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University of The Cumberlands Alibaba and Global Supply Chains Discussion

University of The Cumberlands Alibaba and Global Supply Chains Discussion.

INITIAL POSTSYour initial posts will be due by Sunday of each week of the module. All original threads should be at least 250 words. This parameter helps to promote writing that is thorough, yet concise enough to permit other students to read all the postings. The thoughts and opinions expressed in your thread need to be substantiated by research and literature (from the textbook or outside sources). All references should be in correct APA style. While this is a formal discussion environment, you are allowed to use the first person perspective in all your posts since you will be expressing your personal opinions. All original threads should: Bring clarity to the issues being discussed. Raise new and novel (yet relevant) points. Relate issues to personal experience. Rationally defend your stated position.Alibaba and Global Supply ChainsThis activity is important because, as a manager, you must be able to understand global production and supply chain management as they relate to the firm’s overall strategy.The goal of this exercise is to demonstrate your understanding of global production and supply chain management—where production should be located, whether to outsource production, and how to manage the process from raw materials to the end consumer.Read the case and answer the questions that follow.Alibaba Group Holding Limited (alibaba.com) was founded in 1999 by Jack Ma as an e-commerce company to facilitate sales among companies that provide consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer, and business-to-business products that are sold via the Internet. As the world’s largest e-commerce platform, Alibaba is on a path to realizing its vision of facilitating $1 trillion in product sales annually as it also pursues a goal of reaching 2 billion consumers. The company is headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, has a revenue of more than 23 billion U.S. dollars (primarily via advertisements on its sites), and employs about 51,000 people.Alibaba’s global supply chains are constrained tremendously on “Singles Day” or Guanggun Jie, a Chinese holiday celebrated on November 11, the solitary ones of the date—11.11—suggesting “bare branches,” the common slang for singles in China. On this day alone, more than $20 billion in sales, or more than 300 million orders, takes place on Alibaba’s Internet platforms (e.g., Tmall, Taobao). When global retailers think of mega-sales online, they generally think of Black Friday or Cyber Monday, but they ought to be watching 11.11 closely as well, especially as 11.11 doubles the combined sales of those U.S. e-commerce holidays.Each year, Alibaba handles more than 80 percent of China’s e-commerce business. The company now operates in 190 countries. Moving forward, the vision for Alibaba is simple: Bring in non-Chinese brands to the Chinese market and expand products to customers outside of China’s borders. So far, the impact is clear. Beyond its own employees, Jack Ma claims that Alibaba has created more than 30 million jobs in China related to companies that sell their products on the Alibaba e-commerce platforms. Ma has also committed to create 1 million new jobs in the U.S. With such a large scope, the global supply chains that Alibaba facilitates have to be top-notch, innovative, and always pushing the boundaries for what can be done in delivering products from manufacturers to consumers.Alibaba does this by focusing on a differentiation strategy, partner connections, buyer protection, mobile technology, and large-scale product selections. Alibaba’s differentiation strategy entails operating as an intermediary, connecting buyers and sellers while largely avoiding the need for maintaining capital-intensive warehouses and depots. Partnering with Alibaba enables small manufacturers and suppliers to reach thousands, and likely tens of thousands, of new customers. Importantly, in these buyer–seller exchanges, Alibaba emphasizes buyer protection. That is, if a customer is not satisfied for any reason, he or she can make a refund request. This consumer focus also carries over to how customers interact with the company. Alibaba has seamlessly adapted its e-commerce sites to mobile platforms, an important part of its strategy given that more than 80 percent is done via mobile devices. The large-scale product selection that can be found on the Alibaba platforms has resulted in some 15 billion products being sold annually and 15 million packages being shipped daily (compared with 5 billion items on Amazon and 3 million packages per day).Sources: “How to Cut Supply Chain Costs: 6 Lessons From Alibaba,” UNA Purchasing Solutions, March 26, 2017; Frank Lavin, “Alibaba’s Singles’ Day: What We Know about the World’s Biggest Shopping Event,” Forbes, November 6, 2016; Bob Bryan, “Alibaba Just Proved It’s More Than Just Some Chinese Company,” Business Insider, November 15, 2015; Catherine Cadell, “Alibaba Posts Record Singles Day Sales, But Growth Slows,” Technology News, November 11, 2016; Jake Novak, “Here’s the Really Brilliant Thing about Trump’s Meeting with Alibaba’s Jack Ma,” CNBC, January 10, 2017; Brian Deagon, “Alibaba’s Audacious Goal to Reach $1 Trillion in Merchandise Sales,” Investor’s Business Daily, May 6, 2016; Catherine Clifford, “By the Numbers: Amazon vs. Alibaba,” Entrepreneur, July 13, 2015; Nick Wells, “A Tale of Two Companies: Matching Up Alibaba vs. Amazon,” CNBC, May 5, 2016.Each year, Alibaba handles more than 80% of China’s e-commerce business. The company now operates in 190 countries (only 196 countries and 61 territories exist in the world). Moving forward, the vision for Alibaba sounds simple: Bring in non-Chinese brands to the Chinese market and expand products to customers outside of China’s borders. Do you think this global strategy is viable?The large-scale product selection that can be found on the Alibaba platforms has resulted in some 15 billion products being sold annually and 15 million packages being shipped daily (compared with 5 billion items on Amazon and 3 million packages per day). This puts tremendous pressure on global supply chains. Can the supply chains continuously facilitate the increased demand that we as customers place on the global supply chain systems?
University of The Cumberlands Alibaba and Global Supply Chains Discussion

Objectivity Of The Social Researcher

Objectivity Of The Social Researcher. Before addressing the debate, the historical significance of social theory must be addressed as there is a long history regarding issues of objectivity, and value free research. Prior to World War Two, social research was dominated by the paradigm of positivism. Philosophers such as Comte (1798-1857) strongly affirmed that methods applied to the natural sciences such as physics should be applied to the study of social behaviour (BentonObjectivity Of The Social Researcher

Protest songs in the 1960s Analytical Essay

essay writer Table of Contents Protest Songs Artists/Musicians involved and their messages Conclusion Works Cited As one author quoted, “Music cleanses the understanding; inspires it and lifts it into a realm which it would not reach if it were left to itself” (Henry Ward Beecher). He couldn’t have been more right. Protest songs are considered to have span over the centuries, continents and race. They are songs that majorly address issues that range from social injustices like racism and slavery to political matters like wars. They either inspire crowds for mass actions or simply just create awareness of the problem. Protest songs are, however, known to be associated with peaceful social movements. In the 1960’s, the prevalent issues then were the Civil Rights movement and the Vietnam War. This article explores the many artists/musicians who were actively involved during this time and the protest songs that they sung that meticulously addressed the then current issues. Protest Songs Protest songs stem from the folk music (Protest Song 1) that was present in the early 19th century. The folk music of that period addressed matters of social injustices and folk music eventually transitioned to protest songs in the1960s as a result of the dissatisfaction of the public and their current political and social environment especially after the end of World War 2 (Hurry et al. 162). Folk songs were generally characterized by their simplicity and repetitive choruses (Hurry et al. 162). These songs were also appropriate alternatives to the other genres especially jazz (Gonipraw 4). Protest songs however transitioned from the “acoustic-oriented folk styling to rock-based rhythms” (Protest Music 1) although this entirely depended on the musician. Gonipraw attributes this transition to “artistic decisions, record company involvement and a growing disillusionment among young people” (Gonipraw 5). The then artists/musicians were known to contribute greatly to protests that sought to address the civil rights concerns and the Vietnam War (Gonipraw 4). Gonipraw has argued that: “when the needs and goals of the people were sung together by the people, a force was created, capable of defeating alienation” (Gonipraw 4). Peter Seeger who was a known musician in the 1960s summarized it rightly. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Artists/Musicians involved and their messages Some of the popular artists and groups of this time were: “Woody Guthrie, Peter Seeger, Bob Dylan, Phil Ochs, Joe Hill, The Weavers, Leedbelly, Joan Baez, Neil Young, The Doors, Country Joe and the Fish, Jefferson Airplane among others” (Cogan et al. 126). Peter, Paul and Mary were also another famous trio during this time (Protest Music 1). Woody Guthrie and Peter Seeger were very vigorous in their approach since they traversed their country and actively became involved with the political events of that time (Gonipraw 3). For the Vietnam War, songs that were composed had messages that basically advocated the end of the war or showed its ineffectiveness. “Where have all the flowers gone?” (Perone 20) is one such a song written by Peter Seeger, and it even had the privilege to be sung in Vietnam by the soldiers. The song’s story is about “young girls picking flowers that eventually end on the graves of their dead soldier husbands” (Ruehl 1). Another song by Peter Seeger “Last train to Nuremberg” (Perone 61) is seen to directly point accusing fingers to the President Nixon and others as to blame for the blood shed in Vietnam. Barry McGuire is also one such artist whose song “Eve of Destruction” in 1965 had a stern message against the war in Vietnam (Protest Music 1). Bob Dylan is also a famous artist whose music mostly addressed “world problems” (Cogan et al. 128). His lyrics unlike other musicians were not as direct but were “deliberately trying to obscure the meaning of his politics in a political context” (Cogan et al. 129). He is considered to have been the best of them all since “he redefined what protest music said and what it sounded like” and he is also know to have mentored many others (Gonipraw 7). Some of his songs that were really popular include “Blowin in the wind” and “Master of War”. During the Civil Rights Movement, the African Americans really made use of song as a way to “send hope, calm sorrows and heal” themselves even as they struggled to find freedom (Freeman 2). We will write a custom Essay on Protest songs in the 1960s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The songs they sang had been used in the slave era and were changed to work for them during their other struggles: for instance “Oh Freedom” sang by Joan Baez was initially “written about freedom in heaven…” (Freeman 2) but it was adapted to describe “the harsh realities of segregation that included shootings, burning and bombing of churches” (Freeman 2). The protests were to fight for equality with other Americans and they were sang “almost nightly in the churches from the South” (Freeman 5). The fact that these musicians even stood by Dr Martin Luther King Jr. is very remarkable, since it signifies that it was not just about African American civil rights struggle but it was more of a joint effort from leaders and musicians alike. In about 1968, the vitality of protests song was on the decline and this could be attributed to many things: President Nixon’s administration may have had a hand in it (Protest Music 1). Nevertheless, John Lennon’s song “Give Peace a Chance” in 1969 seems to have brought a good closure of the protest songs to more of peaceful songs (Ruehl 1). Its message was just simply summarized in its title and its popularity did not stop then but continued throughout time especially where there was any “peace movement involved”. Not only did the songs lose their power, but time also saw some very influential musician like Phil Ochs who started out very well, lose ground as a musician (Gonipraw 6). The question however is, did the songs achieve the purpose for which they were composed? They did. Simply because protest songs were a part and parcel of the movements in 1960 and the two went in hand in hand (Gonipraw 6). The popularity was more on the musicians as compared to politicians since they had much more impact than the latter (Gonipraw 6). Conclusion Songs and music definitely have a very great impact be it in mobilizing masses or passing a message across from time immemorial. The protest songs in their time are known to have had a great influence on the leaders, the Vietnamese soldiers and even unifying many from all races during the Civil Rights movement. Their popularity in the 1960s fully served their purpose and some of the songs are even sung to date and they even persisted through the 1970s. Though not as popular, there are songs which are sung presently that could fall in the category of protest songs. Works Cited Cogan et al. Encyclopedia of Politics, the Media and Popular Culture. Santa Barbra CA, 2009. Print. Not sure if you can write a paper on Protest songs in the 1960s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Freeman, Tracy. Spiritual and Freedom Songs. Coded Communication, n.d. Web. Goniprow, Dan. Where have all the Protest Songs Gone? Senior Honors Projects, 2007. Web. Hurry et al. Heinemann Advanced Music. London, UK: Heinemann, 2001. Print. Perone John. Songs of Vietnam Conflict. New York, NY: Greenwood, 2011. Print. Protest Music. American Renaissance. Music, n.d. Web. Protest Song. Music. Neo Himanism, 2004. Web. Ruehl, Kim. Best Classic Anti-War Songs. Folk Music, 2011. Web.

The Growing Potential for Phage Therapy

POSTNOTE The growing potential for Phage therapy The misuse of antibiotics has accelerated the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria to a point where clinicians are finding it hard to treat bacterial infections with the drugs available to them. Phage therapy; the process of using bacteriophages to prevent and treat bacterial infections offers us a potential solution to this growing problem. This POSTnote discusses the current application and growing future potential of phage therapy. It also focuses on the scientific background and method behind phage therapy as well as the policy implications in modern medicine. Overview – Phage therapy was successfully used before the invention of antibiotics. – Increased antibiotic resistance amongst bacteria has led to a renewed interest in the applications of phage therapy today. – Scientific developments in understanding phages have led to critical improvements in phage therapy. – Researchers from across the world have begun to focus on better understanding phage therapy to treat antibiotic resitant bacterial infections. Fig 1. Diagram Illustrating the structure of a bacteriophage. This is an illustration taken from (GrahamColm,2008). Background What are Bacteriophages ? Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and then replicate within them; a bacteriophage’s structure is made up of proteins that encapsulate an RNA or DNA genome (see Fig.1). Bacteriophages are lethal to bacteria due to their replication process which can be either a lytic or lysogenic cycle (Box 1). The lytic cycle begins with the attachment of the bacteriophage to a specific receptor on the surface of the host bacterial cell; once attached the bacteriophage injects its genetic material into the bacterial cell. This means the viral genetic material can use the bacterial metabolic machinery for its own processes; the viral genome encodes for proteins that are necessary for its own replication as well as lytic enzymes that help hydrolyse the bacterial cell wall from within. The replication process results in hundreds of virions (complete virus particles) being produced inside the cell; leading to a high internal osmotic pressure. The build-up of this high internal osmotic pressure along with the lytic proteins is what results in the lysis of the bacterial cell (Clokie et al,2011). Cell lysis results in the death of the bacterial cell and the release of the bacteriophages progeny into the surrounding environment. Box 1 – Lysogenic Phages The basis of the lysogenic cycle is characterised by the integration of the viral genetic material into the bacterial hosts genome. Lysogenic Bacteriophages do not result in immediate lysis of the host cell; this means they are not used therapeutically. This is because the bacteria can acquire new DNA via the virus which might lead to expression of increased antibiotic resistance or pathogenicity by the bacteria. Our focus throughout this POSTnote will be on the growing potential for use of ‘lytic phages’ The basis of Phage therapy The independent co-discovery of bacteriophages by Fredrick Twort (in 1915) and Felix d’Hérelle (in 1917) led to the understanding that there were viruses capable of parasitizing bacteria (Chanishvili,2012). The aim of phage therapy is to kill the bacterial cells causing the infection using these bacteriophages. The bacteriophages required are generally found in water samples taken from sources which are likely to be filled with bacteria, sewage outlets for example. The samples are centrifuged to remove particulates and then applied to agar plates cultured with the bacteria causing the infection, if the bacteria die, bacteriophages are present, and the mixture goes on to be centrifuged again with a collection of phages residing at the top. (Twest and Kropinski,2009). The phages are collected and amplified further upon cultures of the pathogenic bacteria causing infection, once amplified the phages are filtered and collected as a solution (see Fig.2). This solution can be then applied to infections orally, topically or even vaporised and inhaled to target the bacterial infection. (Bodier-Montagutelli et al,2016) The Rise and Fall of Phage therapy The British Empire sanctioned the use of phage therapy to treat cholera in Punjab, India during a 1931 epidemic; the trial resulted in a 90% reduction of mortality within the group who received phage therapy compared to the group who relied on traditional medicine (Lin, Koskella and Lin,2017). The use of Phage therapy was commercialised after a fair amount of success in field trials, commercial labs were opened in Brazil, the USA and British India and they began to ship their phage preparations across the globe. (Lin, Koskella and Lin,2017). This commercial era of phage therapy did not last long due to a multitude of reasons. Fig 2. An Image of a singular dosage ampule of Eliava pyophage. A phage preparation which targets bacterial cells that lead to pus causing infections. This image and its description are taken from (Kutter et al,2010) Storage was a particularly an issue as the commercial phage preparations were sold with so much preservative that the phage itself was inactivated, this led to many clinicians complaining that Phage therapy was ineffective (Summers,2012). There was also the fact that phages have very specific targeting mechanisms, most phages are able to bind exclusively to one receptor and many are only able to infect one strain of a bacterium. The intense variation that presented itself in bacteria required an equivalent phage library with just as much phage variation to combat these bacterial strains, such a library was simply not feasible to produce and maintain in the 1940s (Nilsson,2014). Clinicians who had patients with bacterial infections often turned to the newly invented antibiotics for treatment. Antibiotics offered everything that phage therapy couldn’t, they were easy to store and transport, most came in tablet form and thus were easy to administer to patients, and possibly the most important reason; antibiotics were extremely effective in treating a broad spectrum of infections without having to undergo specific development (Summers,2012). Current uses and Development The need for Phage therapy today Box 2 – Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic Resistance is a trait that can develop in bacteria due to random mutations or simply occur as a natural resistance. Antibiotics accelerate the evolutionary process in bacteria by only killing non-resistant bacteria, thus allowing the once rare ‘resistant’ bacteria to flourish. Inter-Bacterial transfer of resistance genes from the survivors can also occur giving rise to even more antibiotic resistant bacteria. Some bacteria can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and become, multi-drug resistant. The increased occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is due to the overuse of antibiotics and improper prescription methods which leads to ineffective and partial treatment that leaves the multidrug resistant bacteria with less competition. The current rise of antibiotic resistance within pathogenic bacteria (Box 2) has proved particularly challenging for clinicians who are finding it harder and harder to treat an increasing amount of bacterial infections with no other medical alternative than the ineffective antibiotics available to them. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections have been an issue in the NHS for over 20 years (Fig.3) and the World Health Organisation estimates that “50,000 lives are lost each year to antibiotic-resistant infections across Europe and USA” (WHO.int,2018). Phage therapy offers us a potential solution as an effective alternative to antibiotics due to its ability to target multi-rug resistant bacterial infections. Fig 3. A Graph illustrating the recurring MRSA problem faced by the NHS. This graph and its data are taken from (Office for National Statistics,2018). Benefits of Phage therapy and Modern Improvements At first the ability of antibiotics to target a vast range of targets was seen only as a positive but what we have come to understand is that the blanket approach in treating bacterial infections can result in the lysis of commensal microbiota (naturally occurring microorganisms at the site of infection). (Jernberg et al,2010). The specificity that phage therapy brings might be a welcome change as it would only target the pathogens with no collateral damage to the patient. Phage therapy has also been regarded as generally safer than antibiotics in terms of side effects, due to the naturally occurring nature of bacteriophages humans have already been exposed to them since birth and thus side effects have not been reported in any clinical trials till date. (Vandenheuvel, Lavigne and Brüssow,2015). Phages have very high affinities to their bacterial hosts, this means that if applied successfully the bacteriophages will be able to easily target the infection, thus making phage therapy a very effective treatment. (Vandenheuvel, Lavigne and Brüssow,2015).Previous attempts to commercialise phage therapy in the 20th century faced a lot backlash from clinicians. This was largely due to the lack of stability of the solutions, key developments in improving stability of aqueous phage solutions such as stability enhancers as well as developments in refrigerated transport since then have helped improve long term stability to a certain regard. (Vandenheuvel, Lavigne and Brüssow,2015) Narrow host range remains a problem but modern improvements in microbiology and virology can reduce the severity of this problem when adapting phage solutions for clinical use. Modern screening methods allow for quick identification of bacteria, this means there’s less guesswork involved when it comes to picking what phage preparation to use. The formation of globally connected phage libraries is also a technology available to us, this allows us to create the most appropriate and effective ‘phage cocktails’ by comparing data on a global scale to get the most effective treatment for patients. (Adhya, Merril and Biswas,2014). So, in theory phage therapy provides a specific , safe, relative stable and effective treatment for bacterial infections; but how do we know it could possibly work in practice? Phage therapy in Practice today Phage therapy continued as a key treatment for bacterial infections across the Soviet Bloc through the Cold War. The Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia has been a leading research centre in Phage therapy through its 95-year history. It has played a vital role in developing phage-based treatments against tuberculosis, salmonellosis, dysentery and even anthrax. (Eliava-Institute,2018). Today the Eliava institute is host to the worlds ‘most extensive bacterial strain and bacteriophage collection in the world’. The Institute also plays a very important role in the development of phage cocktails that are used by Georgian clinicians to treat bacterial infections.(Eliava-Institute,2018). The global rise in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has also led to the opening of commercial clinics that offer phage therapy to an international clientele. The Phage Therapy Centre is one such clinic which has developed advanced methods of delivering phage-based therapeutics to patients suffering from antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The treatments can range from $3000 to $20,000 in cost and utilises contemporary technologies such as ‘artificial polymer skins’ that are implanted with phages, these phages go onto target the bacterial cells causing infection when placed over a wound (Parfitt,2005). The case of Tom Patterson has been a leading example of implemented Phage therapy outside Georgia, Poland or Russia. After being diagnosed with an antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection that had developed resistance to the last resort antibiotics the only hope Tom had of survival was the implementation of phage therapy. After managing to collect three different appropriate phage samples, a solution was created and purified by a research team at San Diego State University. The Food and Drug Administration of The USA granted an emergency approval and the solution was applied via both catheters and Intra Venous drip. After 3 days of Phage therapy Tom managed to get out of the coma he was in and began a long road to his eventual recovery. (STAT,2018) Phage therapy was the only thing that could eventually stop the infection that would have otherwise killed Tom. Since then the very first Phage therapy Centre has been opened at the University of California, San Diego. (STAT,2018) It has the responsibility of co-ordinating the search for appropriate phages as well as running controlled clinical trials before any commercial approval can be given by the FDA. The foundation of such an institution along with the acceptance of a national Phage Directory signifies a very large shift in the attitude towards phage therapy in the West. The Future of Phage therapy and its modern constraints There is still a long way to go before phage therapy can be accepted globally. The costs associated with patient trials has greatly hindered the ability of the process to be pursued for commercial application in many countries. There is also the fact that the water-based suspensions most often used in Phage therapy still present a problem when it comes to long term storage, (Vandenheuvel, Lavigne and Brüssow,2015) this means that phage solutions cannot be stockpiled as easily as antibiotics in preparation for a pandemic. Although traditional phage therapy might be facing some critical issues in its process of global commercialisation there has been other very exciting advancements regarding phages. The ability to isolate the lytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages has been regarded as a key breakthrough in the use of phage-oriented pharmaceuticals. This is because it gives us the potential to incorporate these enzymes into more traditional drug delivery methods that don’t have the setbacks a phage-based delivery method might. (Lin, Koskella and Lin,2017). The gene alteration technology CRISPR has also opened up new avenues for phage therapy. The ability to produce ‘bioengineered phages’ is now a possibility, which means that there are opportunities to produce phages that will be able to infect selected targets, thus potentially removing the need for hosting a phage library. The future holds a lot of exciting new possibilities and signifies an ever-growing potential for phage therapy. Legislation The regulation of phage therapy falls under the European Parliament’s regulatory Directive 2001/83/ EC. (Pelfrene et al,2016) This outlines that there must be further authorization on any biological therapeutics before commercial patient treatment can begin. As the United Kingdom heads into a future that may be independent of the EU, we need to focus on making our own informed legislation regarding phage therapy. A fairly recent review sanctioned by the UK government and carried out by Jim O’Neil at the University of Liverpool regarded phage therapy as a ‘potential alternative’ to antibiotics when it came to the treatment of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. (University of Liverpool,2018). Increased research into the potential of phage therapy is a great step in combating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections but steps have to be taken to prevent antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and their spread right now. The NHS has taken steps to reduce antibiotic usage in attempts to combat the rise of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. A £150 million initiative to combat antibiotic over usage launched in 2016 was the largest healthcare service scheme of its time to address the problem of growing antibiotic over usage. (NHS England,2016) The NHS initiative only acts as a short-term solution to the very long-term problem of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Phage therapy does offer us a sustainable solution; but until there is a regulatory institution and suitable support infrastructure in place to support and maintain a vast phage library, we can’t consider phage therapy as a viable alternative to antibiotics. Word count : 2484 words References Adhya, S., Merril, C. and Biswas, B. (2014). Therapeutic and Prophylactic Applications of Bacteriophage Components in Modern Medicine. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 4(1), pp.a012518-a012518. Bodier-Montagutelli, E., Morello, E., L’Hostis, G., Guillon, A., Dalloneau, E., Respaud, R., Pallaoro, N., Blois, H., Vecellio, L., Gabard, J. and Heuzé-Vourc’h, N. (2016). Inhaled phage therapy: a promising and challenging approach to treat bacterial respiratory infections. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 14(8), pp.959-972. Chanishvili, N. (2012). Advances in Virus Research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books, pp.3-4. Clokie, M., Millard, A., Letarov, A. and Heaphy, S. (2011). Phages in nature. Bacteriophage, 1(1), pp.31-45. Eliava-Institute (2018). About Us – Eliava Institute. [online] Eliava-institute.org. Available at: http://eliava-institute.org/about-us/ [Accessed 6 Dec. 2018]. Furfaro, L., Payne, M. and Chang, B. (2018). Bacteriophage Therapy: Clinical Trials and Regulatory Hurdles. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 8. GrahamColm (2008). The structure of a typical bacteriophage. [image] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phage.png [Accessed 30 Nov. 2018]. Jernberg, C., Lofmark, S., Edlund, C. and Jansson, J. (2010). Long-term impacts of antibiotic exposure on the human intestinal microbiota. Microbiology, 156(11), pp.3216-3223. Kutter, E., De Vos, D., Gvasalia, G., Alavidze, Z., Gogokhia, L., Kuhl, S. and Abedon, S. (2010). Phage Therapy in Clinical Practice: Treatment of Human Infections. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 11(1), pp.69-86. Lin, D., Koskella, B. and Lin, H. (2017). Phage therapy: An alternative to antibiotics in the age of multi-drug resistance. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 8(3), p.162. NHS (2018). NHS England » NHS England launches national programme to combat antibiotic over usage. [online] england.nhs.uk. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2016/03/antibiotic-overusage/ [Accessed 3 Dec. 2018]. NHS England (2016). NHS England » NHS England launches national programme to combat antibiotic over usage. [online] England.nhs.uk. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2016/03/antibiotic-overusage/ [Accessed 6 Dec. 2018]. Nilsson, A. (2014). Phage therapy—constraints and possibilities. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 119(2), pp.192-198. Office for National Statistics (2018). Deaths involving MRSA – Office for National Statistics. [online] Ons.gov.uk. Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsinvolvingmrsa/2013-08-22 [Accessed 6 Dec. 2018]. Pelfrene, E., Willebrand, E., Cavaleiro Sanches, A., Sebris, Z. and Cavaleri, M. (2016). Bacteriophage therapy: a regulatory perspective. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(8), pp.2071-2074. STAT (2018). First phage therapy center in the U.S. signals growing acceptance. [online] STAT. Available at: https://www.statnews.com/2018/06/21/first-phage-therapy-center-in-us/ [Accessed 6 Dec. 2018]. Sulakvelidze, A., Alavidze, Z. and Morris, J. (2001). Bacteriophage Therapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 45(3), pp.649-659. Summers, W. (2012). The strange history of phage therapy. Bacteriophage, 2(2), pp.130-133. Twest, R. and Kropinski, A. (2009). Bacteriophage Enrichment from Water and Soil. Methods in Molecular Biology, pp.15-21. University of Liverpool (2018). Phage therapy shown to kill drug-resistant superbug – News – University of Liverpool. [online] News.liverpool.ac.uk. Available at: https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2017/03/13/phage-therapy-shown-kill-drug-resistant-superbug/ [Accessed 6 Dec. 2018]. Vandenheuvel, D., Lavigne, R. and Brüssow, H. (2015). Bacteriophage Therapy: Advances in Formulation Strategies and Human Clinical Trials. Annual Review of Virology, 2(1), pp.599-618. WHO.int. (2018). Antibiotic resistance. [online] Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance [Accessed 2 Dec. 2018].

Measuring the U.S. Health Care System: A Cross National Comparison

Measuring the U.S. Health Care System: A Cross National Comparison.

Prepare a paper that meets or exceeds the following requirements:Using current data, determine whether or not the United States still has the highest level of spending among OECD countries. Discuss trends in data concerning spending and determine if rates are higher or lower.Discuss the impact of technology and its relationship to spending in the United States vs. health outcomes.Support and justify your opinions with credible reference sources. Include three to five peer-reviewed articles as reference sources.Your paper should include the following:Four to six pages in length, not including the title and reference pages.Include five (5) current quality references, three (3) of these references must be peer-reviewed articles. All references should be five year old or less. Remember, you must support your thinking/opinions and prior knowledge with references; all facts must be supported; in-text references used throughout the assignment must be included in an APA-formatted reference list.
Measuring the U.S. Health Care System: A Cross National Comparison