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University of The Cumberlands Single and Double Precision IEEE Paper

University of The Cumberlands Single and Double Precision IEEE Paper.

Hi there, Here are the questions. These needs to submitted via safe assign, so no plagiarism please and should be in APA format. Thanks.Questions:1. Discuss the difference between the precision of a measurement and the terms single and double precision, as they are used in computer science, typically to represent floating-point numbers that require 32 and 64 bits, respectively.2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using sampling to reduce the number of data objects that need to be displayed. Would simple random sampling (without replacement) be a good approach to sampling? Why or why not?Grading Rubric for DF2Filling the number of required 200 words or more for the discussion: 25 percentProviding a comprehensive discussion of the topic: 25 percentJustifying ideas and responses by using appropriate examples and references from texts, Web sites, other references, or personal experience and cited the sources in the correct: 25 percentCommented on at least two of your classmates’ postings in a meaningful way at least 100 words: 25 percent
University of The Cumberlands Single and Double Precision IEEE Paper

Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) Features. Definition: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes or BACs are plasmids (circular DNA molecules) constructed with the replication origin of E.coli F’ Factor. F’ is an incompatibility group involved in E. coli conjugative ability and chromosomal transfer, which can exist as an extra-chromosomal element. 1st developed as a large insert cloning system to facilitate the construction of DNA libraries to analyze genomic structure. Technology was developed to carry out genetic and functional studies of viruses (herpes virus especially). Since then BACs application have grown intensely and have benefited the research community in many fields, such as in genomic fingerprinting, sequencing of the human genome, in vaccine development and in vitro transgenesis,. Characteristic features of BAC vectors The original BAC vector, pBAC108L, is based on a mini-F plasmid, pMBO131 (Figure 1) which encodes genes essential for self-repli­cation and regulates its copy number inside a cell. The unidirectional self-replicating genes are oriS and repE while parA and parB maintain copy number to one or two for each E. coli genome. Multiple cloning sites is present, flanked by “universal promot­ers” T7 and SP6, all flanked by GC-rich restriction enzyme sites for insert excision. Presence of cosN and loxP sites(cloned in by bacteriophage l terminase and P1 Cre recombinase, respectively) permits linearization of the plasmid for convenient restriction mapping. There is a chloramphenicol resistance gene for negative selection of non-transformed bacteria. Vector is 6900 bp in length and is capable of maintaining insert DNA in excess of 300 kilobases (kb). Other BAC Vectors There have been many modifications done to increase the ease-of-use as well as for use in specific systems and situations. pBeloBAC11 2 and pBACe3.6 are modified BAC vectors based on pBAC108L and are commonly used as a basis for further modification. pBeloBAC11 The primary characteristic of this vector is the addition of a lacZ gene into the multiple cloning site 2 of pBAC108L. Plates supplemented with X-gal/IPTG, an intact lacZ gene encodes b-galactosidase which catalyses the supplemented substrate into a blue substance. Successful ligation of insert DNA into the vector inactivates lacZ, generating white colonies, indicating the presence of a successful vector-insert ligation. It is still a low-copy number plasmid due to presence of parA and parB. Size of vector is 7507 bp in length. pBACe3.6 This vector is based on pBAC108L but is more highly modified than pBeloBAC11. In order to overcome the issue of low plasmid copy numbers, the P1 replicon in F’ was deleted and a removable high copy number replicon originating from an inserted pUC19 was introduced. This vector contains 2.7 kb pUClink stuffer fragment which is flanked by two sets of six restriction sites within a sacB region. Levansucrase, a product of sacB gene, which converts sucrose (sup­plemented in the media) to levan, which is toxic to E. coli host cells. Hence, if the vector is re-ligated without an insert, the functional sacB produces levansucrase and the cells die before forming colonies. Successful ligation of an insert into the vector increases the dis­tance from the promoter to the coding region of sacB, disrupting toxic gene expression in the presence of sucrose. In addition to this vectors, there are many specialized BAC vectors carrying a variety of different combinations of drug resistance genes. Besides, many different selection mechanisms and markers are available. Modifications of cloning sites (unique restriction endonuclease sites) are also common as per the addition of genes and promoters specific to different strains of bacteria. Development of BAC vector Advantages of BAC Vectors The large size of BACs help to minimize site of integration effects, a phenomenon which has been defined as endogenous sequences (such as gene coding regions and distal regulatory elements) to be disrupted, and to produce potentially undesirable phenotypes in gene cloning technology. Endogenous gene expression more accurately than other cloning systems. The human genome BACs consist of the full gene structure(which play very important role in gene regulation). Therefore the human genome BACs will ensure full mRNA processing and splicing when genes are transcribed, and produce the full complement of protein isoforms once mRNAs are translated. It can be transfected and expressed in mammalian cell lines even if transfection efficiency and copy numbers are low. Disadvantages of BAC vectors A construct containing a large genomic fragment is likely to contain non-related genes which may lead to indirect, non-specific gene expression and unanticipated changes in the cell phenotype. Recombinant BAC constructs can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. The large size BAC DNA constructs are more easily degraded and sheard during manipulation before transfection. Applications of BAC vectors BACs are useful for the construction of genomic libraries but their range of use is vast. It spans from basic science to economically rewarding industrial research, and fields as prosaic as animal husbandry. In genomic analyses, it helps in determining phylogenetic lineage det between species. Helps in study of horizontal gene transfer and since bacterial genes are usually clustered, the ability of BAC vectors to accommodate large inserts has allowed the study of entire bacterial pathways. By isolating DNA directly from soil or from marine environments, the “metagenomes” of those organisms which are either uncultureable or are termed viable but uncultureable can be cloned into BAC vectors and indirectly studied. In industrial research fields where BAC vectors are invaluable tools in cataloguing novel genomes is in the discovery of novel enzymes. Work has been done on identifying enzymes that are involved in biopolymer hydrolysis or even radioactive waste management. BAC vectors have been instrumen­tal in studying large double stranded DNA viruses both from an academic point of view and as a tool to develop improved vaccines. In genomic research, high throughput determination of gains and losses of genetic material using high resolution BAC arrays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been developed into the new tools for translational research in solid tumors and neurodegenerative disorders. BAC technology is becoming the most upcoming method for genome sequencing. The technique uses an overlapping tailing part of large genomic fragments (150-200 kb) maintained within BACs. Every individual BAC is shotgun sequenced, where these large overlapping sequences of the BACs are assembled to produce the whole genome sequence. BACs have also been used in mammalian genome mapping, genomic imprinting, vaccine development, gene therapy and studies of the evolutionary history and functional dynamics of sex chromosomes have recently been possible using BAC libraries. YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) vectors Definition: Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are plasmid shuttle vectors capable of replicating and being selected in common bacterial hosts such as Escherichia coli, as well as in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are of relatively small size (approximately 12 kb) and of circular form when they are amplified or manipulated in E. coli, but are rendered linear and of very large size(several hundreds of kilobases), when introduced as cloning vectors in yeast. Many different yeast artificial chromosomes exist as ongoing refinements of the initial pYAC3 and pYAC4 plasmids (Figure 1) constructed by Burke et al. (1987). Basic structural features of YACs were developed from the yeast centromere shuttle-plasmids (YCp) series. These are composed of double-stranded circular DNA sequences carrying the b-lactamase gene (bla) and the bacterial pMB1 origin of replication, thus conferring resistance to ampicillin and the ability to replicate in bacteria, respectively. YACs also contain the cloning site in the middle of the SUP4 suppressor of an ochre allele of a tyrosine transfer RNA gene; this enables restoration of the normal white color phenotype in otherwise red ade1 and/or ade2 nonsense mutants. Accordingly, in the insertional inactivation cloning process, the SUP4 gene is disrupted by the DNA insert, thus removing the suppression of the ade mutations and allowing their phenotypic expression as red color. They also include yeast ARS1 with its associated CEN4 DNAsequence, as well as the URA3 selectable marker. Biological Features of YACs The stability of YAC vectors in yeast per se is similar to that of natural chromosomes provided that all three structural elements (ARS, CEN and TEL) are present and functional, in addition, that the minimal required size is reached by the insertion of enough exogenous DNA. Indeed, several mutations are known to affect YAC stability and segregation together with natural chromosomes. Another important consideration is that faithful duplication of YACs is guaranteed only if other DNA sequences incompatible with ARS do not exist on the construct, particularly relevant when unknown DNA inserts are cloned in the YAC vector, as in the case for genomic libraries, in which there could be cryptic or otherwise unknown ARS-like sequences able to interfere with the ARS function. Construction of YACs Steps: Initially, purification of plasmid DNA is carried out. Two distinct digestions are performed: the first with BamHI that cuts twice adjacent to the two telomeric DNA sequences flanking the HIS3 gene, which therefore is excised from the plasmid and lost (Figure 2a). This first digestion generates a long linear fragment carrying telomeric sequences at each end. The second digestion consists of the opening of the cloning site within the SUP4 gene (Figure 2a). As a result of this second digestion, two linear fragments are produced as left and right arms of the future linear YAC (Figure 2b). Large DNA fragments with ends compatible to the cloning site, obtained from the desired genome source by digestion with an appropriate restriction endonuclease, are ligated with phosphatase treated YAC arms, to create a single yeast-transforming DNA molecule (Figure 2c). Primary transformants can be selected for complementation of the ura3 mutation in the host, and successively for complementation of the host trp1 mutation, thereby ensuring thepresence of both chromosomal arms. Transformant colonies containing the exogenous DNA insert within the SUP4 gene are detected by their red colour, due to the inactivation of the suppressor activity and the consequent accumulation of a red metabolic precursor in ade host cells. Applications of YACs Applications of YACs range from generating whole DNA libraries of the genomes of higher organisms to identifying essential mammalian chromosomal sequences necessary for the future construction of specialized mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs). Helps in the study of regulation of gene expression by cis-acting, controlling DNA elements, that are present either upstream or downstream of large eukaryotic genes, after the transfer of these YACs from yeast to mammalian cells. YAC libraries has greatly advanced the analysis of genomes previously cloned in cosmid vectors. For example, YAC clones have been used as hybridization probes for the screening of cDNA libraries, thus simplifying the characterization of unidentified genes. Recent technological developments allow the transfer of YACs into mouse embryonal stem (ES) cells and the subsequent generation of transgenic mice. Investigators have begun to employ these artificial chromosomes for the in vivo study of multigenic loci in mammalian cells. Two process can be used to obtain a sequenced genome, or region of interest: 1. Physical Mapping. 2. Chromosome Walking. It allows for the detailed mapping of specific regions of the genome. With the help of this, whole human chromosomes have been examined, such as the X chromosome,generating the location of genetic markers for numerous genetic disorders and traits. Bibliography Smith, GA.Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) Features
Pathology Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease that primarily afflicts adults. The likelihood of being diagnosed with AML increases with age; the median age of diagnosis is 65 with very few cases reported in those under the age of 40 [4]. Several risk factors have been associated with increased incidence of AML including: Li-Fraumeni disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, radiation exposure, chemotherapy, and chemicals (benzene, herbicides, etc) (See supplementary figure S.1) [4]. However, the initiation of AML is a multistep process and can be the result many different genetic aberrations [4][5]. Therefore, the aforementioned risk factors do not account for all cases of AML [4]. Acute myelogenous leukemia is the result of oncogene-driven accumulation of immature myeloblasts within the bone marrow [5]. Myeloblasts are progenitor cells, which will ultimately give rise to neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells (collectively known as the granulocytes) [6]. In AML, the genes that govern proper differentiation of myeloblasts into one of the aforementioned cell types are mutated. This prevents differentiation and leads to a buildup of myeloblasts within the marrow [5]. The clinical consequences of myeloblast buildup are marrow failure leading to low white-blood cell count, low red-blood cell count, and insufficient levels of clotting factors [5]. Therefore, clinical symptoms are depressed immune function, anemia, and continued hemorrhaging. The molecular pathogenesis of AML (and all cancers) begins with the acquisition of genetic abnormalities. There are two models that describe how these acquisitions arise. The conventional model of cancer cell initiation proposes that the cell gradually acquires certain mutations to genes involved in mitotic signaling (KRAS or APC) and tumor suppression (P53), thereby allowing the cell to divide uncontrollably [7]. However, Recent work by Stephens et al. [8] showed that multiple mutations can be induced in a “one off” event by the random shattering and re-ligation of one or more chromosomes [8]. They termed this event “Chromothripsis” [8]. Chromothripsis results in massive translocations and changes to copy number state, but is distinct from the conventional model of cancer cell initiation by the presence of large-scale inter-chromosomal rearrangements [8]. Thus, the chromothripsis model differs from its conventional counterpart in the time taken for the cell to reach malignancy and the scale to which the genome is altered. Chromothripsis is observed in a portion of AML cases; Rausch et al. [9] found nearly half of the AML cohort showed chromosomal rearrangements consistent with chromothripsis [9]. This shows that, accumulation of the necessary mutations that drive AML may occur by more than one mechanism. By either mechanism of AML initiation, myeloblasts lose the ability to differentiate. The molecular pathogenesis commonly shows two frequent chromosomal aberrations – a translocation between chromosome 8 and 21, and an inversion of chromosome 16 [5]. These changes affect two genes crucial for myeloid differentiation (CBF1α and CBF1β) [5]. The effect of the inversion and translocation results in a gene chimera, which is translated into a protein that interferes with proper CBF1α and CBF1β function [5]. However, these specific chromosomal alterations are not observed in every case of AML. DNA-damage inducing agents like radiation or certain chemicals, may cause aberrations to chromosome 5 and 7, which has also been implicated in the initiation of AML [5]. This shows that there are several factors involved in proper myeloid differentiation and that interference to any of them may result in AML. Visual differentiation of healthy myeloblasts from leukemic myeloblasts can be challenging. Myeloblasts should contain 3 – 5 nucleoli, which are full of uncondensed chromatin [6]. Some leukemic myeloblasts may show more than 3 – 5 nucleoli [5]. Also, they do not normally contain granules, however, leukemic myeloblasts may have granules, which can serve as a potential marker for diagnosis [5]. It is important to stress that these morphological changes may not appear in all cases of AML. Therefore, prognosis is confirmed by the presence of greater than 20% myeloblasts in bone marrow biopsy [5]. Treatment There are different avenues for treating AML. Treatment may include supportive care (in advanced cases), chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. However, chemotherapy is the most common and effective method of treatment [3]. When medicinal chemists began isolating antibiotics produced from bacteria in search of potential leads for drug design, Aurelio Di Marco and his research team discovered a new species of bacteria, Streptomyces peucetius, within a soil sample they obtained from an area near Bari, Italy [10][11]. This new strain of bacteria was produced a compound that was efficacious as a chemotherapeutic agent against many tumors; the compound was later named daunorubicin and is now considered a key intervention administered to patients with AML [12]. Daunorubicin and doxorubicin are part of the class of antibiotics collectively known as the anthracyclines. Anthracyclines can cause cytotoxicity by different mechanisms depending on their intracellular concentration. As reviewed by Gerwitz [13], in vitro studies show there are several possible mechanisms for the anti-tumor effects of these agents including: Inhibition of DNA synthesis, free radical generation leading to either DNA damage or lipid peroxidation, inhibition of DNA topoisomerase resulting in helix super-coiling, DNA alkylation, and DNA cross-linking [13]. The induction of apoptosis was also mentioned as a mechanism of cytotoxicity, but it is likely that apoptosis is a byproduct of the aforementioned cellular stresses, rather than a direct consequence of anthracycline exposure [13]. It is important to note that these mechanisms were observed in vitro, and that in vitro conditions allow for exposure at concentrations that may greatly exceed in vivo concentrations [13]. Pharmacodynamics Although, daunorubicin and doxorubicin are thought to cause cytotoxicity by several different processes, their ability to bind to DNA and prevent DNA replication or transcription is considered to be the primary means of anti-tumor activity in vivo [13][14]. This is because replication is inhibited at anthracycline concentrations that can be reached in vivo following a standard dosage [13]. The two anthracyclines appear to intercalate preferentially to regions of DNA with select base-pair composition, specifically, regions with CGATCG sequences [14]. Rabanni, Finn,

Technology & Telecommunication

Technology & Telecommunication. I’m trying to study for my Business course and I need some help to understand this question.

My sector is about technology and telecommunication. The sector update should include a brief explanation about recent events on the sector you cover, with links to sources (these can be citations, website links, etc). Please limit the write-up to 1 page, but feel free to include any tables or charts that support your views.
Good sources to get ideas about how to write your updates are Bloomberg, WSJ, FT, MarketWatch, and many other financial publications that release intra-day and/or end-of-day updates about the market.
Technology & Telecommunication

SCI 220 UOP Wk 5 Food Safety Clostridium Perfringens & Sally Scenarios Discussion

programming assignment help SCI 220 UOP Wk 5 Food Safety Clostridium Perfringens & Sally Scenarios Discussion.

Review food safety scenarios below.Select 2 of the 3 scenarios to answer questions related to Food Safety.Consult the Food Safety Scenarios document and then complete the following for each scenario:Scenario 1Write at least 100 word responses to each of the following questions. Be clear and concise, use complete sentences, and explain your answers using specific examples.Based on Scenario 1, what are the possible sources of food-borne illness?Although Jeremiah did not get sick, there were several areas throughout Jeremiah’s day that could have led him to a serious case of food-borne illness. Point out these areas and briefly explain why they are of concern and what Jeremiah could have done differently.Why is it safe for steak to be pink in the middle, but potentially dangerous for a hamburger not to be cooked all the way through?Scenario 2Write at least 100 word responses to each of the following questions. Be clear and concise, use complete sentences, and explain your answers using specific examples.How could this illness have been prevented?Based on the incubation period and symptoms of the illness, what is the most likely microorganism responsible for this illness?Describe the temperature danger zone.How could Martha have sped up the cooling process of the lasagna?If the leftover lasagna was thoroughly reheated, (which it was), how did it still lead to food-borne illness?Scenario 3Write at least 100 word responses to each of the following questions. Be clear and concise, use complete sentences, and explain your answers using specific examples.What could be the cause of Sally and her family members’ illness?How could this illness have been prevented? The Grading Guide for Food Safety will be used for this assignment.
SCI 220 UOP Wk 5 Food Safety Clostridium Perfringens & Sally Scenarios Discussion

NRS 440VN City College of San Francisco IOM Future of Nursing Report

NRS 440VN City College of San Francisco IOM Future of Nursing Report.

Review the IOM report, “The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health,” and explore the “Campaign for Action: State Action Coalition” website. In a 1,000-1,250 word paper, discuss the influence the IOM report and state-based action coalitions have had on nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing workforce development, and how they continue to advance the goals for the nursing profession.Include the following:Describe the work of the Robert Wood Foundation Committee Initiative that led to the IOM report, “Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.”Outline the four “Key Messages” that structure the IOM Report recommendations. Explain how these have transformed or influenced nursing practice, nursing education and training, nursing leadership, and nursing workforce development. Provide examples.Discuss the role of state-based action coalitions. Explain how these coalitions help advance the goals specified in the IOM report, “Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.”Research the initiatives on which your state’s action coalition is working. Summarize two initiatives spearheaded by your state’s action coalition. Discuss the ways these initiatives advance the nursing profession.Describe barriers to advancement that currently exist in your state and explain how nursing advocates in your state overcome these barriers.You are required to cite to a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
NRS 440VN City College of San Francisco IOM Future of Nursing Report

General Electric Company’s Growth and Immelt’s Initiative Case Study

GE current Mission Objective When examining the present-day website of GE it is immediately apparent that the company doesn’t have a mission statement per see but rather has a set of principles which it indicates on the website as the cornerstone of their company culture and as such these are: to imagine, to solve, to build and ultimately to lead. These aspects, as indicated by the site, are action-oriented and express (in GE’s opinion) what it means to be part of the company. The verb to “imagine”, for GE, is to come up with new ways of doing business in that they take what they have at the present and find new ways of expansion, implementation, and improvement based on its inherent potential. When it comes to the word “solve” GE makes an eloquent statement indicating that the reason it’s around in the first place is to solve the problems of its customers, the surrounding community, and society itself. In describing the word “build”, GE explains that it is always on a constant quest for growth and development and that the only way to do so is to build. Finally, when it comes to the word “lead” the company describes this as the culmination of the previous 3 words which results in a call to action which gives the company a certain degree of responsibility in terms of the implications of its actions. It is rather interesting to note though that despite having such lofty mission objectives the actions of the company at the present seem at odds with its mission objectives in terms of the negative impact some of the actions of the company have had or rather will have on local communities. The reason I say this is because GE is planning to move a large percentage of its manufacturing operations to China in a bid to save on the cost of labor. While this conforms to the objective of “imagining” wherein the company has thought up a way to save even more costs which is an inherent part of its company culture the fact remains that this doesn’t “solve” the jobless rates in the local economy brought about by the continued outsourcing of jobs to offshore locations. It is rather ironic that Immelt, the current CEO of GE and one of the economic advisors of Obama regarding increasing local job growth has in effect put in place a policy that will result in more jobs being lost in the U.S. While it may be true that this conforms to GE’s quest for growth through building the fact remains that since GE is a leading company in the U.S. other companies will follow suit resulting in even more job losses in the immediate future. It is based on this that the lofty goals highlighted in their objectives must be questioned since the result of their actions at the present will negatively impact their consumers in the U.S. with more people losing their jobs due to outsourcing. Goals and Strategies An examination of GE’S current goals reveals that it plans to become a market leader in biotechnology, renewable energy, technological services, and transportation and as such plans to do so by leveraging on its ability to be able to do things faster, more efficiently as well as more cost-effectively than any other company. The inherent problem though with this particular strategy is that in its pursuit for cost-effectiveness one must wonder whether GE has taken the concept too far and as such has neglected to include Corporate Social Responsibility as a necessary aspect into its business dealings. Identifying the Internal Strengths of GE Throughout the case example, there has been a particular emphasis placed on GE’s strong management discipline regarding not only its stringent implementation of cost-saving measures but in its ability to streamline operations to squeeze every single bit of productivity out of its employees. This I believe is the core of GE’s success as a corporation since it enables the company to operate at peak capacity while ensuring that costs are scaled back in favor of efficiency over wastefulness. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such a strategy is evident throughout numerous instances of Immelt’s tenure as CEO of GE as seen in his initiatives which involved centralizing the diverse operational departments into distinct groups to reduce administrative costs as well as his emphasis on the use of lean Six Sigma practices to reduce operational wastefulness. As stated by Olson (2008) one of the main problems in most established corporations is the continuation of inefficient or redundant practices that result in considerable costs for a company over a particular period (Olson, 2008). Examples of this can range from having two servers and IT departments for each operational division when instead one server and one IT department is all that is needed. Olson (2008) states that for this particular problem to be resolved companies need to focus on enhancing internal practices (as seen in the time of Welsch, former CEO of GE) to conform with efficient standards of operation (Olson, 2008). This involves not only the implementation of practices related to lean Six Sigma but the integration of departments and the modernization of certain practices (i.e. paperless internal communication) to ensure that potential savings are not squandered (Olson, 2008). Such practices were quite evident in the article detailing Immelt’s tenure at GE from 2000 to the present however they are just the beginning of the practices put into play which can be considered GE’s “strengths”. For Immelt integration of departments and the institution of cost-saving measures were just the beginning of the changes that he wanted to implement, of particular interest is his move to divest GE of companies that were either underperforming or no longer considered “vital” in terms of the vision that Immelt had for the company. As Cummings

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