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution, while intended to protect newly emancipated slaves, in effect made automatic citizens “All persons born or naturalized in the United States,” regardless of the citizenship of the parents. The Quota System The 1921 Emergency Quota Act and Immigration Act of 1924 established national quotas on immigration based on the 1910 census figures of foreign-born residents in the US. The original intent may have been to maintain some level of protection for US workers from large influxes of skilled foreign workers. (Greenblatt, 2008) But the racial and ethnic quotas clearly reflected the racist attitude of the time that white Europeans were more desirable than any other diversity. Partly in response to the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s, these racial distinctions embarrassed the government and congress offered amendments that eliminated them from the code with the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1965; signed by president Lyndon B. Johnson as tribute to President Kennedy who was shot in 1963(Vial, et22) However, country quotas remained for foreign-born U.S. citizens who were expected to request family reunification. A visa system was created allowing foreign family members to request legal entry to the U.S. on a first-come, first served basis. PRESENT DAY IMMIGRATION LAWS With a family-based immigration system, immigration quickly became a “Chain Migration” process in which legal immigrants already present in the U.S. sponsored new relatives who would become legal and in turn sponsor additional relatives. The archaic quotas of the 1960’s legislation were completely inadequate for the immigration flood of the 70’s and 80’s. There were the political refugees from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Then came a rush of refugees escaping the wars and government persecutions in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. (Vial, t(22) More recently, the United States is continuing to demand medical workers from the Philippines, software engineers from India and as of late, professional business people from China. The system has been unable to handle this demand and the flood of “illegal” immigrants has rapidly escalated to well over one million annually. The problem that America is facing today is a familiar issue, an issue that has existed long before the recent high-profile migrations from Mexico. However, rather than focus on reforming the antiquated and over-burdened processing system, Congress took an enforcement approach. They enacted the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, which was signed by then President Ronald Reagan, creating penalties for employers who hire illegal immigrants, an amnesty program for illegal immigrants already in the U.S. by 1982, and increased support for the Border Patrol (Greenblatt, 2008). In 1996, the Illegal Immigration and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIIRA) gave the government broad authority to construct barriers along the border and authorized a second layer of fencing in San Diego (Karaim, 2008). The IIIRA also established new definitions of criminal activity for which immigrants could be deported. The current waiting time for processing legal claims to naturalization continues to grow, now exceeding five years! The issues of immigration have been a hot potato for America for almost two centuries. Immigration reform continues to be highly emotional and controversial, but the policy must be fixed regardless of where one stands on the issue of immigration. Arguments Against Immigration Reform Most of the people against immigration reform are generally against immigration. The source of this resentment is routed in the indifference between the immigrants of the past and the current immigrants. In the past they were white and now they are not, they used to assimilate and now they don’t, they used to be self sufficient and not they seek out government handouts (Krikorian, 2008, p. 2). Some scholars argue that Mexicans; who represent about 50 percent of the undocumented foreign nationals in U.S, constitute a major threat to a cohesive American identity (Huntington, 2004). For instance Huntington argues that the central to the American identity are the “Anglo protestant culture,” the “American Creed” as understood as the acceptance of certain political values, and Christianity. According to Huntington, a fundamental problem is that Latinos retain their Hispanic culture, including language and fail to assimilate and there for fail to acquire the American identity. Effects of immigration on jobs, wages and the economy “The key to the economic facet of the conflict between mass immigration and modern society is the fact that immigration floods the job market with low skilled workers, creating what economist call a slack, or a loose, labor market” Krikorian (2008, p. 133). Krikorian argues that when low skilled immigrant workers flood the market, they lower the collective bargaining power of the natives against the employers. As a result, upward mobility for the poorest is impaired by lower wages. Also increased availability of cheap labor reduces the incentives for more efficient use of labor, slowing the natural process of mechanization and other productivity increases in low wage industries where low skilled immigrants are located. This is a perfect example of a supply and demand theory. When an abundance of supply is available, the demand is always low hence if immigration is kept low, wages tend to ne high (Krikorian, 2008, p. 138). If the low skilled immigrants who are in U.S currently were to leave, the wages would go up and probably employers would have incentives to provide things like healthcare and the low skilled Americans might have a chance to move into the middle class (Karaim, 2008, p. 752) Immigrants hurt the economy by not paying taxes and if they pay taxes, its normally low compared to a native due to the low wages immigrants make. Many immigrants work “underneath the table” thus, evading paying taxes. To make the matter worse, the send billions and billions of American earned dollars back to their home countries other than spending the money in America. Exporting millions of dollars while “importing millions of poor people with large families means by definition, they will pay relatively little in taxes but make a heavy use of the government services” (Krikorian, 2008, p. 167). Immigrants increase government expenditure by using public services, notably the health care system and the public education. The government created a welfare state in the name of supporting the poor. In his book, the new case against immigration, Kerikorian states that “there was no welfare state during the prior waves of immigration- in fact it was until well after the end of the last wave of immigration in 1924 that the institution of welfare started to develop”. The Social Security Act of 1935 established pension for the retired American citizens as well as unemployment assistance and aid to families with dependent children (Krikorian, 2008, p. 169). The child Nutritional Act of 1966 created WIC program, then in 1974 supplemental security income was created for impoverished elderly, blind and disabled. All this cost of these programs could have been kept low if the poor population bloated by the immigrants would not have increased. According to Krikorian, one in four people in U.S. is without health insurance is an immigrant and among children one in three is either and immigrant or a child of an immigrant. Since most of them don’t have insurance; when they are sick (no modern society will deny them treatment) they utilize the emergency room. Not all the uncompensated care is covered by the government, hospitals are forced to write off the cost that they incur while treating the uninsured. Hospitals then shift the cost to the paying patients and their insurance companies, resulting in higher premiums for those who have insurance. Another costly service provided by the government is education. The total cost of expenditure to states for K-12 illegal immigrants was about $12 billion, and when the children born in U.S to undocumented foreign nationals the number doubles to about $28.6 billion (Martin, 2005). This doesn’t include the cost that states incur implementing the bilingual education since most of immigrants don’t speak English as their first language. Krikorian also urges that 22 percent of public schools are overcrowded, especially in schools that are located in central cities where 50 percent of the enrolments are minority who receive free or reduced price school lunches. The convention wisdom of the conservative movement which is the leading resistant group against immigration reform is to stop the flow of undocumented foreign nationals across the U.S borders and to deport most or all undocumented foreign nationals with their children. To solve this movement of undocumented foreign nationals, congresses enacted the Secure Fence Act in 2006 which was to secure the 670 miles border region spanning four states, California, New Mexico, Texas and Arizona (Karaim, 2008, p. 747). According to Karaim (2008, p. 747) roughly 370 miles designed to stop pedestrian (a fence consisting of wire mesh reinforced with concrete- filled poles planted 6 inches apart and standing a height of 12-18 feet), 300 miles if it to stop vehicular traffic and about 28 miles installed with high technology sensors and cameras that creates a “virtual fence” in parts of Arizona desert. This fence is also to stop would be terrorist from entering the U.S. Amnesty to those who broke the law is unacceptable and it not going to solve the issue instead it will encourage more undocumented foreign nationals to attempt coming to the U.S. According to North (2010, amnesty simply begets more undocumented foreign nationals, and they in turn beget new and more vigorous pleas for another amnesty. Secondly most of those who received amnesty were low skilled workers. North argues that people with limited skill and limited rights in the labor market can only lead to still greater discrepancies between the reach and the poor. Furthermore, giving another amnesty to low skilled individuals will just increase the dependence of the current welfare system which in turn will give rise to a burden to the current tax payers. Arguments for Immigration Reform Contrary to those who objet immigration reform and tend to perpetuate the notion that immigrants especially those who are undocumented, take American jobs and lower the wages is false. Most unskilled undocumented foreign national work in the three “D” jobs- Dirty, Difficult and dangerous jobs that the natives don’t fill. The American labour market is a dual labour market. The dual market theory divides the economy into two segments: the primary and secondary sectors (Nadadur, 2009, p. 1041). According to Nadadur the secondary sector is different from the primary in that the secondary is temporary and consists of unskilled workers with little or no prospect of internal promotion while the primary sector is permanent and characterized by skilled work, employment stability and the presence of job ladders. Nadadur states that there is no t completion for jobs by the undocumented foreign nationals and native U.S. workers, and that a continue flow of Undocumented immigrants would benefit the majority of persons residing in the U.S. by complementing their labour market instead of competing for it. “When the broader U.S. economy is examined; adopting a dual labour market view, it is hard to find strong evidence of negative wage effects on native workers” Nadadur (2009, p. 1045). This is ascribed to the fact that dual markets shield native workers and due to the indifference of job sectors, wages are not affected by the influx of undocumented foreign nationals in the labour market (Nadadur, 2009, p. 1045). Immigrants taking secondary jobs allow businesses to minimize their costs of production; this positively impacts the income of all workers by decreasing the consumer costs. The consumers can also spend by buying goods and services and grows the economy in return. As stated earlier, there are about 12 million undocumented foreign nationals residing in the U.S. this population participates in the American and their countries of origins economy. Contrary to those who say that the undocumented immigrants don’t pay taxes, about two thirds of the undocumented immigrants who work pay federal and state taxes, social security taxes and Medicare taxes Immigration Policy Center (2009). And all undocumented pay state taxes when they buy items from the local grocery store, when they pay property taxes even if it’s from the rental property they rent. Undocumented immigrants working on the books contributes to social security under names and social security number that don’t much the social security administration (SSA) records. In a 2006 SSA report that the Earning Suspense File (ESF) tootled $586 billion. Unfortunately undocumented immigrants are not eligible to receive benefits social security benefits. Even when they become legal, they are only credited with the years worked after they became legal. Sometimes they leave the country without claiming any of the money they had contributed. Legalizing the undocumented foreign nationals has a net benefit to the economy. A research done conducted by Westat Inc, for the department of labour showed that workers who were legalized after the IRCA of 1986 experienced a net wage gain of about 15 percent (Immigration Policy Center, 2009). With an increase in wages begets increased in spending which begets strength in the economy. Most immigrants to the U.S. do want to learn English. There are strong economic prospects and strong incentives for becoming proficient in English. Employment prospects and earnings are greater for those with higher levels of other skills including schooling. There is also a greater access to and participation in civic, cultural, social and political life when one is able to communicate in English while living in the U.S. certain factors, however make it difficult for some individuals or immigrants to become proficient in spoken or written English (Chiswick
Read the research Paper thoroughly and write down a comprehensive report highlighting following Points. I’m stuck on a Management question and need an explanation.

Assignment Instructions: Approach II
1.Copy and paste the following link in your internet browser.
3.The link will take you to webpage with direct access to the research paper titled,” Success Stories in Knowledge Management Systems”
4.Click on “Download button” to download the PDF version of this research paper.
5.Read the research paper thoroughly and answer the assignment questions.
6.Besides this research paper use other material also to support your answer.
7.Do not copy and paste material. Answer the questions in your own words.
8.Support each answer with minimum two scholarly references.
Assignment Question(s):
Read the research Paper thoroughly and write down a comprehensive report highlighting following Points:
a)Role of information technology and Knowledge management systems in managing knowledge. (1 Mark)
b) The components of knowledge management systems. (1 Mark)
c) Paragraph on “Knowledge management success factors” highlighted by the authors in this research paper. (200-300 Words) ( 1 Mark)

Summarized report on success stories of Siemens AG and Titan Industries. (400-500 Words) (2 Marks)

Read the research Paper thoroughly and write down a comprehensive report highlighting following Points

Below is a link to an online article with 10 questions that may help you diagnostically analyze situations that foster disruptive behavior in students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Read this brief online article. Select 7 of the 10 questions; List the 7 selected questions in a bulleted fashion, briefly describing the answers in your own words for each question. (3 points per question -total possible points 21 points) For each of the 7 selected questions, provide a SPECIFIC example of an appropriate action you should take as a teacher in an inclusive classroom depending on the teacher’s answer to the question. (2 points per question – total 14 possible points) So, if you select question #2, you must provide an action or strategy to address the points in question #2. You will do this for each of the 7 questions that you selected. (7 points) Your paper should look like this (PER QUESTION – There will be seven in total): 1. Q # – Write out the question. 2. Answer: Have at least one paragraph which consists of a minimum of five sentences discussing the answer for that question. 3. A specific example of at least ONE appropriate action you should take as a teacher in an inclusive classroom based on the particular question/issue. You should include the action and a rationale for why you selected that action. Online Article: How to Manage Disruptive Behavior in Inclusive Classrooms Format should be questions and then answer.
Lynn University Gemma O Doherty View of the Coronavirus Pandemic Presentation.

OverviewStudents will begin by finding a quote or a statement in the popular media that makes a claim that the student suspects is either misrepresentation of science or pseudoscience. The claim can come from publications or media of entertainment, politics, news, lifestyle, health, environment, business, advertising, etc. Then, students will research the science behind the claim using at least one high quality academic source to explain the correct information, although more may be necessary to fully explain the claim. The student will provide a detailed analysis of the claim using the facts of the academic source to explain why it misrepresents what the actual science says, or why it’s a pseudoscientific claim. Students should use key concepts from the course material whenever possible to support their analysis.For example, earlier in the term, I mentioned how a member of the House of Representatives (congressman) Todd Akin said during an interview regarding why he doesn’t view abortion necessary in the case of rape that, “If it’s a legitimate rape, the female body has ways to try to shut that whole thing down.”With a quick look into the science of conception, one can quickly debunk this quote by explaining that conception only requires a sperm to fertilize an egg, and then the egg embeds if the uterus is in a fertile state. But even if you thought that rape doesn’t lead to conception as often as normal consensual sex, it turns out that it’s not the case at all, and that pregnancy occurs at the same rate in both situations.Here is Some Legitimate Science on Pregnancy and Rape (Links to an external site.)Students should approach other claims they have encountered with the same academic rigor. Provide enough context and academic research to explain why it’s slightly incorrect, misleading, or entirely false.InstructionsIntroduction: Begin with an attention getting opener before stating the name and topic. Then announce the student name and topic of presentation. Discuss why the student had an interest in this topic and what sparked their curiosity. Give the audience a reason to be interested in this topic as well (goodwill statement). Present a clear thesis for the presentation; what this presentation will do or what the audience will take away from the presentation. A thesis statement should fill in the blank of “This presentation will…” without directly saying it as such. Transition to the main body of the presentation.Present the claim: Start by presenting the claim in a direct quote from the source (providing citations). Provide context for the claim by discussing the nature of the publication/media and the perception of the intention behind the claim. For what purpose is the claim made? What is it intended to do and what ideas is it intended to support?Background Research: Provide any and all background research gathered to contradict or support the ideas for the claim. As with any argument, it can be useful to bring up opposing points and then address them with your own counterpoint supported by evidence. Provide images, data tables, or any other visual representation of the science that is relevant to your discussion. One visual source must be included. Mention your sources using oral citations, but be sure to cite your sources on the slides, as well as a proper APA reference slide at the end of the presentation.After the scientific information has been presented objectively, make a clear argument detailing why the claim is slightly incorrect, misleading, or entirely false using scientific explanations or data. Discuss why it may be important to get the science right for this particular claim. It may be helpful to understand the potential impact to individuals, or society at large, that may result from people believing this claim that lacks scientific merit.Transition to the conclusion of the presentation without saying “in conclusion”. Briefly summarize the main points of the presentation (think of one sentence per previous slide to summarize it). Provide a definitive closing statement that is both intriguing and also suggests to the audience that the presentation has ended.Other RequirementsTiming of presentationPresentations will be 4-5 minutes in length. Presentations that run less than 4 minutes and more than 5
Lynn University Gemma O Doherty View of the Coronavirus Pandemic Presentation

Strayer University Cyber Security and Crime Fraud Techniques Discussion

Strayer University Cyber Security and Crime Fraud Techniques Discussion.

Fraud TechniquesOverviewToday, there are many industries that remain vulnerable to electronic fraud. Use your textbook, the Internet, and Strayer Library to research organizations that remain vulnerable and the hacking or fraud techniques they have encountered in recent years.InstructionsWrite a 3–4 page paper in which you:Identify and describe at least two forms of fraud techniques from your research.Include the identity of the government agencies that provide awareness for these types of fraud techniques.Justify the threat cyber terrorism poses to society.Provide examples to support your justification.Prioritize steps that should be completed in order to preserve evidence so that it may be used in court cases for trials against computer fraud offenders.Defend or oppose the legal processes of civil law used to resolve cases against computer crime offenders. Justify your decision.Use the Strayer Library to find at least four academic resources. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites are not considered quality references.
Strayer University Cyber Security and Crime Fraud Techniques Discussion

Peter Elbows Writing Without Teachers

best assignment help Peter Elbows Writing Without Teachers.

Read the following excerpt from Peter Elbow’s Writing Without Teachers (1973). Now set a timer for 10 minutes and freewrite. Feel free to write in your native language. Use a pen and paper, not your computer. Don’t stop. Don’t put down your pen until the timer goes off. To make it easier to get started, try responding to this question: “How can language connect people or solve conflicts?”After your timer has gone off, look at your freewrite. What do you notice about your writing? Did you write any answers to the question that perhaps you didn’t expect? Post a paragraph that summarizes your freewrite here. This summary allows you to share the parts of your freewrite you think are interesting and keep private the parts that are personal. Then reflect on your freewrite: How did this exercise work out for you? Did you find it difficult? Interesting? Entertaining? Frustrating?
Peter Elbows Writing Without Teachers

ECO 561 American Military University Unemployment Insurance Intervention Analysis

ECO 561 American Military University Unemployment Insurance Intervention Analysis.

Analyze 1 of the following government intervention programs:Countercyclical fiscal policies (countering economic disruptions such as the housing bubble and the Great Recession)US agriculture support programsAssistance for Low Income Families (choose 1)Housing vouchersEarned Income Tax Credit (including Child Tax Credit)Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)Low income healthcare (choose 1)Medicaid (including Children’s Health Insurance Program).Affordable Care Act expansionSocial insurance programs (choose 1)Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI)MedicareUnemployment insuranceWrite a 900 word summary of your analysis. Identify the intervention and the market failure leading up to the intervention. Complete the following in your paper:Analyze the arguments for government intervention as opposed to arguments for market-based solutions.Hint:See the information about market failures.Examine who has been helped and who has been hurt by the selected government intervention.Examine externalities and unintended consequences of such intervention. For example, consider whether the SNAP program and health coverage for low-income families result in higher future tax revenues because low-income children grow up healthier and produce higher incomes over their lifetimes.Analyze whether cost of the intervention you selected as a share of GDP or the number of participants is increasing,decreasing, or varies with the state of the economy, based on the cost trend(or number of participants) since its inception or since 2000.Analyze credible economists’ opinions on the success or failure of the intervention that you chose in achieving its objectives.Recommend whether the program should be continued as is, discontinued, or modified based on your conclusions. Defend your recommendation.Note: Use of charts and graphs is encouraged with appropriate citations. Any charts or graphs retrieved from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis FRED website may only be included when the data sources used by FRED are US government sources such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis or the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Cite at least 2 academically credible sources. Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
ECO 561 American Military University Unemployment Insurance Intervention Analysis

Common Elements in Education Systems Report

Table of Contents Functionalist theory Common elements in Finland and Japan education systems Japan’s education system Article review Progressive teacher References Functionalist theory The functionalist theory has the potential to make a stable and permanent society (Arato, 1994). This theory focuses on how to strengthen various elements in the society. In this regard, the functionalist theory uses institutions as principle structures or elements of a society. In order for the society to operate as a system, each element has its own functions. The functionalist theory seeks a social order that harnesses effective functionality of society elements in a coherent manner. Education is perceived as an integral part of the society that provides citizens with socio-economic opportunities. Through education, other elements of the society gain from improved productivity, innovations and proper leadership. However, education is dependent on funds from government institutions. From the society, the family unit in contributes funds to the government through taxes. Consequently, the government establishes development by funding critical institutions like infrastructures, education, healthcare sector and industries. The functionalist theory advocates for a consensus between all social elements. Moreover, the functionalist theory acknowledges that failure by one element affects the whole social system. Therefore, a need to maintain a balance between society’s elements is crucial. Common elements in Finland and Japan education systems Finland and Japan education systems were initially established by catholic missionaries. Both countries use primary schools as part of their basic education systems. Both education systems allow the integration of culture in the curriculum. This integration is part of developing cultural responsive learning technique for teachers and students. Finland and Japan education systems include school lunch program as national education policy. In this regard, free lunch for primary school students is a prerequisite. The national government in both Finland and Japan are involved in controlling the education system. Finland and Japan education systems encourage professionalism among teachers. In this regard, acquiring a master’s degree in education for teachers is a professional responsibility. Finally, both education systems encourage development of culturally responsive teachers. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Japan’s education system The local education system can learn the following elements from Japan’s education system. A focus on the general well-being of children attending school through a school lunch program and healthcare policy is necessary (Hayes, 2013). For example, Japan’s education system involves a lunch program that caters for students nutritional needs. Japan’s education system is perceived as a human right by offering education to every child in the country. Offering education opportunity for anyone living within the country from the preschool level to the university is necessary. The local education system has an opportunity to uphold the teaching profession as one of the highest paid careers in the country. Japan upholds the teaching career in a very noble manner. This is usually achieved through high academic standards that teachers must attain during career training. From this perspective, the local education system can ensure that teachers are only employed after undergoing a master’s degree program in education. Education reform in Japan is a national government initiative compared to the decentralized education control in the local education system. From this perspective, the local education system should reform the education system by encouraging public participation to serve the community’s interest. Implementation of standardized testing across a country shows how the element of equity is highly upheld. Moreover, standardized testing shows a strong sense of trust bestowed upon teachers and learning institutions. In this regard, standardization of the local education system derives public confidence. Article review In modern society, culturally responsive teachers are effective and improve the learning process (Brown, 2007). From the article, I have realized the essence of becoming a culturally responsive teacher. In recent times, need to have culturally responsive teachers is increasing. This can be attributed with the increasing awareness of the diverse elements in the society. The article offers insight on what an effective teacher should possess in future. For example, a culturally responsive teacher should possess cultural knowledge of the surrounding ethnic composition. We will write a custom Report on Common Elements in Education Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, developing a curricula that is cultural-conscious is critical to a teacher. The article also offers insightful information on how a teacher can develop cross-cultural communication skills. Progressive teacher One characteristic of a progressive teacher is the focus on a student’s academic performance. The personal interest in an individual student exhibits a focused teacher who uses academic goals to promote excellence. Apart from academic goals, a progressive teacher uses other forms of assessment to evaluate teaching performance, as well as student’s achievement. Another characteristic of a progressive teacher is cultural competence. This means that a teacher is conscious of own cultural practices, norms and values. From this perspective, the teacher learns diversity of cultural practices and values from students. This characteristic is important in developing cross-cultural communication skills required in developing interpersonal relationships with culturally-diverse students. Finally, a progressive teacher consciousness in the socio-political matters is critical in modern times. A progressive teacher’s curriculum is based on the community’s social expectations. An effective curricular is supposed to address and offer a solution to the immediate political, social and economic issues in the society. References Arato, A. (1994). Civil society and political theory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Brown, R., M. (2007). Educating all students: Creating culturally responsive teachers, classrooms, and schools. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(1), 57-62. Hayes, W. (2013). Consensus: Education Reform Is Possible. Lanham, MD: R