Please Paraphrase the below text:1. General Introduction
The PDF (probability density function) plays a critical role among various data sets. The Central
Limit Theorem (CLM) nevertheless enumerates that the sample mean (x̄) distribution assumes a
more spread progressively normally with the increase in the sample size (n). Ordinarily, a sample
size of not less than n=30 is preferred to gain a normally spread sample mean distribution. To
demonstrate the Central Limit Theorem, one can envision a dice with equally assigned numbers
from one to six. If we estimate two dice, then we start seeing a tapering on the lower and higher
figures. The PDF sample mean assumes a near-normal spread when the dice is averaged at ten.
The statistical principle occupies a central place in several research applications, and it is, at
times, considered practical to obtain samples in the place of scrutinizing the population. Besides,
we can derive statistical theorems, including the equality of the sample mean with the sample
mean through a normally spread sample.
The aim of this lab is to prove the Central Limit Thermos.
2. Procedure and Statistical Principle
On the outset, there were six distinct excel pages created as a worksheet. They comprised
“Uniform Random Number 10”, “Exponential Random Number 10”, “Histogram 10”, “Uniform
Random Number 30”, “Exponential random Number 30,” and “Histogram 30” The
categorization helps organize and label data. Ten columns of 110 evenly distributed random
numbers beginning from 0 to 1 were designed with the RAND function, which is an exclusively
regularly distributed data set similar to the dice comparison cited earlier. In the next step, data
was applied to create our increasingly spread data set on the second page based on the equation
�(�) = ��^(−��) for x>0
The lambda value of .1 was arrived through the division as indicated (applying -LN(1-x)/.1 in
Excel). The function assists in creating our PDF based on the exponential equation expressed by
the e base and -x� power. Several other possibilities could illustrate similar statistical concepts.
A histogram of the data was created by first deciding the number of bins required. The counting
of the number of data points (n) was then done and the square root of the figures taken to
determine the number of bins. For each data set, the number of bins was established.
Additionally, the bin size was obtained from every data set. The calculation was achieved by
dividing the bin range by adding bin size to the preceding bin to achieve the desired number of
bins. Finally, the descriptive statistics add-ons were applied to develop a histogram. The original
data was gathered, and histogram bins obtained before formatting of the plot area to form a
histogram for the values in histogram 10 tab. The histogram is illustrated below.
The next step involved the computation of 110 sample mean values (x̄) from the highly
distributed values, which was achieved by computing the average for each row in the exponential
random number 10 tab. Consequently, a histogram was created in the manner of the procedure
adopted above but applying the sample mean in the place of raw data. As illustrated below, the
histogram is expected to show a normal distribution. It was ascertained through creation of a
normality plot. In this regard, the guidelines in the textbook were adopted to plot zi vs xi that
should be more or less linear with a higher concentration near the center of the values. The value
of x was arranged from low to high and the z values calculated following the equation P(Z<=z)
=(j-./n) where j is the integer order of the selected x data To compute these values.
Finally, the same procedure was applied for the above values, but 30 columns were used in the
place of ten in this case.
3. Results and Discussion:
Six different figures were developed through this experiment (3 for n=10 and 3 for n=30 sample
sizes). The results were histograms of the randomly picked numbers, and the corresponding
estimates. Every figure communicated varied information. In total, however, the proof of the
Central Limit Theorem was accomplished.
Initially, the histograms from the primary data showed the lack of uniformity in the set of
numbers that were at the start followed by the equations that were created. This realization
proved that the Central Limit Theorem is applicable for all kinds of PDF’s beside the uniform
PDFs in the introduction.
The Histograms of the estimated values are considered very critical in this aspect of the lab.
They enabled the visualization of the transformation from the exponential curve in the preceding
histograms to a balanced “bell curve” shape. Nevertheless, human sight is deceptive in scaling,
and other plotting aspects could blur our judgment. To verify the normality of the sample mean
histograms, a near-linear spread of the data in the normality plots were observed.
In the end, enhancing the sample size to thirty increased the normality of the sample mean in
accordance with the Central Limit Theorem as earlier predicted. The normality plot had a value
of n=30 was more linear with limited skewness and showed that the histogram was normal.
Experimental errors are expected in this nature of the experiment, and the application of Excel to
create random numbers significantly minimizes bias because they are system generated. In
addition, all the computations were managed from the Excel environment and, as such,
interaction from the cells was expected to be clear. Nevertheless, Excel doesn’t have an
application that calculates all random numbers with the creation of each new cell. This was a
huddle that was jumped by using the copy and pasting the data strictly from the value in each cell
and not the equation. However, it is expected that some information would be lost when creating
histograms. The outlined procedure was followed, but the histogram inherently fails to
incorporate details in the bins. Nonetheless, a second figure for referencing was incorporated in
the normality plots.
The steps taken in the lab demonstrate the regularizing power of the Central Limit Theorem. The
procedure was done by obtaining the sample mean from the highly spread data and consequently
developing a normally distributed sample mean sets. Histograms and normality plots were
critical in illustrating this position. Besides, the initial experiment was improved from the initial
status by enhancing the sample size from 10 to 30. Based on the propositions of the Central
Limit Theorem, a bigger sample size improves the normality of the sample means.
As a general rule, this statistical tool is quite useful as it enables the normalization of data
without the difficulty initially experienced. Following the normalization, known statistical
principles like Z-scores and T-scores for additional analysis (i.e. statistical significance and
5. Future Application
As indicated earlier, the Central Limit Theorem is a statistical tool that is used by many
specialists, including scientists and engineers on a regular basis. In the bioengineering field, this
process is used to comprehend non-normal data sets. The totality of the bioengineering field is
premised on applying its tools to enhance the health conditions and provide remedies for
diseases. The process begins with an analysis of the target population. Several companies in Salt
Lake Valley, for instance, specialize in the manufacture of devices that manage cardiovascular
diseases like stents and balloons to expand arteries (as a measure against atherosclerosis and
stenosis). The process is also used to manage implantable cardioverter defibrillators and
pacemakers that manage the heartbeat (and prevent heart attack). Whereas the general public
could suffer from heart ailments, it would be cumbersome to test every individual using the
equipment. There is needed to carefully identify individuals who are a reasonable patient that can
benefit from the devices. To accomplish this, data about the distribution of heart disease with
respect to age. As expected, the process would yield non-uniform results. A search from the
internet for blood pressure and congestive heart failure show a skewness in favor of older
populations. It is a reasonable expectation and helps in inquiries about the mean and standard
deviation, among other statistical computations of the data. Observation of the raw data poses a
challenge in this respect. In this regard, the Central Limit Theorem is used.
A sample of 100 patients can be considered as an example. The patients may present with high
blood pressure from across the country in various hospitals. Although several methodologies
could be applied, the most preferred would be a random selection of the respondents in different
hospitals and documentation of their age, among other factors. The sample size of 100 is
practical considering that it is collected from across the country. Nevertheless, based on the
Central Limit Theorem, there will need to create a normal sample mean distribution. Continuous
collection of more samples will enable the establishment of a normally distributed data set of
sample means as previously ascertained. In this regard, the sample means are normalized and can
enable testing of the probability of its impact on a given age range with respect to high blood
pressure and other heart diseases of interest (If similar tests are performed under different
conditions). With the information thus obtained, statistics could be used to determine the need
for further devise intervention. The example below illustrates the kind of raw data that can be
University of Tampa Probability Density Function Discussion
write me a 10 research papers, due next week, based on this proposal,The topic I chose is “Fixing the Educational system in California.” I chose that topic because the state of the educational system in California has not received enough attention that it deserves, and it is sad that there is no energy towards education. The education decisions do not need to change in terms of the policies, funding allocation, and teachers’ skills. The system should be more focused to protect education in California and be better to build a perfect education for everyone. The educational system should be developed to make sure the students are safe from criminals in classrooms. And the administrators of the education system in California should ensure to remove the teachers that aren’t doing the right job from the service. The educational system should evaluate the system with new teachers that are well developed to ensure the students’ achievement is excellent. My argument is that interests of the learning students should be prioritized for better achievement and the education system should improve students’ achievement and teachers’ skills, where both students and teachers are awarded appropriately for their hard-working education.
Fixing the Educational system in California
I’m working on a accounting question and need an explanation to help me study.
Identify and prepare a list of all the items on the tax return that appear to be strange, unusual, questionable, excessively large or excessively small in relation to other information on the return, etc. To do this, provide a one or two sentence explanation for each such item. That is, tell me why you identified the item & what the item tells you about the taxpayer (meaning, about his assets, about his income, about his standard of living/life style, etc.) Also, tell me if you are drawing any inferences from the dollar value of the item, how it is labeled/described on the tax return, how it is being reported or deducted.
California State University Northridge Insurance Deduction and Tax Return Report
The Vision Mission And Values Of Good Leadership Business Essay
The Vision Mission And Values Of Good Leadership Business Essay. “Leadership is the exercise of power; it can be defined as the act of making something happen that would not otherwise occur” (Warner Burke, 2002) This is easy to write the definition of leadership but it’s quite hard to practice in real life. The behaviour does matter first in leadership and the skills are second. There is hell of difference between manager and a leader. The manager more likely depends on management skills, planning, organizational and communication skills but the leader does have the skills of a manager as well as some more qualities. Some people born with qualities of a good leaders and some people develop such qualities in their to be a good leader. There are many qualities which a leader must have like confidence, charisma and the qualities continue to grow in a leader with experience. There are different styles of leadership. Some leaders have no style, which is right for some situation and wrong for some situations as well. Managers, Stake holders, staff, all people have different style of leadership according to different situation. For leadership to work well, people (employees and interested outsiders) must be able to connect their expectations, aims and activities to a basic purpose or philosophy of the organization. This foundational philosophy should provide vital reference points for employees’ decisions and actions Vision: Defines the desired or intended future state of a specific organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction. Vision is a long-term objective. Mission: Defines the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise, describing why it exists. Mission is a short-term objective. Values: Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders of an organization. Values drive an organization’s culture and priorities. And every body like executives, managers, staff, customers, suppliers, stakeholders, etc, need solid philosophical principles in term of mission vision and values on which to base their expectations, decisions and actions. Evens ,(1963)”similarity hypothesis” “The more the similar parties the parties in dyad are ,the more likely a favourable outcome” It means if every individual and and teams know their duties and if they match their goals with strategic direction of the organization than they would have the same thinking and they will work together on the same path which is the strategic direction of the organization to get better outcome . Strategic direction of organization is very important on march 6,1990 west Germany Daimler Benz and Japan Mitsubishi group revealed that they had secret meeting in Singapore .to work on a intensive cooperate among their different projects and lines of business .because germens cooperate structure does not mash or fit with Mitsubishi group of management approach . For this the organizational direction is being used was GSA(global strategic alliance ) which create new horizons in fact by this creates new products and ease the problem of worldwide excess productivity capacityThe Vision Mission And Values Of Good Leadership Business Essay
Why is deer hunting good for the environment?
essay writing help Why is deer hunting good for the environment?. Paper details This is for an argumentative research paper due in the future. For this assignment, you will find five sources that you are considering using for your research paper. These sources should consist of peer-reviewed or professional articles and books. Limit yourself to no more than one website and make sure that any website you use is credible. Using five of the sources from your assessment chart, create a correctly formatted annotated bibliography of sources for your research paper. Remember that you should use MLA unless you have received permission to use another formatting style. Remember that your bibliography should be in correct MLA formatting, double spaced, and alphabetized.Why is deer hunting good for the environment?
Antitrust Law Case Study
Table of Contents Identify which antitrust law(s) were violated in this case Product market Geographical market Actual and potential sellers Actual and potential buyers Spot market Summary of the judgment Rebuttal to the judgment Works Cited This is a civil action brought by the government pursuant to Section 4 of the Sherman Act. The contention of the government in this case was grounded on the reasoning that the appellee had used unlawful means to monopolize interstate commerce. The argument of the government in the case was that the monopoly by Cellophane was further in contravention of Section 2 of the Sherman Act. The trial court in the case held that the market to be observed in the determination of the flexibility of packaging materials had to be observed in regard to the competition dynamics. The market, therefore, played a role in preventing the appellee in the possession of monopoly of the market. The trial court dismissed the appeal accordingly. The issue before the appellate court was to determine whether alleged monopolist tendencies of the company violated Section 2 of the Sherman Act. The issue was closely coupled with a determination of whether the company enjoyed a monopoly in competition and the assigning of given prices. The determination of the court was to be based on the reasoning that the commodities that are sold must be of a different character (Cefrey 64). The case was originally instituted in the District Court of the United States in the District of Columbia. The case was further transferred to the District of Delaware. The defendant, E.I. DuPont, was a corporation with its operations in Delaware. Its successor was E.I. DuPont Cellophane Company. The company had all along concentrated on the sale of cellulose in the form of films and in the form of bands. The company entered into the business of manufacturing cellulose in 1923. Its collaboration with the La Cellophane Company, which was based in France, was a new twist in its operations. The company was re-incorporated to include the subsidiary company in 1929. DuPoint subsequently took over the operations of the company from 1936 onwards. The plaintiff in this case expounded the meaning of economic and legal concepts put forward in the case. There are several theories put across by the plaintiff, although the final determination of the case has been left in the hands of the plaintiff. The legal and economic theories of monopoly were strictly put across in the sense that a line was to be drawn between the two. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was the plaintiff’s case that the defendant engaged in acts that were prohibited under the Sherman Act. The plaintiff further argued that the monopoly had legal and economic repercussions. Several philosophies to affirm the argument made by the plaintiff were considered. The disagreement in the economic and legal concepts involved in this case was presented for consideration. The consideration had provoked various disagreements in the United States today. The economic discussion follows a need to breach the gap between the legal and economic theories of monopoly. The discussion in the case was later supported by the agreement in the economist’s world that both types of monopoly are restricted to competition and in a free market; it is easier to determine the operation of one type. The plaintiff in this case endeavored to distinguish the two concepts. The contrast between the legal and economic concepts of competition and monopoly has a broad effect in the markets where there are substitute products. The discussion was solely based on the coalescence between the old concepts of economy and the new ones. It was the plaintiff’s case that the recent economic advancements have presented situations that require strong regulatory mechanisms to avoid harsh monopoly in the markets. Though the differences between the reasoning of the courts and the economists were evident, the issue of monopoly was cutting across. The economists had a term to define the monopoly, while the courts termed the monopoly as a major violation of the Sherman Act. The plaintiff stated that the varying differences between the definitions of the defendant’s acts were to be construed in the favor of the plaintiff (Letwin 22). The plaintiff engaged in a lengthy discussion designed to prove the case against the defendant. The issue of perfect competition as opposed to pure monopoly also emerged in this case. The terms are to be used in their actual meaning without interchanging them to introduce semantic interpretation. The two extremes between perfect competition and pure monopoly should be understood in a wider definition (Cefrey 33). The plaintiff in this case sought the understanding of the legal and economic concepts to aid the court in arriving at both an economically sound decision, as well as a decision that could be a solid precedent. We will write a custom Case Study on Antitrust Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The influence of the defendant’s goods in the market alleged to have been monopolized was brought to the attention of the court. In the wake of technological considerations, the issue of monopoly could be seen from a different perspective. Pure competition and monopoly have gained a new meaning in a situation whereby the market is not physical in nature. In the sense of markets that entail imperfect competition, the interest of the consumers is ignored while the big companies enjoy a sizeable deal of the profits. All market situations can fall short of pure competition and find themselves in the whims of monopolistic competition. The monopolistic trends in this case were promoted by the defendant who engaged in a situation whereby many sellers trade in products in different categories, but their monopoly is highly pronounced. The plaintiff asserted that the oligopolistic behavior of the producers was a perfect controvert to the desired intention of the antitrust laws. The defendants were of the view that there are multiple benefits attributed to the use of oligolistic competition. Though there were proposals by the defendant that the concept of workable competition could be used, it is still clear that such agreements were not in line with the Sherman Act (Colino 14). Monopoly in the sphere of competition was put to test in this case whereby the court was forced to consider some of the major theories in an attempt to arrive at a fair decision. The plaintiff defined some of the major terms in respect to pure monopoly. It was the submission of the plaintiff that pure monopoly could occur in cases where the buyer is not in a position to consider the substitute products. The test of a marketing concept that benefits the society is the theoretical perspective that economists put into consideration. The defendant failed to regulate the flow of products in the market, thus it was evident that the company enjoyed a monopoly. The new products in the markets could not get a chance because the defendant employed monopolistic means to ensure that the market remained solely its monopoly. The fact that an old company had a wider sense of influence is the position that the new entries in the market find themselves in. According to the plaintiff’s arguments, the products were supplied without substitutes and the consumers were adversely affected by the unhealthy monopoly and competition. The plaintiff in this case clearly observed that the Sherman Act does not define the scope of competition. The purpose of the passing of the Sherman Act by the United States Congress was to preserve the freedom of buying and selling goods. In addition, the Act was to protect the innocent sellers from any form of restraints and monopolies (Letwin 41). Not sure if you can write a paper on Antitrust Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The intention of the Congress as put forward by the plaintiff was to make sure that secure competition is promoted without any form of monopolies. The freedom of trade was in the light of the developments designed to secure the markets whereby the trade should take place. The plaintiff in this case further asserted that Cellophane offered products that were substantially tangible for sale to the public. The market for other products was in this sense adversely influenced, thus portraying the products of the defendants as the best products in this case. The monopoly powers were critical in the market delimitation. The question of whether the defendant controlled the market and prices was necessary to analyze the trends of the product distribution in the market. The plaintiff requested the court to determine whether there was any form of control by the defendant’s company on the nature of products in the market and the different ways of determining the price of each of the products. The burden of proof in this case was on the government since it was alleged that the defendant was using the monopoly to influence the markets and prices. It was important to ascertain whether there was a point of economics concepts applying in the record given by the defendant and the plaintiff in court (Cefrey 92). Identify which antitrust law(s) were violated in this case The facts given in the case provided many instances whereby the Sherman Act was violated. The court applied a broad sense of the Sherman Act. Section 2 of the Sherman Act provides that in an event that a person takes part in any form of monopoly, that person will be deemed guilty under the Sherman’s Act. The act of monopoly in the case above was based on the understanding that the defendant engaged in acts that led to the diminishing of healthy competition, thereby leading to a situation where others are hindered from taking lawful trade. The most common element in these cases is that the other producers of the similar products in the market are hindered from accessing the customers from the same vantage point. Any act that imposes the issue of unhealthy competition in the markets is undesirable and Section 2 of the Sherman Act makes it unlawful. The acts are, therefore, unlawful in the strict sense of Section 2. Although the Act does not offer an elaborate definition of monopoly, it is clear that this entails something that is in the judgment of the consumers more than extraordinarily successful. This may be summed up to mean that similar acts are designed to make it impossible for other parties to get access to the market. The test to determine whether Cellophane engaged in the unlawful monopoly was based on the control and the dominance of the market. It is unlikely to talk about monopoly without the essential element of control or dominance. The guilty party must exhibit a level of control over the market. The power of monopoly is diverse and includes situations whereby the guilty party is able to influence the prices and limit any form of competition. The Sherman Act makes sure that any form of undue control on both the market and the prices is dealt with. The Act was enacted to enhance a level playing ground for both new and old companies in the markets. Any move by a company to unfairly regulate or dominate to eliminate competition is undesirable and courts of law have made it clear that they do not intend to entertain the acts of such companies (Cefrey 73). The defendant in this case used all the necessary powers to ensure that the prices in the market were motivated by the influencing nature of their products. The packaging of the products was based on different companies, but the monopoly was evident at all times. The employment of other companies to complete the packaging was a limiting factor as far as competition was concerned (Jacobson and American Bar Association79). It was clear that no one in the market would make Cellophane without the full access of the defendant’s techniques. This meant that the monopoly continued since the company could not offer their technique of manufacturing to other parties, apart from the ones they had license to use the patent rights of the company. The defendant argued that it was incorrect for the plaintiff to assert that the defendant was guilty of monopoly because the wrapping materials were provided by another company. The defendant requested the court to treat the monopoly and price control as intertwined. It was essential to consider the issue of price control, competition, and monopoly in one breath in order to establish a violation under Section 2 of the Sherman Act. The question of limiting competition is inconceivable without the control of prices. Dealing with other products that are not the subject of the license in the assignment presents an intricate question on the nature of competition and how prices in that case may be interfered with. It is possible to have a classic monopoly in patents and the licensing. This can be easily built from the agreement that the patent holder and the licensed party enter into. On the other hand, the violation of the Sherman Act must put into consideration the place where the act took place. A retailer may be considered guilty of monopoly, while the monopoly is not a making of the retailer but it is due to the location of the retailer’s business (Cefrey 34). The plaintiff in this case was to establish that there was a strict control of the prices of the Cellophane products. Failure to raise such a possibility means that the defendant was not guilty. A question of fact was raised requiring the plaintiff to adduce evidence showing that there was a violation of the Sherman Act through the defendant’s acts. Although the products of the company have been priced higher, more concrete evidence was required. The question of whether there was the creation of competition or destruction of competition was addressed with key emphasis placed on the role of the defendant in the entire proceedings to prove the guilt of the accused (Colino 61). The proof of guilty under the Sherman Act is a matter of evidence and the government in this case was put at task to show how the accused had monopolized the operations. It is worth noting that the Sherman Act was enacted to protect the well-being of the consumers, as well as making sure that the producers are not slapped with suits that are very frivolous. The dynamic of the markets in the day-to-day setting should be understood. The control of the market may be hard to prove bearing in mind that the markets are changing. With the diverse modes of creating a market, the consumer could be in control of the market in many instances. The characteristics of the markets at the time of the framing of the Act have changed. It is, therefore, unlikely to expect the Sherman Act to capture the markets created by technological advancement (Cefrey 46). Product market Product market in this case makes reference to the specific goods that the defendant company was dealing with during the time of the alleged commission of the Sherman offense. The market was diverse in the sense that some of the subsidiary companies were offered an opportunity to sell the Cellophane products in other parts of the world. The product market was, therefore, not dominated by DuPont since a lot of the packaging was left in the hands of the foreign companies. It means that many of the products were sold in a wide market, although the most affected people were the United States citizens. The product market was not limited to the United States because other countries were highly interested in the consumption of the goods. In this sense, the goods were bought by both the retailer and business people across the world. The establishment of the final consumers of the products that were produced by DuPont was not an identifiable since the product market was diverse. The product market is based on the existence of the market at a given point in time; it is possible to have a lot of product markets in many places. The demand and supply aspects of a product may call for more markets being established to deal with the same nature of the products (Colino 98). Geographical market The geographical market is the frame of the location. The scope of the operation of a certain entity in a given region is defined by the geographical marks. The geographical mark is where the business entity is located and the place of operation. In the current case, the place of operation was across the world, but the place of operation was in the United States. The company’s main operations were in the United States whereby it was incorporated. The subsidiaries that were licensed by the defendant were in other countries. Therefore, it is clear that the company had its operations in the United States, but the geographical market was not easily determined since its products were sold all over the world. At one time, the operations of the company were joined with those of a French company. The geographical market in the United States was the biggest in size. It is not easy to get a clear definition of the operations of the company in a company where the products are recognized across nations. The only geographical location that one can identify is the one that indicates the incorporation or area of operation of the company (Colino 98). Actual and potential sellers In a product market, the sellers are classified into two classes. They could be real in the sense that they are selling the products or they have sold them before. Actual sellers exist in the product market and they are engaged in making sure that the buyers are handled. Actual sellers are very important since they orient the potential sellers. On the other hand, potential sellers are those that have not taken part in active selling, but they are aiming at joining other sellers. They could be in wholesale or in small scale. The time of sale is the crucial part used in identifying actual and potential sellers. A potential seller has the determination of taking part in the selling, but the seller is yet to start selling. The essence of a well regulated market entails both the potential and actual sellers. For purposes of succession, a potential seller takes the place of the actual seller. Having both actual and potential sellers builds healthy competition in the market, which benefits the buyers and other stakeholders. The continuity of the market is promoted and the buyers do not have to worry about the forces that may affect the market in the future days (Cefrey 45). Actual and potential buyers The buyers in a product market are in the form of the potential and actual buyers. Actual buyers have already established a relationship with the sellers in the market. They are known in the market and the sellers are aware of the distinct tastes and preferences. The established relationship is based on the consistency of a given seller in appearing to a given buyer with the same product. The actual buyers are identified with certain products. Potential buyers are not known to the actual sellers. Their determination and existence in the market is to spot the products that are suitable and those that they can buy in the future. They are not buyers since they have the expression of willingness, but they have not yet engaged in a constructive mode of buying. The potential factors in each case are different, but the mode of transactions is the same. In the present case, DuPont had a lot of actual buyers, but it was having some as potential buyers. The progress of the company in the United States of America and other parts of the world clearly indicates that the company enjoys a wide range of potential buyers (Colino 74). Spot market A spot market means any market that has not been identified for purposes of selling and buying. A spot market is mainly available for the consideration of the seller. In many cases, the seller identifies the market and makes the effort of ascertaining the capacity that it can hold at a given time. Many companies invest in research whereby they identify the diversity of a given market in the sense of the strengths and the weaknesses that they might encounter. With such an analysis, new products are created geared towards establishing the potential and actual sellers in a given place. A spot market is developed depending on the reaction of the buyers in the first stages of the market research. A spot market compared to an actual market exists only when there are chances of other parties developing interests, thus taking part in the search for the market. In a nutshell, a spot market exists in theory and it is different from the product market (Cefrey 76). Summary of the judgment In the judgment, the court sought to establish whether DuPont had violated any antitrust law. Specific reference was made to Section 2 of the Sherman Act. The court was of the view that the wording of Section 2 of the Sherman Act required strict proof and could not be understood by making general phrases. It was the plaintiff’s duty to adduce evidence to show that the defendant engaged in a conduct that was in promotion of monopolization. The court observed that without the said evidence, the case was to be dismissed without consideration of the consequences to the plaintiff and the individuals aggrieved. The section of the law must be coupled with the essential facts analogous to those that Sherman Act would apply (Bergh and Camesasca 68). The facts were to be read in the light of Section 2 of the Sherman Act. The essential facts that show that the defendant was in control of the market dynamics were considered in the issues before determination. In the court, there was an admission by the witness brought by the plaintiff that the defendant was a transparent company that dealt in selling packaging materials. The court took the time to analyze a table that was provided demonstrating the quality of the products made by DuPont. It was evident that the quality of the products that were made by the defendant placed it in a better position compared to other companies dealing with the same type of products. This led to the court holding that the prominence of the defendant in the market was not based on unfair competition, but on the fact that the quality of products was outstanding. The prices of Cellophane were slightly lower than those of the competitors. It is common knowledge that the actual buyers would prefer cheaper quality products in the market where the high products that are cheaper are placed. The court emphasized the point that Sherman Act was not applicable in a situation whereby the defendant was not engaging in unfair practices to defeat the interests of the emerging competitors. The Cellophane products did not bear any form of resemblance to the products paraded by other sellers. It was established that the buyers would not find Cellophane products unique in comparison with other products of the same nature in the market, but they preferred the products all the same. The physical properties were not the same, but the products were designed to serve the same purpose. The inference by the buyers of DuPont products indicated that it was the reputation of the company that made it easy to market its products in all markets. Producers used to vary the prices of their products with time. The court opined that the defendant could not be held liable for unfair competition, while there was evidence indicating that the company was not engaged in competition for the packaging materials. Notwithstanding the foregoing discussion, the court was of the opinion that the merging of DuPont with the French company was desired to maintain dominance over the sale of Cellophane. The merging saw a new twist whereby the products of the company were manufactured with new skill and technique. The nature of information in the process of manufacturing was treated with a lot of secrecy and confidentiality. Its contracts with the foreign companies were made in a way that they maintained their continental market. It was the opinion of the court that DuPont had no authority to set the prices arbitrarily. The court was keen to point out that there was a great misconception of antitrust laws. A monopolistic sense of minimizing profits was not equivalent to price rises. The court decided that the lowering of profits was not a violation of any antitrust laws (Bergh and Camesasca 87). The court was of the opinion that the misconception of the antitrust laws was very predominant, but the alleging parties did not endeavor to adduce evidence showing the violation of the stated laws. In the court’s opinion, there was adversity for the control of the Cellophane market. DuPont had the biggest share in the market, but this did not mean that it had violated any antitrust law. The holding of a bigger portion was interpreted by the court to mean that the defendant was guilty of monopolization. The court clearly stated that it was not a conclusive defense because the defendant had licensed the patent rights to other companies. The court observed that DuPont was placed in a position whereby it had powers to withdraw the licenses if it had evidence that the subsidiary companies were using them in contravention of the antitrust laws (Bergh and Camesasca 28). The competition that the Sherman Act sought to regulate was core and Cellophane having more sellers in the market was a fundamental breach of the Sherman Act. The monopoly could not be allowed to prevail since the unprotected public was likely to suffer a great damage. The issue of profit making was geared towards benefiting the company at the expense of the public. To safeguard the interests of the unsuspecting public, the court found that the act of having many sellers in the market could amount to an unfair competition. Charging a lesser amount of money on products that were of high quality was a move geared towards maintaining monopoly (Bergh and Camesasca 16). Rebuttal to the judgment The holding in this case was against the defendant. The application of the antitrust laws in the day-to-day guarding of violations should be applied with due caution. Court decisions ought to foster an economic sense to promote free trade, instead of issuing judgments that gag the free market. This should be done by ensuring that all parties in the market compete on the same level (Jacobson and American Bar Association 87). Courts should not place any parties at a disadvantage, while letting others enjoy the monopoly of their products. In the case above, the court ought to have engaged in pre-litigation negotiations to give the defendant an opportunity to explain the reasons for lowering the prices. The court case should have been the last resort in the given instance bearing in mind that some harsh decisions may adversely affect a given seller. There is widespread expenditure in the cases that governments are instituting against different entities as a move to protect the interests of citizens. Some of the decisions have proved to be a waste of resources and the tax payers’ money. In the consideration of the decisions reached before by the courts of law, it is clear that there is a complete disregard for the several dynamics of the market forces. There are several dangers posed to the existing market going by the court’s decision reached in the above case. The effects range from having unfair regulation of the already established business entities to complete removal of a business from operating given the harsh penalties meted on the business. It is clear that Sherman Act was crafted with the desire to regulate businesses against any forms of monopoly, which is undesirable in ensuring that new entities in a market are in the same footing with the older entities. It is a key Act if the sections of the law are to be applied with the minimum implications. In many situations, it is important to note that the markets are supposed to enjoy minimum regulations. In other words, markets should be left to regulate themselves, and outside regulation by the courts or any other body should be a matter of the last resort. It means that the intents of the market should be put into consideration when coming up with any decision (Jacobson and American Bar Association 77). Any form of restraint could have far reaching effects on the well-being of the markets in the sense that it may unnecessarily restrain the strong entities. The law should not be seen to impose an unnecessary form of restraints on the already existing entities. Instead, there should be incentives to promote the existing businesses. There has been a wide scope of the protection, which is not applicable in the new markets. The markets should be allowed to regulate themselves. This can be reached by making sure that the monopoly state is determined after application of many tests. It has been established that the competitiveness of a market plays a key role in determining the prices of commodities in the markets. It is through competition that many of the entities in the market find their way in a market. The courts of law have a role to play in making sure that the applicability of the law is not acting as a hindrance to the flow of goods and services in the market. The liberalization of the market is the most essential feature in a market because it ensures that freedom of willing seller, willing buyer is promoted. Unless the courts of law interpret the law to promote free markets, there will be an imposition of undesired constraints and both buyers and sellers will avoid markets (Jacobson and American Bar Association 89). The judgment ought to have studied the dynamics of the market before holding against the defendant. There was a substantial failure on the part of the court in reaching its decision. It is always essential for the court to ensure that there is a balance between the prayers of the plaintiff and doing what is economically sound. Several safeguards should be imposed in cases whereby the interests of the plaintiff are adverse to the economic needs of a given market. This means that in the present event, the court should have introduced a condition to settle the situation. In some cases, it is important to allow the parties to settle their matters without the court having to determine the matter. In so doing, the court makes sure that the parties make determinations regarding their rights without letting the court determine the outright winner and loser. This is essential since it determines the rights of different parties, while putting the prevailing circumstances into consideration. The inherent consequences of the said decision are that it affected the proper functioning of the market. Laws that have a direct impact on the economic setting should be interpreted with a lot of care to ensure that there is coexistence among various players in the market. There should be coexistence between the rights of the consumers in the markets and the interests of other business entities in the market. The court in this case was supposed to ensure that the remedies under the Sherman Act were interpreted to favor all the parties involved. The appellant in this case proved its case within the standards that were provided for under the Sherman Act. This case demonstrates a scenario whereby some of the decisions before courts do not make economic sense. Such decisions should not be entertained since they pose economic challenges whenever they are allowed to take effect (Jacobson and American Bar Association 80). For instance, such judicial decisions act as deterrents to any business entity that wishes to join the market, as well as hindering the existing firms from growing expanding and forming mergers in the fear that they will be said to be monopolistic. Works Cited Bergh, Roger van den, and Peter D. Camesasca. European Competition Law and Economics: A Comparative Perspective, Antwerpen: Intersentia, 2001. Print. Cefrey, Holly. The Sherman Antitrust Act: Getting Big Business under Control, New York, NY: Rosen Publishers Group, 2004. Print Colino, Sandra Marco. Competition law of the EU and UK, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. Jacobson, Jonathan M., and American Bar Association. Antitrust law Developments. 6th edn. Chicago, IL: Section of Antitrust Law, ABA, 2007. Print. Letwin, William. Law And Economic Policy in America: The Evolution of the Sherman Antitrust Act, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1981.Print
Keiser Genetics Is One of The Major Reasons for Difference in Voice Quality Reply
Keiser Genetics Is One of The Major Reasons for Difference in Voice Quality Reply.
Response to a postRules : APA Format / 250 Word count Your post must be highly organized, thorough and accurate.Advance the discussion or extend discussions already taking place.Responses must add new information not previously discussed. Pose new possibilities or opinions not previously voiced. Consider new factual information tied with critical thinking. Interesting and current research on the topic.Do not simply summarize another student’s post and agree/disagree. Consider starting out posts with, “A research article I found said, Did you know, 3 things I found interesting were…”Critical thinking very important for this classExample of how the professor like critical thinking :In a response to a discussion of burns, a student included:” I have seen patients at the urgent care I work at come in with sunburns that have mild blisters. It is extremely important to keep burns in a septic environment as this can cause further complications. (Saladin 2018)I remember when I was about 7 years old my uncle caught his leg on fire trying to shut off a cigarette he was smoking. His muscles and tendons were visible; my mother cleaned his wound about 3 times a day to prevent any infections along with antibiotics and stay hydrated .His third degree burn lacked pain because his nerve ending were damaged. This only occurs with third degree burns, which is why first and second degree burns are a lot more painful. It is important to be evaluated by a physician when burns are caused by chemicals or electricity, large and deep burns, or have burns that appear charred (mayo clinic).”Post:The larynx is a cartilaginous chamber about 4 cm long. Its primary function is to keep food and drink out of the airway, but it evolved the additional role of sound production also known as the “voice box” (Saladin,2020). In infants, the larynx is relatively high and the epiglottis touches the soft palate. This creates a more or less continuous airway from the nasal cavity to the larynx and allows infants to breathe continually while swallowing (Saladin,2020). One example of this is when i am feeding my baby niece and she is able to breathe continuously while drinking her bottle of milk, since the epiglottis deflects milk away from the air stream. By age 2, the root of the tongue becomes more muscular and forces the larynx to descend to a lower position. The larynx consists of nine cartilages: the most superior is the epilottic cartilage, the largest is the thyroid cartilage, the “Adam’s apple is an anterior peak of the thyroid cartilage. Testosterone stimulates the growth of this performance, which therefore larger in males than in females (Saladin,2020). Another cartilage is the cricoid cartilage which constitutes the “box” in the voice box. There is also the arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages, and the cuneiform cartilages. Vocal cords are controlled by intrisic mucles which pull on the corniculate and arytenoid cartilages, causing the cartilages to pivot. Depending on the direction of their rotation the arytenoid cartilages abduct or adduct the vocal cords (Saladin,2020). Air forced between the adducted vocal cords vibrates them, producing a high pitched sound when the cords are relatively taut and a lower pitched sound when they are more slack. In adult males the vocal cords are usually longer and thicker as well as vibrate more slowly, and produce lower pitch sounds than females (Saladin,2020). Loudness is determined by the force of the air passing between the vocal cords, although the vocal cords alone produce sound, they don’t produce intelligible speech which the upper portion of the throat modifies the vibration of the vocal cords that is producing the sound in order to produce speech.
Keiser Genetics Is One of The Major Reasons for Difference in Voice Quality Reply