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UOTP Criminal & Procedural Justice the Idea of Fairness & People Perception Essay

UOTP Criminal & Procedural Justice the Idea of Fairness & People Perception Essay.

In criminal justice, process and procedure is important. If proper discretion is not used, lives are affected and departments within criminal justice, like the police, are affected as well. If improper discretion is used at any point during the process, there are consequences, and one of those consequences is the use of a federal consent decree to hold those in criminal justice accountable. It requires departments to reform for the good of the department and the communities they serve. These decrees require all individuals in a given department to examine themselves, particularly their processes, procedures, and, in many cases, ethical standards. Examples provided in Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice illustrate the importance you must place on procedural justice as an employee in criminal justice.Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that defends your opinion regarding the following questions:What is procedural justice and federal consent decree? Give examples of their use in current policing, such as use of force policies, in major cities like Los Angeles and smaller cities like Ferguson, Missouri.Do federal consent decrees impact the principle of procedural justice positively or negatively? Include reasoning and examples to support your opinion in your explanation.Cite a minimum of 2 references.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
UOTP Criminal & Procedural Justice the Idea of Fairness & People Perception Essay

Mirai Botnet Attack of 2016 (Research Paper).

Lessons learned from the Mirai Botnet attack of 2016Research the history of the attack and those responsible.What did this exploit?Why was it so much more effective than previous BotNet designs?What kind of mitigations would you recommend for protection?Research Paper GuidelinesFor this part of the group assignment, you will be writing a research paper in the following format using APA guidelines:INTRODUCTIONState the research question you are trying to answer (You will pick 1 of 3 available as a group)State why the question is importantState the issues involvedState why we should be concerned with resolving whatever issues are involvedState how answering the question will help usState the implications and consequences of dealing with or resolving the issues involvedREVIEW OF THE LITERATUREIdentify who has tried to answer the question before by doing the following:Summarize how each of the sources presents and deals with the subjectExplain how each source presents and deals with its findings or resultsExplain the relevancy of each source to your research questionState what you learned from each of your sourcesState in what way(s) each source contributes to answering your research questionDISCUSSIONState your answer to your research questionState how and elaborate on how, explain how, illustrate how each of the sources you previously reviewed help you answer your research questionState what questions about your topic you still have that your sources may not have answeredCONCLUSIONSState the conclusions regarding your topic you have reached from having surveyed, interpreted, evaluated the literature Indicate how each of the sources have contributed to your conclusions (and clearly, accurately, correctly document those sources within your text)State the implications of your conclusionsState what might be the possible consequences of your conclusionsState the social significance these implications and consequences might have DOCUMENTATIONOn a separate page, include a section labeled References which provides the full publication information for all the sources you used in your paperYou should have a MINIMUM of three (4) sources for your paperNot meeting this minimum requirement of three (4) sources will lead to a lower evaluation of your paper for each missing sourceUse APA format for documenting your sources-For APA help: Purdue OWL-For more details on journal types, refer to this link: Rutgers Library
Mirai Botnet Attack of 2016 (Research Paper)

Effect of Tissue Culture Plastic Surfaces. Summary: The design of this experiment was conducted in order to analyse the effect of tissue culture plastic surface and establish the optimal tissue culture plastic surface for growing the Human Fibrosarcoma HT 1080 cell line, which is still lacking even this human cell line is commonly used in vitro studies and it is strongly recommended as a gold standard for the Lentivirus titration. In this context it appears especially interesting to which extent the HT1080 cell line proliferation depends on which type of tissue culture plastic plates were used in any experiment. In this study we optimized the growth and the proliferation of the HT1080 cell line by growing them in three different 96 wells tissue culture plates including Falcon, Corning and Greiner, and study the cells proliferation using XTT assay Roche based. Thus we considered the HT 1080 cell line proliferation curve obtained on 2 weeks time and we investigated the proliferation influence of this cell line seeded in 3 different plastic plates. We found that falcon tissue culture plastic were could be more widely considered as a potential plastic ware tool for growing HT 1080 cell line from proliferation curves obtained under 3 different experimental plastic plates, Falcon 96 well tissue culture plate was more likely suitable plastic plate to be used in seeding the HT 1080 cell line. Introduction Cell culture known to be a complex process by removal of tissue or cells from plants, animals, microbes (such as bacteria and viruses), and fungi process them by growing them in specific conditions and atmospheres. In the 19th century scientist discovered the way of maintaining live cell lines taken from the animals tissue [1]. Principle of tissue culture was established by Wilhelm Roux In 1885, he removed a part of the medulla oblongataHYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medullary_plate” dish of an embryonic chicken and preserved it in a warm saline for some days2″[2]. The methodology of tissue culture was established by Ross Granville Harrison, while he was published results of his research work from 1907-19103″[3]. In 1950s Cell culture techniques were progressed significantly in virology research, which helped in manufacture of vaccines. Development of antibiotics helped tissue culturing to be success, as it made it easy to avoid tissue culture contaminations[4]. Types of tissue culture There are two types of tissue culture used for growing cells, adherent and suspension cultures. Adherent cells are known to be anchorage-dependent and attachment to a solid surface is a requirement for proliferation. Generally, the cells grow as an adherent monolayer and discontinue dividing when they reach a density that they touch each other. The majority of cells are adherent as they derived from solid tissues[5]. Cells cultured from bone marrow, spleen or blood adhere poorly if at all to the culture dishes. These cells in the body naturally live in suspension or they are loosely adherent. Adherent cells need a solid phase like tissue culture plastic, which might be layered with extracellular matrix components to raise adhesion properties and supply other signal required for differentiation and growth. Suspension cultures are easier to spread, since subculture requires only dilution with medium. Moreover, cultures with cells growing attached to each other or to a solid phase have to be treated by a protease to break the bond between the cells and solid surface. Trypsin is the most commonly enzyme used. Obviously, freely suspended cultures do not require trypsinization. Thus, they are easier to harvest. Maintain cells in culture Different cell types need different environments to survive in the culture. Environment means is to allow the cells to increase in number by mitosis (cell division). To achieve that, suitable temperature ( 37oC) is required as cells need it to grow happily and that can be achieved by proper calibration, frequent checking, and good maintained incubators. Second, good quality substrate (Glass and Plastic) for better attachment by using attachment factors (collagen, lamnin, and fibronectin) and excellent cell growth. Finally, proper culture media and maintained incubator for accurate pH and osmolality[10]. Cell culture medium The culture medium should got the proper nutrition of the cells requirement, growth factors, control the osmolality and pH, and present vital O2 and CO2 gases [11]. The culture medium provides necessary nutrients that are included into dividing cells, such as fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, vitamins and carbohydrates and all of these help to provide the necessary energy to build a new proteins and metabolism. The pH of the medium can be control by buffer which is usually a CO2 based or an organic buffer (e.g HEPES) to maintain the pH level in suitable range 7.0 – 7.4. Sodium Bicarbonate usually used in most cultures media as a standard buffer. Furthermore, Phenol Red is usually added as pH indicator in media, which change when if pH 7.4 decreased. The osmotic pressure adjust the regulation of the substances flow inside and outside of the cell, which is managed by adding salt to the medium. Supplement such as fetal serum enhance the cells growth when it is added to media as it consist of high growth factor concentration and low antibiotics concentration. In addition, serum protein when added to media it acts as nutrition and it undertakes transporter function via cell membrane and combines toxic metabolic products. Antibiotics and antimycotics must be added to the culture media as it suppress the bacterial and fungus growth. Contamination and cell culture contamination consider to be a serious problem as it can end an experiment to misidentified or lead to wrong outcome. Recent, studies propose 15-20% of the time researchers been a victim of contamination[9]. There are two types of cell culture contamination, biological and chemicals. Biological contamination caused by fast growing yeast, bacteria and fungi. This type of contamination changes the turbidity of the medium and have observable effects on the cell culture. On the other hand, there are other types of biological contamination which are very difficult to detect such as; mycoplasmas and viruses. Chemical contamination caused by many different agents involve metal irons, plasticizers and Endotoxins[1]. Different plastic wares used in cell culture The use of disposable plastic materials for tissue culture has become popular, and in many laboratories plastic cell culture vessels have completely replaced glassware. For example, multiwell plastic plates are used for comparing different growth conditions, plastic wares, media, growth factor, sera and cytotoxines. Untreated plastic surfaces (usually made of polystyrene) are generally unsuitable for the culture of vertebrate cells, because they do not permit ready attachment and spreading of cells(19). Thus the polystyrene must be subjected to a surface treatment to make the plastic surface suitable for cell attachment(21).Chemical methods, such as sulfuric acid-sodium carbonate rinses (4) and alcohol rinses (5), have been proposed to modify plastic surfaces so that cell attachment occurs. Cell viability and proliferation The quantification of cellular growth, including viability and proliferation and, is essential to optimize the cell culture conditions. Measurements of cell viability assess the number of healthy living cells and dead cells, whereas measurement of cells proliferation is used to assess the response of cells to a specific stimulus or toxin quantitantion of culture growth. Cells proliferation is significant in steering maintenance as it is an essential element for controlling the stability of the culture and identifying the superlative time for the optimum dilution, sub culturing, and the estimated platting competence at various cell densities. Proliferation rate is a key quantitative parameter to be estimated when studying the dynamic behaviour of a cell population, measure of cells growth and obtain the cells growth curve. Fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) HT-1080 cell line is mainly human fibrosarcoma adherent cell line (15). It was instigated from a biopsy of a fibrosarcoma obtained from the acetablum of a 35 year old male in July 1972 the patient had never received radiation or chemotherapy therapy. A fine piece of the tumor tissue was cultured into plastic flasks and dishes were sheltered with Eagle’s minimum essential medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics . ”Quick trypsinization ” and ”picking” procedures were used to reduce fibroblasts from the cultures(16). The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 is strongly recommend as the “gold standard” for reproducibly titrating Lentivirus. Lentiviruses belong to Retooviridae Family, which are the most multitalented of retroviruses since they are capable to infect, transduce and maintain expression in approximately any mammalian cell. Lentiviral vectors obtained from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) have become main apparatus in mammalian cells for gene delivery. The beneficial characteristic of Lentiviral vectors is the capability to mediate competent transduction, mixing and long-term expression into non-dividing and dividing cells both in vivo and in vitro. The most commonly used cell lines for titrating are adherent cells which show a replication time in the range of 18-25 hours. The human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line is able to give more accurate viral titres because these cells are easily transduced and very efficiently by recombinant Lentiviruses . To produce reliable transduction results using a known multiplicity of infection (MOI), it is essential to titrate Lentivirus stocks, and that can be determined by infecting HT1080 cells with serially diluted supernatants produced using control vector containing an easily detectable receptor gene (e.g. Lac Z and fluorescent protein). Furthermore, titration values will depend heavily on the cell type and method used for titration, so there may be significant differences between titres determined in cells typically used for titration and the number of target cells that are ultimately transduced. However titrations are important for determining the relative virus content of stocks prepared from different vectors , Confirming the viability of virus stocks, Determining the optimal transduction conditions, Adjusting the MOI to control the viral copy number of transduced cells, Determining the maximum number of cells that can be infected by a virus stock. Additionally, the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 has been used widely to study the consequence of anti-inflammatory agents such as glycocortiodis on the gene expression of inflammatory mediator(17) and in the study of the extracellular matrix proteins involved in attachment, invasion and metastasis. It is also has been involved in assessment the function of the Ras-oncogenes in the altered phenotype and the function of the expression of the rentiblastoma gene product in the cellular response to therapy(18). In most studies that used the Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in their studies there is inconsistencies regarding the growth of this cell line with different media, different serum and different tissue culture plastic surface. Thus, it remains mainly descriptive and not quantify the relative influence of the underlying type of media, serum or plastic surface on cell growth and proliferation. Aim of this study In order to find the optimal plastic tissue culture plates for this cell line, I aimed to optimize the growth and the proliferation of the Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line by growing them in different tissue culture plastic plates including Falcon, Greiner and Corning plates and study their proliferation using colorimetric assay(XTT based, Roche). Materials and methods Tissue culture (pre-experiment to obtain growth curve of HT1080 cell) Tissue culture of HT1080 cell line Experiment was performed using Human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 (ATCCCCL121) epithelial cells. This cell line was obtained from ECACC European collection of animal cell cultures. Cells were grown in HPA culture collections facilities (catalogue number :85111505). Routinely, cells were grown in complete medium composed of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM supplemented with high glucose liquid without phenol red, without L-Glutamine 1% Non Essential Amino Acids (NEAA) 10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (all were purchased from PAA). The bench surface were cleaned before starting tissue culture, to avoid any contamination The cells were Cultured and grown in 75 cm2 falcon flask which was kept in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37oC for 24 hours to obtain the optimum growth condition. The cells were subculture every 3 days which helped to achieve 0.45-1.0X 106 cells/ml. all the culturing and sub-culturing procedure were done in class II safety cabinet. Cell count The cells were twice a week checked for any contamination before cell count done, the media should be in a good condition, and healthy clear yellow color should be observed. HT1080 cells were counted by using counting chamber (haemocytometer) as it shown below. (A, B, D, and C) as shown above contain 16 small squares of volume 0.1mm3 or 10-4 cm3 which means (length x width x height). 10ul of HT1080 cells were placed between the counting chamber and cover slips. After cells settle the haemocytometer were fixed under light microscope with X40 magnification. The cells were counted and equation was used to find out the total cells number and then it was divided by 4 to obtain an average X104 cells/ml. Cells can be sub-cultured in fresh supplemented media. Actual concentration = Dilution factor required Desired concentration Sub- Culture of HT1080 All cells were detached by using tryptirization by trypsine/EDTA (0.1% /0.02%) solution, average of 60X104 cells/ml of HT 1080 cells were reseed into new labeled flask (75 cm2). Then 20 ml of media was added to the same flask. Finally it were kept in the incubator for 24 hour at 37oC in 5% CO2 atmosphere. obtain growth curve of HT1080 cell Briefly, 1ml from the cell suspension were mixed with 480ul of MEM media (PAA). Then 100ul of the tissue culture medium equally distributed to all wells of 96 tissue culture plastic multiwells plate except the first row as 200ul of the cell suspension mixture was added to whole first row. Then Serial dilution was performed by taking 100ul from the first row of 96 wells and transferred to the second row wells (shown in the figure below). The last 100ul were discarded after doing serial dilution in the sixth well (each dilution included four wells) Finally the 96 wells tissue culture micro plate were kept for incubation (at 37Co, 5% CO2) for 24 hours. Proliferation assay The cells proliferation was studied by using XTT proliferation assay (Cat. No. 11465015001) by Roche. First, the XXT solution was prepared by thawing the XTT labeling reagent and the electron-coupling reagent, respectively in a water bath at 37oC. Mix each vial thoroughly to obtain a clear solution. Then XTT labeling mixture was prepared by mixing 4ml of XTT labeling reagent with 80ul of electron-coupling reagent, to prepare the XTT labeling mixture. Finally, 50ul of the XTT prepared mixture was added to all wells of 96 wells tissue culture plates wells after the incubation period of 24 hours and the plate was incubated in the incubator in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37oC for 6 hours . Reading the tissue culture multiwell plate After 6 hours of the incubation period, the plate was kept in the ELISA spectrophotometer reader (Tecan sunrise colorimeter) to measure the absorbance of HT1080 cells at 450nm and obtain the cells growth curve. Tissue culture of HT1080 cell line (Actual experiment) Growing the HT1080 cell line in 3 different tissue culture plastic 96 wells plate including Greiner, Falcon and Corning.this experiment conducted within two weeks. From the previous obtained graph of growth curve of HT1080 cell line the seeding density of all our future subculture fixed to 60X104 cells/ml. First of all, the tissue cultured flask checked under the microscope to check the cell growth confluence. Then cell counting was performed to seed all the 3 different 96 wells tissue culture plastic plates at cell density of 60X104 cells/ml and that was possible after finding out the dilution factor by applying an equation (see below). Usually we used dilution factor 1:19. Actual concentration = Dilution factor required Desired concentration After preparing the correct dilution of HT1080 cell line, plates were seeded with 60X104 cells/ml ,100ul/well. Each plates was divided to four parts for four days to run the experiment, for example the first part was labeled as day 1, second part day 2, third part day 3 and the last part day 4 with 6 wells for each day along with 2 blank, total of 8 wells daily. Then the tissue culture plates were incubated in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24 hours. ( see figure 2). Day4 Day3b Day2 Day 1 Figure 2: Cells suspension proliferation reagent Blank: media only Cells proliferation assay After the incubation period of 24 hours, the XTT solutions were prepared as explained previously and added to the first part of each different tissue culture plates each part was included 6 wells. Then the tissue culture plates were incubated again in the incubator at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 24 hours. After 6 hours of the incubation period, the platse were kept in the ELISA spectrophotometer reader (Tecan sunrise colorimeter) to measure the absorbance of HT1080 cells at 450nm. Then the plates were returned to the same incubator and used for the rest of days. The same procedure of preparing proliferation reagent and reading the plates was performed to obtain the results and check the cells proliferation for the rest of days . Results This investigation was done to rule out the growth density of the Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line to be seeded in three different 96 wells plastic tissue culture plates to study the growth and the proliferation of this cell line. HT1080 cells were seeded as described in 96 wells plastic plates and incubated for 24 hours in media. For cell proliferation, XTT mixture reagent was added after the incubation period . Briefly, 96 well plates of from each different plastics plates used were seeded with HT1080 cells(6X103 cells/ml, 100 ul/well) and incubated for 24 hours in media. After 6 hours of incubation, the HT1080 cell line proliferation rate were measured by using Tecan sunrise colorimeter at 450nm and the following growth curve was being obtained. Figure 1: shows a growth curve of the human fibrosarcoma HT 1080 cell line by using XTT assay. Measurement of the HT 1080 cell line proliferation incubated in the 96 well plate on culture medium alone for 24 hours and allowed to adhere. After adding XTT reagent cells were incubated for 6 hours. Then the cells proliferation was analyzed by Tecan sunrise colorimeter at 450 nm, the log phase were determined as 6X103. From the obtaining HT 1080 cell line growth curve (figure 1) the initial Lag phase where the cells were growing very slow started from 1562 cells /ml to approximately 6000 cells/ml. then the HT1080 cell growth starts to accelerate into the exponential phase which represents the period when the cells are growing most rapidly. This phase continued till the number of cells reached 25000 cells/ml which may due one or more nutrients became limited, oxygen became depleted and or metabolic by – products accumulate to toxic level. After that the cells were Decelerated (Declined). This was followed by a Stationary phase, during which there was no discernible change in cell concretion. Finally if the cells were kept more time we may observe of cell death and lysis which results in a decrease of cells number. The cell growth density was determined by observing the ht1080 cell line growth proliferation curve and it was decided to be 6000 cells/ml as our standard density for this experiment. This investigation was designed to study the proliferation of Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in 3 different 96 well plastic tissue culture plates including Falcon, Corning and Greiner. Briefly, 96 well plates from each different plastics plates used were seeded with HT1080 cells(6X103 cells/ml, 100 ul/well) and incubated for 24 hours in media. For each investigation sample were set up in 6 wells. After incubation, the HT1080 cell line proliferation rate were measured by using Tecan sunrise colorimeter at 450nm and the following result were being obtained. n = 2 Figure 2: Determine comparison of the HT1080 cells proliferation by growing them in three different 96 wells plastic microplates (Falcon, Greiner and Corning) by using XTT assay for 5 days in MEM media . Each experiment includes 6 duplicate reading . The graph represent the average of three independent experiments data mean, while the errors bars represent the standard deviation of the data. The results that obtained from this experiment revealed that, the Human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line showed different growth proliferation rate depends on the plastic wares including Falcon, Greiner and Corning that have been used in this study (figure 2). The same cells seeding density that was obtained previously from the HT1080 cells growing curve(6X103) were applied to all the 96 wells plastic tissue culture plates. Falcon, Greiner and corning plastic plates showed varies proliferation in the mean (±SD) number of HT1080 cells. From our graph the cells that were grown in Greiner plate proliferate at slower rate in comparison to the other two types of plastic plates were used. On the other hand, the cells showed good proliferation in Corning plate with double increased in the mean (±SD) number of HT1080 cells compared to the proliferation which was obtained in Greiner plate. In contrast the cells, which were seeded in Falcon plate showed the best proliferation of HT1080 cells from the first day of the experiment till the last day and reached a peak at day 4. Moreover, from the obtained data it was clear that we can see HT 1080 cell that were seeded in Falcon plate were proliferating two times more than the mean (±SD) number of HT1080 cells in Corning plate and three times more than the mean (±SD) number of HT1080 cells in Greiner this continued with same significant proliferation rate till the last day of our experiment . Discussion Our results confirm that the plastic wares have a major influence on the Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line adherence, growth and proliferation. It was very clear from our obtained data that Falcon tissue culture plastic plates shown to be the best plastic ware to optimize the growth and the proliferation of the Human Fibrosarcoma HT 1080 cell line between the other two plastic Corning and Greiner that were used in this experiment. Although the three types of plastic surface treatment almost the same but these cells were growing with different proliferation rate on these plastic wares surface. The human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line are extensively accepted as the standard target cell for titrating Lentivirus because these cells are transduced very efficiently by recombinant Lentiviruses. The health of HT1080 cells at the time of transfection has a significant effect on the success of Lentivirus production. Use of “unhealthy” cells will negatively affect the transfection efficiency, resulting in production of a low titre Lentiviral stock. For optimal Lentivirus production (i.e. producing Lentiviral stocks with the expected titers) the cells should be healthy and greater than 90% viable. Furthermore, the growth characteristics of this cell line HT1080 changes depending on media formulations, plastic ware used and sources of serum used. Generally, cell attachment, growth, and cell-to-cell contacts on a surface or extracellular matrix substrate are extremely complex proceedings involving cell adhesion molecules. An additional factor leading the growth of cells is the composition of the culture medium, especially serum which supplies the essential nutrients for cells and influences the cell attachment. As it contains numerous extracellular matrix proteins . However, there are known limitations to serum in culture medium. Apart from being expensive, it can interfere with specific assays and introduce variability due to inconsistencies and the presence of indeterminate components. When growing any cells, one of the first thing is to optimize all culture conditions. Generally people know about Media, FCS/FBS, CO2 concentration, split ratios etc, but very few ever think about TC Plastic….corning, costar, nunc, greiner, falcon, tpp etc will all support cell growth, but optimizing your conditions can save time and money in the long run. Culture environmental conditions influence the proliferative characteristics of cells, while this environment is not fully controlled. Plastic is one of the most important things to know about and understand. It can have a major influence on cell adherence and growth and can therefore ultimately influence the experimental results. Most of studies devoted to the analysis of HT1080 cell line growth relies on using different types of tissue culture plastic surface leading to inconsistencies regarding the growth of HT1080 in different plastic . Thus, optimal plastic surface for HT1080 cell line long term growth is usually unknown. For example, a study has been conducted by shalinsky et al for the modulation of dipyridamole (DPM) to act synerglstically with vinblastine (VBL) in the HT 1080 cell line, they have used corning plastic micro-plates to seed the cells and ran their experiment. The Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line used in the studies of the extracellular matrix proteins involved in attachment, invasion and metastasis as the HT1080 cells must attach to and spread underlying matrix in order to carry out normal metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. One of these studies is done by Miyake and colleges same corning 96 well micro-plates were used but it was coated with ECM and they found that HT1080 had better proliferation while cultured with coated microplate rather than uncoated and that can be explained due to capability of extracellular matrix (ECM) to hold the HT1080 cells and provide a highly organized lattice within cells can migrate and interact with each other. In addition, they found that HT 1080 cell line secret a large amount of extracellular matrix on the microplate surface, then HT1080 cell attach rapidly and they leave the underlying ECM intact and firmly attached to the plastic. Additionally, Ohizumai et al, have another choice of the plastic ware in their experiment as they have used falcon 96 well microplate to grow HT1080 cells and processed their study. In other study was done by Markus and Richard they have seeded the HT 1080 cell line in standard treated uncoated Falcon 24 well microplate and they have found that the HT1080 cell migration increased compared to other cell line such as HT29 and MCF7 cell lines, which confirms that different cell needs different types of plastic microplates to get the optimum growth and proliferation. Another study where HT1080 cells have been grown on different plastic ware type done by Simpson et al, in their study (combination of afusogenic Glycoprotein, producing Activation and oncolytic Herpes Simplex virus for Enhanced local tumor control). They have used coated Greiner plastic ware with lamim and they are of thousands of researchers who prefer to use coated plastic ware as its more effective and more significant while using plastic ware that are coated with ECM. In this context, the study of HT1080 cell line proliferation by growing the cells in different tissue culture plastics plates appears necessary for cell proliferation performance within different tissue culture plastic surfaces as well as cell response to such environmental changes In this study we have optimized the growth and the proliferation of the Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells by growing them in different plastic ware including Falcon, Greiner and Corning plastic wares and study their proliferation using colorimetric assay(XTT based, Roche). The XTT assay method is based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt XTT by viable cells in the presence of an electron coupling reagent. The reaction produces a soluble formazan salt. The XTT assay is sensitive, quantitative, reliable and automated methods led to the development of standard assays. Cell proliferation and viability assays are of particular importance for routine applications. Tetrazolium salts MTT and XTT are especially useful for assaying the quantification of viable cells. In this case variability of proliferation rates would more likely reflect plastic surface variability than real variations of inherent cell proliferation capabilities. Moreover, Measurement of HT1080 cell proliferation rates is used to determine the response of the cells growth as it is a significant element for monitoring the consistency of the culture and knowing the best time to subculture the optimum dilution, and the estimated platting efficiency at different HT1080 cell densities. Testing medium, serum, new culture vessels or substrate, and so forth, all require quantitative assessment. One of the difficulties in growing cells in vitro using conservative tissue culture techniques is that the cells rest on plastic rather than on their natural biological support and can only be nourished with media from their apical side. To explain my results it is important to know the plastic surface treatment of each type of plastic used in this study. Normal TC plastic has a net negative charge. TC treatment cross links carboxyl and amine groups and gives the plastic its net negative charge. TC surface modification is usually done by ionizing radiation or other physio-chemical methods ( F. Grinnell 1978 Int. Rev.Cytol 43. p.65 ). Falcon plastic ware showed better growth and proliferation of this cell line more than greiner and corning. The HT1080 cells were proliferating with Falcon plastic tissue culture plate two times more than with Greiner plastic plate and double its proliferation with Corning plastic plate. Falcon surface treatment is more advanced than Greiner plastic ware as Falcon Standard Tissue Culture (TC) surfaces exposed to vacuum-gas plasma or corona discharge treatment that create a number of negatively charged functional groups on the polystyrene surface and make it hydrophilic. Falcon company is believed to facilitate direct cell attachment and indirectly support attachment, spreading, and growth by binding serum proteins to the plastic surface. Each lot of Falcon plastic products is gamma irradiated to produce a sterile product and from the obtained results it was proved that Falcon is the best plastic substrate for the Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line growth and proliferation as the cells were proliferating increasingly till the last day. In contrast the HT1080 cells with Corning were growing and proliferating with gradual increase from the first day till the last day of experiment but their proliferation lower than the cells proliferation with Falcon. Although the Standard Corning polystyrene cell culture plastic wares have the same treatment of Falcon surface treatment. In addition from the results that we have obtained it seems to be that HT1080 cells were growing and proliferating more than when comparing their growth and proliferation with Greiner microplate. On the other hand, Greiner plastic ware are using different method to treat their tissue culture plastic wares, they are using a “physical” modification to make their TC-treated plates rather than chem Effect of Tissue Culture Plastic Surfaces
Businesses organisations expand as a result of hard work which involves ensuring that customers get satisfied and aggressive exploration of the market. Sometimes, old fashioned methods of marketing are used to increase sales. This approach is supported by many consultants and business experts. Although hard work is important for business growth, it is basically described as traditional wisdom. Both small and large business organisations can increase their growth through acquisitions. Goodman Fielder will enjoy many benefits of acquisitions in Asia as opposed to other entry modes. The first benefit that he will enjoy is easy integration. Rapid business growth is associated with numerous risks. This has been witnessed in some business organisations where rapid growth has caused their decline because they have been forced to do many things at the same time. Acquisitions will be beneficial to Goodman since they will provide enough procedures and systems to accommodate business growth. This will be done through the selling company that will provide the necessary facilities and human labour to ensure that the new business operates in a smooth manner. The second benefit that Goodman will enjoy from acquisitions in Asia is ability to deal with entry barriers. Entry into new markets is often associated with numerous challenges that limit business growth. In some extreme circumstances, businesses may even collapse completely. Acquisitions will enable him to use the resources of an existing organisation to stabilise his business. As a result, the risk of stiff competition from rival companies will be reduced. Without acquisitions, this will not be possible because of stiff competition (Gaughan 28). The third benefit of acquisitions in Asia that Goodman will enjoy is market power. Market is very important in any business establishment since it enhances its growth. Most business organisations fail due to lack of a strong market. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through acquisitions, Goodman will be able to establish a strong market presence in Asia. Consequently, this will enhance the rate of business growth. The market power will be strengthened by increased market share (Advantages and Disadvantages of Acquisition 3). In addition, there will be reduced competition due to capacity shut down. These are benefits that will only be achieved through acquisitions. The fourth benefit that Goodman will enjoy from acquisitions in Asia is financial gains. The aim of establishing any business venture in a particular region is to make profits. Without making profits and generating the required revenue, businesses do not perform well. Acquisitions will make it possible for a company whose share value will be low to become part of a stronger company in order to strip assets and acquire short term benefits. For example, getting finances from banks will not be difficult since there will be tangible assets that the banks could sell in case borrowers fail to pay back the borrowed money. This will not be possible without acquisitions since a company will be forced to rely on its limited resources (Growth through Acquisition 4). The fifth benefit that Goodman will get from acquisitions in Asia is reduced marketing expenses and risks. Some companies attempt to initiate marketing campaigns in order to increase their sales since they think that it is easy. However, the expectations of getting huge sales from marketing campaigns are not usually realistic. Marketing is a risky activity that can lead to losses instead of profits. Acquisitions will therefore be beneficial since marketing through an existing company will reduce the risks involved and increase the sales. Works Cited Advantages and Disadvantages of Acquisition 2012. Web. Gaughan, Patrick. Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings, New York: John Wiley

Public communications / Read the passage carefully and answer the questions

Public communications / Read the passage carefully and answer the questions. I’m trying to study for my Management course and I need some help to understand this question.

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions:
The Government of Andhra Pradesh [India], in its endeavor to provide simple, moral, accountable, responsive and transparent governance to its people, launched ‘SMART GOVERNMENT’ (Smartgov) at the secretariat level. This project resulted in an automatic workflow in the secretariat and ensured not only internal efficiency but also provided an effective tool for performance evaluation. In Smartgov, on receipt of a document, it is scanned to generate a number for the file and is e- mailed to the concerned officer. The official noting are done electronically. The system being automatic enforces the desired checks and balances. It curtails negativism and over rides all hurdles of resistance and opposition to change.
The project Smartgov has helped in introducing paper less file processing system in the Andhra Pradesh secretariat. It has not only helped in reducing the time consumed in processing the files, but also significantly improved the quality of decisions besides decrease corruption.
The new governance improvisations/systems because of their faster, efficacious, efficient and effective remedial implications have evoked a positive response from the public in general and the administrative set up in particular speaks volumes for its acceptability. It can, thus, be safely inferred that the total success of effecting changes can only be ensured if it is preceded with requisite training and orientation programs for the end users. This will minimize resistance.
1. What are Performance Indicators? How ‘Smartgov’ is an effective tool for performance evaluation? (Please refer page number 237 of your text book.).
2. Corruption is one of the ethical issue prevails in the government offices. Discuss the need of ethics in government offices. How Smartgov will help in controlling corruption? 3. What are the benefits of information technology in Government Sector? Explain the
‘Smartgov’ systems efficiency.

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Public communications / Read the passage carefully and answer the questions

Is the Q1 actually 18? Just wanna make sure Im doing this right. Also the

essay writing help Is the Q1 actually 18? Just wanna make sure Im doing this right. Also the. Is the Q1 actually 18? Just wanna make sure Im doing this right. Also the upper fence is 28?? I thought it had to be a number within the given data.. Image transcription text Questions 6 and 7: The data represent the ages of a sample of participants in a 5k run. 11 15 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 6. a. Q1= 18 Q2 (median) = 21 Q3 = 22 b. Find the interquartile range. Remember to write the formula … Show more… Show more Math Statistics and Probability Share QuestionEmailCopy linkLink copied!Is the Q1 actually 18? Just wanna make sure Im doing this right. Also the

Sales Executive’s Career Exploration Activities Case Study

Table of Contents Career Exploration Activities Joe’s Understanding of Himself and his Environment Is Joe Successful in his career? Conducting a Wider Career Exploration My Advice to Joe Reference List Career Exploration Activities Career exploration activities are necessary because they help a person understand much about his/her interests and expectations. The provided case study shows that Joe has conducted a few career exploration activities to gather information about himself and his job environment. For instance, Joe has had some hands-on experience. He has worked as a sales executive and recently became the Vice President of Infotek, a software development firm. He is presently spending more time on his work, something he does not like. He is against paperwork and administration. He has also conducted some job shadowing to understand how other jobs and employers operate. However, most of Joe’s career exploration activities are limited to his personal expectations and experiences. This is the reason he is not sure about his values and abilities (Burtnett, 2010). That being the case, Joe should have done more to collect relevant information about himself and his environment. The first thing is embracing the idea of job shadowing. Joe should take several days to monitor and watch what other people in various jobs do (Burtnett, 2010). As well, he can perform interviews with friends and other people to learn about their jobs and values. He can find useful ideas and information from such interviews. The other important activity is getting some “hands-on experience”. Joe can volunteer or get involved in various career activities in order to learn much about different jobs and working environments. Joe’s Understanding of Himself and his Environment From the above discussion, it is notable that Joe is simply speculative. He believes his current job is not enjoyable. He considers his earlier position as a sales representative as the best. This means that he has little understanding of himself and his environment. He can gain new ideas and understanding in order to widen his abilities, interests, and lead a better lifestyle (Burtnett, 2010). He, therefore, needs to consider new career exploration activities to collect better information. Is Joe Successful in his career? At the age of 39, Joe has become the Vice President of Infotek. This is a clear indication that he is successful in his career (Burtnett, 2010). Joe has managed to work effectively thus capturing the attention of his seniors. Joe should therefore gather new information in order to work competently, embrace his new position, and work hard to become the Chief Executive Officer of the company. Conducting a Wider Career Exploration I strongly think Joe can have more positive career outcomes if he conducted a wider career exploration. From this case study, it is notable that Joe is interested in people and clients. That being the case, Joe can conduct a wider exploration in order to come up with new ways to communicate with clients and employees. He will also understand the importance of “work-life balance” and eventually appreciate his current position (Burtnett, 2010). A wider exploration will make it easier for Joe to appreciate his job and mentor others. Instead, Joe will focus on promotion and not an early retirement (Burtnett, 2010). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My Advice to Joe My advice to Joe is that he is currently in the right career. A job should change his perception about the job and perform a wider career exploration. The approach will help him identify some ways of making the career appreciable and meaningful (Burtnett, 2010). He should also interact with employees and clients at the company. He can also work closely with the Research and Development (R

Denver Health’s private cloud Case Study

1. Patient information should be held confidential at all times. In order to meet this requirement, Denver Health makes sure that all handling and information storage is done in Denver Health’s private cloud. These sun rays require to be upgraded after every eight hours unlike the typical two to three years of PC. They have also instituted the sign-on procedure that is used by doctors and nurses upon their arrival at work. They sign on a single Sun Ray terminal by inserting smart card and then logging-in the name and password. The doctor or the nurse withdraws the card, which logs off the session at that terminal but still leaves session active for the doctor or nurse. When entering a patient’s rooms during the day, they are only required to reactivate the session, which takes 5-10 seconds. 2. Thinidentity can be used by schools to support the technology needs of faculties and as well as those of students. This can be done by instituting private cloud in the faculty to ensure that it runs its activities without unnecessary interferences from other faculties. This will make the coordination the between the departments under one faculty faster. Use of Thinldentity will boost the quality of services they deliver to the students and other stakeholders. The faculty may carry out research and training to reduce the resistance to new technology. The faculty should redefine its roles to fit with the new technology. This will require some guidance and encouragement to reduce poor faculty retention. Thinldentity can support technology needs of the students. With the increased varieties of mobile application and ever-expanding cellular network, the school can use mobile technology to achieve this by enabling its students to access some of the services using their phones. School management can encourage students to use laptops in the campus for learning. Increasing electrical outlet access and Ethernet ports will increase the students’ access to online study materials and frequent recharging for their laptops. The number of printing stations should also be increased. Flexible and accessible learning to students should be ensured. 3.A public cloud is based on standard cloud computing model where a service provider makes the resources available to the public over the internet. It may be free or payable. As compared to the private cloud which is data center that uses cloud computing technologies, public cloud has certain benefits. Firstly, it has easy and cheap set-up because some costs are catered for by the provider. For example, application, bandwidth and hardware cost. Secondly, it has scalability to meet the needs of the individual and lastly, there is no waste of resources because someone pays for what he uses. 4.The smart card is used for collecting and storing data related to a particular person. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The smart card serves to protect personal data thus ensuring that users are protected. Some of the features of smart card are secure key and data storage, storing device security, secure communications between the card and card readers and ability to store biometric templates, for example, fingerprints. The sim card would safeguard the patient’s private information that he does not want it disclosed. In order to ensure that the patient has access only to his information, the password should be only known to the user. The information security should be strong to eliminate the chances of eavesdropping. The smart card should also support biometric authentication to enhance privacy of personal information. The strong support for privacy of information is a requirement of a smart card because it can give firewall for an individual thereby giving only needed data and when it is required. 5.Denver Health can extend the Thinldetity beyond its environs by encouraging the patients who cannot be accommodated within their premises to embrace its usage. It would only work with the advancement of technology to those patients. Doctors and nurses working from home would save many lives of patients and save a lot of time and resources. Use of mobile phones will make it easier and cheaper since no travelling expenses are incurred. 6.Denver Health has some of effectiveness metrics that may be used to justify their use of Thinldentity. Through its use, they have been able to minimize the loss of time incurred by doctors and nurses when entering patients’ rooms and logging in the computer. The advantages of implementing Thinldentity are evident. It has reduced the costs incurred by $5.7 million. Denver Health used to lose $4 million per year due to physician loss of time. Costs are also saved in that the upgrading of thin clients needs to be done once in every eight years, which is far better compared to the previous PC that needed to be upgraded in two to three years. With all those advantages, Denver Health is likely to have created a good name and hence attracting many clients due to faster and efficient service. In conclusion, Thinldentity has improved the status of Denver Health and should continue to be implemented. It has improved the welfare of the patients through better quality services and faster treatment of patients as compared with before.