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Us government and policy

Us government and policy. Paper details The law I am proposing is the regulation of u.a arm sales to countries who use weapons that have civilian casualties (Israel , u.a.e , Saudi Arabia). For part a, explain in a paragraph exactly what you are proposing. The details here depend on your proposal, but you should provide enough detail so that other people will understand your proposal and would be able to explain it to other people. b) This second paragraph should discuss why this is a problem that government –federal, state, or local– should be addressing, and provide some additional supporting arguments. Perhaps you’ll relate the problem to changes in an indicator of some sort, or a focusing event. (Remember Kingdon discussed these.) Or perhaps you’ll relate the problem to basic concepts of rights, fairness, and justice. (Remember our discussions of civil liberties and civil rights). Or perhaps you’ll relate the problem to the underlying incentives faced by people and businesses, including self-interested incentives that limit the potential for cooperative and beneficial outcomes. (Remember the Prisoners’ Dilemma.) The direction you take here depends very much on the issue you’ve chosen, and the argument that you want to make to build the case for your policy proposal. Probably not all possible reasons will apply; please limit yourself to the best ones. (Randomly throwing in lots of ideas will not help your answer. You want to focus on the best reasons.) c) Please discuss how your policy idea is similar to one or more existing policies, programs or laws that have been discussed in the course, in the textbook, in the slides. What exactly? Depending on what you’re proposing, you may choose to discuss how your proposal relates to the questions below, which we have discussed during this course. If none of these apply, please indicate why. Would that be a “social insurance” program? (If so, explain what a “social insurance program” is exactly, and discuss how your idea relates to that definition.) Or would it be a “means tested” benefit? (Again, if so, explain what a means-tested program is and discuss how your idea relates to that definition.) Or maybe you’re creating a program that provides “universal eligibility” or that provides benefits equally to all? Or will your policy idea involve government regulation of some sort, perhaps regulating the actions of business firms, or maybe regulating the behavior of individual people? Or maybe a new agency that would monitor the actions of government officials and other agencies, or a new law/procedure that would limit or regulate existing laws and current officials and agencies? Are these regulations similar to any other current federal government programs or policies? What, exactly? Or will you be creating an agency that focuses on providing broad-based services of some sort, with funding from general government tax revenues? (As we discussed, some goods and services are unlikely to be produced by private, profit seeking actors, or wouldn’t be produced in sufficient quantitities by profit-seeking actors. Is that what your new program would provide? You could then discuss the relevant issues for why a new government program is needed instead of relying on the private market.) If you are discussing program financing, or are proposing to change some aspect of tax policy, is your reform likely to be “regressive,” “proportional,” or “progressive.” Why exactly do you say that? (And, along the way, you’ll need to explain what the relevant term means in your context.) (Please only discuss the terms that are RELEVANT to your policy idea. If you answer all of them, this will likely mean that you don’t really have a clear policy idea, or maybe even that you don’t understand these course terms. This will lower your grade. At this point in the semester, you should be demonstrating real understanding, not random guesses. You should discover at this point that the time you spent doing the readings and going through the slides was well spent because then this question should be straightforward to answer.) d) The group you imagined in the last assignment is interested in learning about public policymaking in the U.S., and how the two insitutions listed below (i and ii) will be involved with bringing your policy idea into reality. i) Please start by discussing the role of Congress in the U.S. federal government, and the key members of Congress or key steps in the legislative process that you would focus on for your legislative strategy to accomplish your policy idea. ii) Then describe the potential role of the President, AND the role of relevant EXECUTIVE BRANCH AGENCIES, and how each of these might participate in the process of accomplishing your policy idea. (You don’t have to assume that the current President is still living in the White House. You can also choose someone else in a future administration.) (And be warned: Just saying, “the government,” is not a good answer. In the context of U.S. politics and public policy, you should be much more specific.) e) Based on your understanding of public opinion in general and the differences in political opinions between “liberals” and “conservatives,” and between contemporary “Democrats” and “Republicans,” what do you expect their political reactions would be for your policy idea? Explain why, referring to your general understanding of the views of “liberals,” “conservatives,” “Democrats,” and “Republicans” in the contemporary U.S. Be sure to discuss all four of these groups for a complete answer. f) You and your organization are now thinking about potential actions that they could take to encourage Congress and the President to support your legislative proposal. What specific actions would you suggest that your group use and why? (It will be important for your answer that you provide some details. For example, saying “we’ll use social media” is pretty vague all by itself. What, exactly, will your group be doing? There are different activities that might be conducted with social media– what exactly, are you proposing? Who, exactly, do you expect to reach with this strategy? What will be your NON-social media actions?) —- You should write up your answer to this assignment in the form of an essay, following the guidance here that it should be at least four paragraphs, answering each of the questions/issues posed below by a), b), c), d), e) and f). Each of these sections should be answered in about one paragraph. They will each be given equal weight in grading. The overall length should then be 6 paragraphs, or about 2 pages, double-spaced, with normal one inch margins and normal (12 point) typeface. (I’m not compulsive about precisely two pages — so a little over, a little under — that’s fine. (No need to try to “play tricks” with fonts, or margins, or spacing. My eyes thank you. And, of course, remember, longer answers do not demonstrate greater knowledge of the course and its content, and will not necessarily lead to a higher grade. )Us government and policy
Cedar Crest College The Causes of French Revolution Essay.

Instructions: This is our first discussion. Remember to be thoughtful in your posts. I am not looking for one word answers. Remember an effective academic argument will be based on evidence from the reading and should be able to weather the critiques from your peers and professor. Critiques should also cite information in the readings, focusing on the facts presented.You will need to complete the reading assignment to effectively participate in this discussion.You need to post an answer to each question and defend it if challenged by a classmate or the professor.Your first post must be made by Thursday of each week. You will be graded on having multiple posts that are done throughout the week.You must comment in a substantial way on another student’s posting for each question. Please refer to the rubric before posting your answers and comments. The rubric can be viewed by clicking on the wheel button at the upper right hand side. Spend time on your posts.Reminder of course Netiquette:Questions:1. When talking about Revolutions you can label the participants as “freedom fighters” (those fighting for a just cause) or “terrorists” (those wanting to destroy the existing order”. Choose a revolution covered in this chapter – American, Haitian, French, etc. and choose whether those who were revolting were freedom fighters or terrorists. Explain your choice knowing that it will be challenged either by a fellow student or me. You must also challenge or defend a fellow student’s choice.2. Let’s also make a list of the causes or why people to revolt. Everyone needs to add to this list, multiple entries are expected. It is not simply a word, but it needs to be an explanation.
Cedar Crest College The Causes of French Revolution Essay

Mental health – nursing exam

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Phil Maude and Alistair Ross Question 1. (6 marks) Search for the Victorian MH Act on the web and define the following terms 1.1. Approved Mental Health Service The Mental Health Act (1986) defined an approved mental health service as a service or premises which either proclaimed to be an approved mental health service under section 94 or declared to be one under section 94A as a place where treatment can be provided to patients under the Act. For example, the psychiatric in-patient units of public hospitals are typically proclaimed as approved mental health services. 1.2. Community Treatment Order Community treatment order (CTO) is an order made by an authorised psychiatrist for a person having mental illness and under involuntary treatment order while not detained in an approved mental health services. However, this order does not affect patients in approved mental health services or a prisoner having mental illness (Mental Health Act, 1986). 1.3. Community Visitor The Mental Health Act of 1986 stated that community visitors of each region are whom appointed by council’s governor under recommendation directly from the minister. 1.4. Involuntary Patient Mental Health Act (1986) specified a patient being subject to an involuntary, community or hospital transfer treatment order as an involuntary patient. This particular patient is also influenced by some conditions under section 12 and section 93 of the Act. 1.5. Mental Illness Mental illness refers to a person who is medically and mentally ill with significant disturbance of thought, perception, cognition, mood or memory (Mental Health Act, 1986). 1.6 Mental Health Review Board Mental Health Review Board is the Board established under theMental Health Act to conduct reviews of, and hear appeals by, involuntarily treated psychiatric patients either as inpatients or on community treatment orders (Mental Health At, 1986). Question 2. (5 marks) Using your reading of the Victorian MH Act explain the involuntary admission process for a person who is suspected to have a mental illness. Ensure you mention the correct forms that will be required The involuntary admission process for a person suspected having a mental illness is detailed with the following steps: Admission and detention for an involuntary patient can only occur in a public funded approved psychiatric hospital. This patient may be admitted or detained according to the Mental Health Act only if he or she presents or appears with psychological illness and need immediate treatment that can be achieved by admission to and detention in an approved mental health service. Additionally, in order to improve or prevent a deterioration in physical or medical conditions of that patient and protect the public members, the patient may be admitted to an approved mental health service to receive adequate and appropriate treatment rather than stay in less restrictive of that person’s freedom and action. The person needs to be referred to a registered medical practitioner by himself or herself, family, relatives, health professional officers, police personnel or others related to the referral. Medical practitioner satisfies that person meets the criteria for involuntary treatment which is under section 8(1) of the Mental Health Act 1986. Otherwise, he will either provide the service or refer the examined patient to other mental health or health services. A request form must be completed by the person, who is over the ages of 18 years, making request for the admission and a recommendation signed by registered medical practitioner following patient’s examination made not more than three days prior to the admission of that patient. The request and recommendation cannot be signed by the same person making the recommendation. Consequently, the patient who is subject to an involuntary treatment order is taken to an approved mental health service by police officers, ambulance, any person authorised by the person making the request or arrangement admission made by that approved mental health services. At the approved mental health service, the registered medical practitioner who is employed by this health service or mental health practitioner must make an involuntary treatment order under section 12AA(2) and necessarily detain patient for his or her own safety according to section 12AA(4) of the Victorian Mental Health Act 1986. The registered medical practitioner can possibly release the person from detention to await examination by the authorised psychiatric if they suspected the criteria in section 8(1) of the Act and consulted with the authorised psychiatric involving section 12AA(5). Then, authorised psychiatrist will examine the person as soon as after the registrar making the involuntary treatment order or within 24 hours following the order to confirm the involuntary admission (Mental Health Act, 1986, s. 12AC). If the consultant is whether satisfied with the criteria under section 8(1) or not, he or she will either discharge the person from the order or confirm the involuntary treatment order. In addition, the authorised psychiatrist confirm the involuntary treatment order under subsection 2(b), the CTO can be placed on the person under section 14 (Mental Health Act, 1986, s. 12AC). Question 3. (5 marks) Thinking about the forms and roles and responsibilities of people who may be associated with an involuntary admission of a person under the MH Act, what roles could the following people have and what forms would they be able to complete 3.1. Carer of a family member who has a mental illness The Mental Health Act (1986) suggested that a carer has the authority to make a request to a registered medical practitioner for admitting an involuntary patient. He or she has the responsibility to take or authorizes any person, for example a community nurse, either taking the person to an approved mental health service or arranging for one to admit the person. The carer is able to complete the “Request for Person to Receive Involuntary Treatment from an Approved Mental Health Service” form under schedule 1prespribed by the Mental Health Regulations 1998 to the registered medical practitioner employed by an approved mental health service or a mental health practitioner. 3.2. Community Mental Health Nurse In case of the registered medical practitioner is unavailable for a reasonable period of time for making the recommendation, the person may be taken to an approved mental health service for examination after being assessed by an mental health nurse who must complete an “Authority to transport without recommendation” form under schedule 3 of the Mental Health Regulations 1998 (Mental Health Act, 1986). 3.3. General Practitioner The general practitioner has the responsibility to make a recommendation in a prescribe form which is “Recommendation for a person to receive involuntary treatment form a approved mental health services” form following a the person’s examination (Mental health Act, 1986, s. 9) (Victoria Government, 2009) 3.4. Registrar Registrar who is a medical practitioner employed by an approved mental health service is responsible for assessing the person according to the request and recommendation. He or she has to make the involuntary treatment order under section 12AA(2) and detain patient for safetry issue according to section 12AA(4) of the Victorian Mental Health Act 1986. The registrar may release that person to await for the psychiatrist’s examination if they suspect the criteria in section 8(1) of the Act applying to the person and consulted with the authorised psychiatrist involving section 12AA(5) (Mental Health Act, 1986, s. 12). The registrar has the authority o complete the following forms: Schedule 4 Form 1 – Restraint for the purposes of safely transporting a person to an approved mental health service” Schedule 4 Form 2 – Sedation for the purposes of safely transporting a person to an approved mental health service Schedule 6 – Involuntary treatment order. (Victoria Government, 2009, Schedules section) 3.5. Consultant A consultant means a authorised psychiatrist who should examine the person as soon as after the registrar making the involuntary treatment order or within 24 hours following the order to confirm the involuntary admission (Mental Health Act, 1986, s. 12AC). If the consultant is whether satisfied with the criteria under section 8(1) or not, he or she will either discharge the person from the order or confirm the involuntary treatment order. In addition, the authorised psychiatrist confirm the involuntary treatment order under subsection 2(b), the CTO can be placed on the person under section 14 (Mental Health Act, 1986, s. 12AC). Under the power of the Mental Health Act 1986 section 12AD, the authorised psychiatrist may give written consent on behalf of the involuntary patient if this patient refuses to necessary treatment or unable to consent to the treatment for his or her mental disorders. The authorised psychiatrist has the authority o complete the following forms: MHA1 – Examination of involuntary patient by authorised psychiatrist MHA3 – Examination of security / involuntary / forensic patient by authorised psychiatrist MHA4 – Treatment plan MHA6 – Community treatment order MHA16 – Discharge from involuntary patient status. (Victoria Government, 2009, Mental Health Act Forms section). Question 4. (4 marks) Once a person has been received under the MH Act under what circumstances can an emergency registrar administer sedation? If the emergency registrar believe that it is essential to sedate the person in order to take him or her to the approved mental health service safely. The emergency registrar is also able to direct an authorised person to administer sedative medications to the patient. In addition, they must specify the particulars required by the prescribed form and deal with this form according to the regulations (Mental Health Act, 1986, s.10). Question 5. (2 marks) A patient must be seen by a Psychiatrist to confirm admission as an involuntary patient. Once a patient is received what time frame must be observed for the Psychiatric review? The authorised psychiatrist should examine the patient as soon as the involuntary treatment order is made by a medical practitioner employed by the approved mental health service or within 24 hours following the order (Mental Health Act, 1986, s.12AC). Therefore, the patient should be observed in that time frame until he or she being seen by the authorised psychiatrist. Question 6. (4 marks) (section 15 ) If a person is discharged from the inpatient unit on a Community Treatment Order, what restrictions can be placed on the patient? If the authorised psychiatrist considers that it is appropriate and for the good and wellness of patient, the psychiatrist can discharge him or her from the approved mental health service on CTO. The person who had the community treatment order upon is influenced during the duration of the order which is not over 12 months. The person has to stay where it is specified by the order for the treatment. The order sets out the term that a person must accept therapy and medication, conselling, management, rehabilitation and other related health services while living in the coummity. The person is provided compulsory care authorised by the CTO. In case of the person breaches the CTO by not complying with the conditions, the person may be taken to a mental health service and given appropriate treatment and care (New South Wales Government, 2007, what is a community treatment order (CTO)? section). Question 7. (4 marks) How often must a Community Treatment Order be reviewed and what is the maximum length of time a Community Treatment Order can be imposed? At least once a month, the supervising psychiatrist or a medical practitioner such as general practitioner will visit you to decide whether the order should continue or not. If the psychiatrist, at the end of three months period, can extend the order for another three months (Government of Western Australia, 2005, what will happen while I am on the order? section). A CTO can be made for period of up to 12 months and ends on the date stated on the order and if no date is stated, it will expire 12 months after the order was made (New South Wales Government, 2007, when does a CTO come to an end?). Question 8. (5 marks) What is a Special Warrant and what powers does this provide? Special Warrant apply where a member of the police force or any other person has reasonable ground to believe a person who appears mentally ill is unable to care for him or herself due to mental illness. In this case, “the member of police force or that other person may give information oath to a magistrate” (Mental Health Act, 1986, 11, para. 5) and seek a special warrant. Under section 12 of The Mental Act (1986), a police force’s member who accompanied by a registered medical practitioner is authorised and directed by the magistrate in the form of a special warrant in the prescribed form to visit and examine the person. Additionally, police personnel who act under special warrant with assistance as required have authority to legally enter any premise and use such force as necessary so that the registered medical practitioner can examine that person (Mental Heal Act, 1986, 12). Question 9. (5 marks) (No need to cite references for these answers) True or False 9.1. A patient can be detained in a Private Psychiatric Hospital bed as an involuntary patient False. A patient who is under involuntary treatment order can only be detained in a public funded approved psychiatric hospital. 9.2. The Victorian Mental Health Act makes provision for voluntary patients False. Admission of voluntary patients has been deleted by the amendment of 1995. As a result, they are treated as other voluntary patients and need consent to all treatments provided. 9.3. Any patients can be given Electro Convulsive Therapy against their consent. False.Written consent needed from the patients to perform electro convulsive therapy. 9.4. Any one who commits violent acts in the Emergency Room can be restrained True. A person doing harm to him or herself ,patients, staffs other surrounding people in the emergency room will be restrained for safety issue. 9.5. An involuntary patient who refuses required surgical treatment can have this imposed upon them by the Psychiatrist False. For major medical or surgical procedures, the psychiatrist needs consent from the Guardian and Administration Board. 9.6. Lobotomy is legal in Victoria. True. In Australia, psychosurgery is performed by a select group of neurosurgeons. In Victoria, each individual operation must receive the consent of a Review Board before it may proceed. 9.7. Patients who have difficulty with budgeting can have their accounts taken over by the Guardianship board False. The Guardianship board appoint another person who is managing patient’s account. 9.8. Patients can not be kept in seclusion for more than 15 minutes False. For the purpose of safety and treatment, the patient can be restrained until he or she settle down. 9.9. The Psychiatrist must send a report of all seclusion that has occurred within a 12 month period to the Chief Psychiatrists Office. False.The psychiatrist has to send a report each month. 9.10. Electroconvulsive therapy is to a course of not more than 6 treatments given over a period with not more than 7 days elapsing between any 2 treatments True. It is what described in electroconvulsive therapy. Question 10. (10 marks) List 10 of the reasons why a person is not to be considered to have a mental illness and write a brief paragraph explaining why this is for each of these 10 reasons As stated in the Victorian Mental Health Act 1986 under section 8(2), a person is not considered to have mental illness due to the following reasons: “The person expresses or refuses or fails to express a particular political opinion or belief” (Section 8(2)). In Victoria, the law inhibits discrimination against people because of their actual or assumed political beliefs. (Victorian Equal Opportunity

COMM304 writing about masculinity

assignment writer COMM304 writing about masculinity. I’m working on a English question and need guidance to help me study.

Please read the following articles and write separated 1-2 page reflections for each article.
These articles are not related.No other requirement. Just write your opinions on each article.
Please provide a 1-page reflection on “Feminism masculinity and male rape bringing male rape out of the closet”another 1-page reflection on “Rubin on Thinking Sex”and the other on “Sticky Masculinity Post-structuralism Phenomenology and Subjectivity in Critical Studies on Men”and one on “Conceptualizing Sexuality”
Please provide at least 4 pages of reflections in total.
COMM304 writing about masculinity

The Classical and Modern Theories of Motivation

The Classical and Modern Theories of Motivation. Motivation basically refers to the drive that leads someone to work in an effective and efficient manner. A worker or on this case scenario as we are talking of the organizational environment, the employee needs to be motivated, the reason for this is the fact, that the loyalty and the sincerity of the employee towards the work depends upon the consequences that are promised with him or her. The benefit of the leader and the employee is always mutually exclusive, which leads to an effective team work, thereby, leading to the accomplishment of the goals. Now, there are a lot of ways through which this drive can be aggravated. The most important among them is the financial benefits that are promised to the employees, setting the targets and announcing the financial incentives which bring the energy to the employees to work in a coordinated manner to accomplish goals. Motivation is always not material but the employees can be motivated in several different ways. This can be like announcing a reward that is recreational such as a trip to somewhere with the company’s other team members etc. the reward basically build an inner satisfaction in one’s mind and builds a sense of accomplishment among the employees. The motivation can be in the form of appreciation. This enables the workers to be bucked up and retain their reputation as achievers, thereby, maintaining to work harder and in a more efficient manner. The rewards can also be in the form of ceremonial performance awards and also with some tags like best sales man of the year and vice versa (Watkiss, 2004). CLASSICAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Theory of Motivation by Herzberg Frederick Herzberg is the name who had a lot of contributions to the theories of motivation. The theories by him are named as two factor hygiene and motivation theory. In the theory of hygiene the author explains that for an employee to work effectively in the organization the environment has to be friendly and hygienic. Following are the factors that include to the hygiene of the organization and are a under: The organization Its policies and administration The kind of supervision that workers receive while doing their jobs or in other words leadership Working conditions including ergonomics which is a science that studies the relationship between the workers and the environment they are working in Interpersonal relations Salary Status Job security These factors do not take the people to the higher levels of the satisfaction, but still they are the very important factors because of the fact that they lead to the dissatisfaction in the employees, or in other words demotivate the employees in the work. Then, the factors that influence the motivation of the employees are also there in the second component of the theory along with the explanation of their impacts on them and are as under: Achievement: Building the sense of achievement in the employees is a very important thing in the motivational process. This can be done by setting achievable targets for the employees, giving them resource and specific time to accomplish these targets. Also, a very important thing is the fact that the employees should expect a reward against the achievement of their goals. This builds in the employees a sense of loyalty and belongingness towards the company, thereby, boosting the energy levels to work harder and become achievers. Recognition: Another very important reward for the employee is to be recognized for the effort that he undergoes. This recognition can be brought about by awarding the employees for their performance in the different ceremonies. This builds an inner satisfaction in the hearts of the employees and they build self confidence in themselves and try to build consistency in their performance behavior. Interest in the task: In order to build the interest of the employee in the task the leader or the supervisor of the group is supposed to show their cooperation and their interest in the task, thereby, giving the employee the feeling of association. The degree of cooperation provided by the company or by the leaders of the company increases the morale of the workers of the organization. Responsibility for the enlarged task: The responsibility for the enlarged task is also a very good motivator for the employees, the reason is the fact that they feel a sense of achievement in a way that they are learning more from bigger tasks and they also feel delighted over the fact that they are able to handle bigger tasks with greater sense of responsibility. Growth and advancement to higher levels: Greater responsibility also leads the employees to the higher level of posts in the form of promotions with revised salaries and revised packages etc. this growth in the levels is the most important in the employees and is the biggest factor of motivation in them (Accel Team Development, 2010). McGregor’s Theory of Motivation The very famous Psychologist McGregor gave his theory of motivation in the year 1960 in his book “The Human side of Enterprise”. These theories are called as theory X-Y theories. According to the psychologist, different sort of organizations undergo different procedures to control their employees. Some follow the theory X which according to him not a very productive approach to the style of management and generates poor results. The others follow the Y theory, which is in fact an effective style of leadership and enables the company to perform in a better way. Theory X has an authoritative style of management. This theory is for the average and unambitious employees that are not very much focused with the work and are forced to perform in the organization by threatening them with the consequences of no accomplishment of tasks. But the thing is that the managers that follow the theory X are actually the ones who destroy the sense of team work. They are only result oriented and most of the times too arrogant to hear excuses. They have set punishments for the employees. They are very short tempered and are distant with the employees. They kill the sense of the involvement from the side of the employees, thereby, making the employee very demotivated towards the work. However, the bosses that follow the theory X can also be managed. A very effective manner to engage them is by talking of the results, by being direct with them, by telling them how things can be achieved, and what time they will require to be accomplished. With the managers like them, the employees should help themselves for motivation. They should themselves become result oriented just as their leaders. Confrontation with such leaders should never be done. A constructive argument with reasonable justification with a hold in temper is the most important and in case that is not being taken care of, then, it will have a very negative impact in the future. In theory Y on the contrary, the boss expects a reasonable practical effort from the employee. It is more of a reward oriented approach. The manager motivates the employee by building the expectation of reward in him. People through this theory build more commitment to their work and feel more self-directed and controlled. This is more of a responsibility building approach for the employees and is definitely, a very effective management style that enables the company to achieve objectives and accomplish goals. The best thing about this approach is the fact that the managers like these do not need to be tackled by you rather they manage the employees themselves (Business Balls, 2010). Maslow’s Theory of Motivation The famous psychologist Maslow introduced his theory of motivation that explains that a person is motivated to perform and spend his life on the basis of few needs. The fulfillment of these needs puts into him the drive to work and earn a living. This hierarchy of needs and their brief description is as under: Physiological Needs: The physiological needs are the most basic needs that a normal human being wants to fulfill. The physiological needs are the corner stone for the emergence of all the other needs. These needs are the kind of needs without which the survival of the human being will simply be impossible. They include the needs such as food, water and shelter etc. any human being whether he is an effective member of the society or not has to be fulfilling his hunger in order to breathe and lead a life. Safety Needs: Once the physiological needs are satisfied the next category of needs that emerge is the safety needs. The safety needs also hold a prime importance and if they are fulfilled, they motivate a person to earn a life that is secured for themselves and their offspring. These can be understood by an example. As we are the part of this world, and the environment not the social, but the biological, has its impact in the life that we are living. The climatic conditions and many other factors can bring a lot of diseases in our infants and adults. Here, our safety needs will emerge and they would want to be satisfied. Social needs: The fulfillment of the safety needs leads to the emergence of the social needs. The man is a social animal as said by a very famous philosopher named Aristotle. The social needs refer to the needs that are related with the collaboration, commitment, expectation and love of one being with another. We come in this world through our parents and develop a lot of relations either that are gifted to us through nature and also build new relations in the form of friends and love. This develops a sense of belongingness that we feel for different persons and different relations. These needs have to be catered because of the fact that the man can never live in isolation from the society he is living in. Then, all the activities that a man plans of his life are in accordance with the fact that he wants himself to be socially acceptable. Self Esteem: Once the human being has been successful in fulfillment of the social needs, then according to Maslow the next set of needs emerge that are the self-esteem needs. The self-esteem needs are the ones that are related with gaining confidence and making ourselves visible in the society, being capable to perform and also, being a useful part of the society. These needs are essential to bringing the mental satisfaction of the human being and build a feeling in the person of being respectful in life. Self-Actualization: The fulfillment of the self-esteem needs lead to the motivation of fulfillment of self-actualization needs. This refers to defining the need of a person living in the society in much more specific form. For example, I cannot be a doctor if I hate biology. I need to be a fashion designer. This is what I am meant to be in my life. Here, we are only talking in terms of suppositions. But this is how the need of self-actualization emerges. This gives me a prestige in others eyes and also helps to maintain my inner self esteem that I am successfully what I am meant to be (Green, 2000). MODERN THEORIES Theory of Motivation by McClelland The famous psychologist McClelland introduced his theory of needs which was called as his trichotomy, in which, he explained the three different forms of motivational needs that enable to build satisfaction in the employees for their better performance. These needs are: The need for affiliation The need for affiliation builds with the recognition that is given to the employees. They feel affiliated with their team thereby, standing beside them in time of their need. Thus affiliation also builds with the work they are doing thereby, bringing enhancement in their work quality and consequently accomplishment of the goals. The need for power Appreciation and regard are not the only things that the employees need. For the positive reinforcement of the employees, sometimes, you also have to empower them with the brainstorming sessions in which you build a sense of responsibility and belongingness and empowerment in them, that they can also give ideas and be a part of the decision making process. The need for achievement The need for achievement is also built by the leaders in the team, because this need leads to the accomplishment of the tasks that are assigned in accordance of the set targets to the employees. This greatly enhances the need in them to achieve their respective targets so that they efficiently perform their part in their organization (Accounting, Organizations and society, 1984). Adam’s theory of Motivation: In contrast with the other motivational theories that are always focusing with oneself of the employee or the person, the Adam’s theory is the equity theory. This refers to the fact that, the motivation does not only involve how you are satisfied only with your own self but also, with the fact that whether the managers are treating you in comparison with the other subordinates with respect to the principles of equity. If all the employees in an organization are following similar principles and are being rewarded or punished for their performance in fair terms as all others then the employees fell a sense of great drive and fairness. On the contrary if there is leg pulling and partiality in the behavior of the leaders then the employees are greatly demotivated. Adams in his theory calls the third party that the employee is comparing himself with as referent. Here, the employee measures the set of input that he has given to the organization and the output in reference to the other subordinate. Here, the input refers to the hard work, efficiency, work effectiveness etc. of the employee. The output refers to the reward, incentive or the recognition that the employee acquires for the input. The equity is maintained when there is a balance in the input and the output of the employee and his referent. The imbalance is definitely a de-motivator for any of the two employees (Business Balls, 2010). Vroom’s Theory of Motivation The theory of the motivation b the psychologist Vroom is called the expectancy theory which elaborates that in order to motivate the employee there is a need to build expectation in him that he or she is going to have an output if he gives the right kind of input. This theory is unlike the Maslow’s and the Herzberg’s theory of needs because it does not focus on the needs of the employees rather it focuses on the output that the employee expects to be motivated to accomplish tasks and achieving goals. This indeed encourages the belief in the employees to give their effort to bring about the quality performance. Then it encourages them to accomplish tasks because now they believe that the high level of performance will bring a high level of reward. Managers should make sure that the reward for the employees for the performance of their duties should be attractive enough so that they do not ignore the seriousness of the matter and are motivated at all stages of the task. In this theory Vroom has suggested a very efficient way to positively reinforce the employees by linking the effort with the outcome (Sousa, 1993). Handy’s Theory of Motivation This theory is named as the Handy’s Motivational Calculus. According to this theory Handy explains that each person has his own calculus of motivation which is based on few factors. This calculus can be both conscious and unconscious. These factors that are involved in the motivational decision are Needs: They can be considered just as defined by the other psychologists and philosophers like Maslow and Herzberg, but tell the fact that the need of the person whatever sort may be, is a definite motivator for the employee to work in an effective manner. Desired Results: These are basically the outcomes that the person was expecting while he was working accomplish his task. A gap in the expectation and the actual result might be a demotivating factor and therefore should be kept in mind by the leader. Expenditure Factors: This refers to the expense that is related with the effort that was put in to accomplish with task. In case the effort, the expectation and the actual reward are not consistent then, the employee gets demotivated. So all these things should be catered and should be seriously taken by the managers to get the work done in an effective manner (Pepper, 2006). The Classical and Modern Theories of Motivation

Create a hypothetical situation that states a skill that you are going to teach and a specific group of

Create a hypothetical situation that states a skill that you are going to teach and a specific group of people who are to be the learners. You will have only 10 minutes within this segment to teach this skill. Detail a brief plan that will efficiently utilize the amount of time allocated in order to produce maximum skill development. Textbook: Abernethy, B., Kippers, V., Hanrahan, S. J., Pandy, M.G., McManus, A. M.,

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