Get help from the best in academic writing.

University of Illinois at Chicago Development and Work of a Dentist PPT

University of Illinois at Chicago Development and Work of a Dentist PPT.

1.Write a script for a ten-minute PowerPoint presentation you would give to a group of university freshman who is interested in choosing dentistry and are interested in developing their skills, knowledge, and experience in this field to enhance their future employability. Your script should be single-spaced and tied to the text you include on the slides in your presentation.2.Create a ten-minute PowerPoint presentation (consisting of eight to ten slides) in which you highlight the points you have listed in your script.Guidelines1.For the script, write out the words you would say in your presentation. Topics you should include are provided in the document attached about dentistry, the skills, knowledge, and experience graduates should have in dentistry in order to be competitive when seeking employment, and how prospective students can enhance their identity capital.2.Create a PowerPoint presentation consisting of eight to ten slides based on the script you wrote for the first part of this project. Be sure to follow the media design guidelines I have included.- I have attached a report that has everything about dentistry + 3 articles to include + Example of how the PowerPoint should look like.
University of Illinois at Chicago Development and Work of a Dentist PPT

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp This study will discuss what a nurse needs to know in relation to identifying and preventing harm from deterioration in patients in a hospital ward setting. A review of current literature will be carried out in order to find the best available evidence on the subject. The key issues arising from the literature will be critically analysed to provide a balanced and objective consideration of the strengths and limitations of current practice in relation to the recognition and communication of patient deterioration. Finally the study will use the evidence to attempt to make recommendations for practice in this area and discuss the nurse’s role in the development of the new practices which could enhance the management of patient deterioration and ultimately ensure safer care for patients. Rationale for Subject Choice As a student nurse about to become a registered and accountable practitioner, one of my main concerns is that I have the knowledge and skills to recognise deterioration in the condition of my patients and the ability to communicate my concerns effectively to ensure they are seen promptly by a more senior clinician and any further decline is prevented. Therefore my rationale for choosing to study this topic was to try to find evidence which would support me in contributing to safer care of acutely ill patients. Background The increasing complexity of healthcare, an ageing population and shorter length of stay, means that hospital patients today need a higher level of care than ever before. Therefore, it is essential that hospital staff are equipped to recognise and manage deterioration (Department of Health 2009). Many patients who experience cardiopulmonary arrest show signs of deterioration for more than 24 hours before arrest, and it has been estimated that approximately 23,000 in-hospital cardiac arrests in the United Kingdom (UK) could be avoided each year with better care (Smith et al 2006). Furthermore, evidence has shown that delays in recognising deterioration or inappropriate management can result in late treatment, avoidable admissions to intensive care and in some cases, unnecessary deaths National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) (2005) National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) (2007) (2007a). These studies highlighted the magnitude of the problem in the UK, they showed that hospital staff do not understand the disturbances in physiology affecting the sick patient, they frequently ignore signs of clinical deterioration and lack skills in the implementation of oxygen therapy, assessment of respiration and management of fluid balance NPSA (2007) (2007a). NCEPOD (2005) reported that approximately 50% of ward based patients receive substandard care prior to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, and 21-41% of ICU admissions are potentially avoidable. Analysis of 425 deaths that occurred in general acute hospitals in England showed that 64 deaths occurred as a result of patient deterioration not being recognised due to observations not being undertaken for a prolonged period leading to changes in vital signs not being detected, and delay in patients receiving medical attention even when deterioration was detected (NPSA 2007). Despite considerable economic investment there is continued evidence of suboptimal care and the Department of Health (DoH) (2009) have acknowledged that the recognition and management of acutely ill patients need attention. They say there are many factors influencing a patient’s ability to receive appropriate and timely care including the failure to seek advice, poor communication between professional groups, and a lack of clinical supervision for staff in training (DoH 2009). The following literature review will attempt to find evidence of the factors which contribute to sub optimal treatment of deterioration. Literature Review A literature search was undertaken using the electronic databases CINAHL, ESCBO host, Internurse, Medline, Science Direct and Swetswise through the Liverpool John Moores University search engine, and also the British Nursing Index via Ovid using the Royal College of Nursing search engine. The keywords used were: deterioration, hospital deterioration, communication of deterioration and early warning systems. A total of thirteen articles were found to be of use, two of these were published outside the UK (Australia and Italy) however after reading them it was decided that the evidence was relevant and they were deemed appropriate for use. As the study developed a further search was performed using the terms deterioration tools, communication tools, SBAR and RSVP communication tool two articles from this subsequent search were used in this study. Additionally and as mentioned above useful references were also sought from the Department of Health, the National Patient Safety Agency, the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death, and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. The search revealed the topic had been fairly well researched, especially in recent years and the articles seemed to have stemmed from the reports by NPSA (2007) (2007a) and NICE (2007). Smith (2010) recently proposed a Chain of Prevention to assist hospitals in structuring their care processes to prevent and detect patient deterioration and cardiac arrest. The five rings of the chain represent staff education, monitoring, recognition, the call for help and the response and it was found that the themes of education, and recognition were well documented in the literature. Nurse Education Preston and Flynn (2010) say in order to avoid unrecognised patient deterioration and therefore enhance patient safety nurses must review their knowledge and skills in measuring the physiological parameters of temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, oxygen saturation levels, and neurological function, and in particular identified the respiratory rate as a particularly sensitive indicator of clinical decline. In addition nurses also need to recognise the significance of physiological compensatory mechanisms that are activated in clinical deterioration, so they can report their findings accurately and with confidence to doctors and senior staff. Steen (2010) agrees that nurses require the knowledge and skills to be able to provide critical care in the general ward setting, as accurate assessment using a systematic approach can aid timely detection and intervention and can help to stabilise the individual’s condition preventing organ dysfunction, multi organ failure and further deterioration, thus reducing morbidity and mortality rates and admission to ICU. However, Odell, Victor and Oliver (2009) feel that recognising deterioration of a ward patient and referring to critical care teams is a highly complex process, requiring skill, experience, and confidence. Preston and Flynn (2010) suggest that nurses can be helped to develop these skills by attending the Advanced Life Threatening Events Recognition and Treatment (ALERT) course, they considered the possibility of nurses undertaking the ALERT course whilst a student, they say this will help newly qualified nurses to promote their skills, abilities and rationale for recognizing and responding to patient deterioration. They also recommend the further development of acute illness simulation programmes in both pre and post registration courses to help nurses to become more confident and expert in responding and reporting acute illness to medical and more senior staff. They say what is needed is a closer collaboration between education and health service partners to deliver these programmes and competent clinical ‘teaching’ staff to facilitate these simulated exercises in a safe environment that utilises accurate patient scenarios, equipment and charts that are currently used in practice (Preston and Flynn 2009). Monitoring Accurate monitoring of patient condition featured highly in the literature. The NPSA (2007) revealed that in 14 of the 64 incident reports they studied, no observations had been made for a prolonged period before the patient died therefore vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse and respirations were not detected. But the literature revealed the crucial importance of regular observations in the recognition of deteriorating patients. Preston and Flynn (2010) said doing the observations is crucial for detecting early signs of deterioration in acute care as closely monitoring changes in physiological observations can identify abnormalities before a serious adverse event occurs. Early identification is important to reduce mortality, morbidity, length of stay in hospital and associated healthcare costs (NICE 2007). Preston and Flynn (2010) also stipulated that close supervision of unqualified nursing staff ‘doing the observations’ in acute care should be a high priority and should follow both the NICE (2007) guidelines and recommendations from the NSPA (2007) (2007a). However following an observation of care by Morris (2010) an issue was identified where observations were incomplete, with recording of respiratory rate and oxygen saturations omitted and although an early warning score chart had been used, a score had not been recorded (Morris 2010). Recognition The importance of nurses utilising an early warning system was highlighted. Cei, Bartolomei and Mumoli (2009) say using the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) when recording patient observations is a simple but highly useful tool to predict a worse in-hospital outcome and aid identification of patients at risk of clinical adverse events such as cardiac arrest, sepsis and raised intracranial pressure. Nonetheless a study by Donohue and Endacott (2010) revealed that participants did not look for trends in the MEWS data and few used MEWS data in the manner it was intended i.e. it was used to confirm whether the patient met the trigger criteria, rather than as a routine component of assessment, the study found that MEWS was used infrequently, used too late and not employed to communicate patient deterioration. Mohammed, Hayton, Clements, Smith, and Prytherch (2009) felt the significant advantage of an early warning or track and trigger system like MEWS was that they use a visual scale that gives a score if a physiological recording enters a colour zone. But they found that there are disadvantages to using these systems in practice if nurses add up the scores incorrectly. In their study (Mohammed at al 2009) found that calculating scores could be improved by using a handheld computer and this approach was more accurate, efficient and acceptable to nurses than using the traditional pen and paper methods in acute care. The Department of Health (2009) say early warning systems play a key role in the detection of deteriorating patients; however, clinicians need to be aware that in some clinical situations these systems will not reflect clinical urgency (Department of Health 2009) and effective assessment skills must be employed. Call for Help and Response The NPSA (2007) report revealed that in 30 of the 64 incident reports they audited, despite recording vital signs, the importance of the clinical deterioration had not been recognised and/or no action had been taken other than the recording of observations (NPSA 2007). This could be due to ineffective communication of the deterioration. The literature review showed that communication of deterioration was a more recently well documented subject. Steen (2010) Tait (2010) feel that a vital component of the management of the acutely ill patient is the ability to communicate clearly and precisely with all members of the multidisciplinary team to aid timely and appropriate help and intervention for the patient. Still there is much evidence of communication breakdown between disciplines, Beaumont (2008) states communication between medical and nursing staff can be problematic, nurses may not communicate clearly enough and struggle to convey information in a manner that would convince doctors of the urgency of the situation, sometimes there is failure by doctors to perceive, understand or accept the source of nurses’ clinical and professional judgement, less experienced nursing staff might not feel comfortable or confident to call more senior staff because they fear doing the wrong thing or crossing occupational and hierarchical boundaries. These problems can result in conflict between professional groups as they attempt to work towards positive outcomes and may prevent patients from receiving assistance and support when required (Beaumont 2008). Endacott, Kidd, Chaboyer and Edington (2007) agree that formal divisions of labour and professional boundaries can cause gaps or discontinuities in patient care and feel communication between clinicians must improve. Donahue and Endacott (2010) say the failure of nurses to recruit senior support to deal with acutely ill patients is a contributing factor to the sub-optimal care of critically ill patient, it may be due to a lack of experience or knowledge on the part of the doctor but may equally be due to the nurses inability to articulate the seriousness of the situation. Their data identified that nurses have an awareness of the need for a succinct story but they continue to make calls for assistance with little relevant information (Donohue and Endacott 2010). As stated above suboptimal communication between health professionals has been recognised as a significant causative factor in incidents compromising patient safety and the use of a structured method of communication has been suggested to improve the quality of information exchange (Marshall, Harrison and Flanagan 2009). A number of communication tools are available; some hospitals use the SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation) tool to structure conversations between members of the multidisciplinary team, which uses standardised questions to prompt the conveyor of information to share the necessary details (Steen 2010). In a simulated clinical scenario Marshall et al (2009) described the positive effect of this method on students’ ability to communicate clear telephone referrals. However, Featherstone, Chalmers and Smith (2008) feel that SBAR is not a memorable acronym and they prefer the use of the RSVP (Reason, Story, Vital Signs, Plan) system used in the ALERT course as framework for the communication of deterioration, the authors say SBAR does not easily slip off the tongue, and RSVP is much easier to remember in an emergency. They say the reason for the call can be explained in clear simple language, and the story gives a time line of important events, they feel nurses will be familiar with a narrative style of communication and are used to giving a brief summary as part of the handover process. The vital signs must be given in figures, and can include the early warning score, or summarized in words that convey the deterioration effectively and the plan for the patient should be outlined by the caller or expected from the receiver (Featherstone et al 2008). Smith (2010) says the use of standardised method of communication, such as the RSVP system will improve communication about patient decline. Recommendations for Practice Constant change within the National Health Service is essential to advance care quality and ensure the provision patient focused care that is evidenced based. Ensuring the latest and best available evidence is put into practice is a is a crucial way of ensuring that people get the treatments and services that are the most effective and will have the best health outcomes, it ensures that the public funding that supports the NHS is used wisely and that the treatments and services offered are cost effective, and both of these factors lead to the provision of clinically effective care. Everyone involved in healthcare provision must ensure quality is enhanced and must be willing to change current practices for the benefit of patients. Nurses have a professional responsibility to keep up to date with changes and developments within their field and to deliver care based on the best available evidence or best practice (Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008). Larrabee’s (2009) Model for Evidence Based Practice Change suggests that there are six steps towards implementing change in practice, firstly practitioners should assess need for change in practice, and this study has found evidence which clearly points to the need for changes in practice in order to reduce avoidable harm to patients. The next steps of Larabee’s Model (2009) are to locate the best evidence, and critically analyse the evidence, and from the evidence found in this study it is evident there are several recommendations for changes in practice which would help nurses in acute care to develop their skills in recognising and reporting deterioration. To keep the Chain of Prevention suggested by Smith (2010) strong he suggests that staff education, monitoring, recognition, the call for help and the response must all be robust in order to prevent harm from unrecognised and unassisted illness. Recommendations to enhance these areas would be to ensure that the recognition of life threatening illness is taught from an early stage in a nurses career by attending the ALERT course earlier in their training and by the teaching of patient scenarios in the clinical area and facilitated by staff who are trained in critical care. With regards to the call for help and the response rings of the Chain of Prevention (Smith 2010), it has been shown that the use of communication tools help nurses to get an earlier response when calling for assistance, so it seems sensible to implement the standard use of a communication tool in acute care when communicating deterioration. The next step in Larabee’s Model for Change (2009) is to design the practice change, and it is recommended that use of the RSVP communication tool (see appendix) should become hospital protocol when calling for assistance; this is because it is easy to remember and it is used as part of the ALERT course which many acute care nurses have attended. Nurses should receive training on the use of this tool and it should be displayed near the telephone in every acute area. In order to implement and evaluate this change, which are the next steps in the Model (Lara bee 2009) a nurse should firstly let people know about it, this can be done by using various means of communication i.e. trust intranet, ward meetings, discussion with senior nursing staff and managers. They must then get people to take on the change by involving enthusiastic team members and organising a pilot test of the use of the RSVP tool. Crucially the rate in which more senior practitioners respond must be audited find out if the tool is working in practice and if not why not, is more information or training required is the tool not displayed clearly enough. The final step of the Model for Change (Larabee 2009) is to integrate and maintain the change in practice, to do this a nurse must ensure all new staff are trained to use the system and continuously evaluate its use to ensure it is working in practice. Conclusion This study has highlighted the evidence base and resources available to support nurses in contributing to safer care of acutely ill patients it has found that in order to facilitate accurate detection of changes in condition, nurses working in acute care must acknowledge the importance of observations and early warning systems in the identification of patients at risk of adverse events and ensure patients are assessed using a sound knowledge of physiological compensatory mechanisms, to enhance this knowledge they should attend an ALERT course, the evidence pointed to nurses attending these courses early in their career and that clinical scenarios could also help increase their knowledge of acute illness. It was found that communication tools help nurses when calling for senior assistance and the implementation of a standard tool within acute hospital settings could help to prevent harm from deterioration. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Mate selection Paper.

Requirements:I’m a male, and we need to write about 3 physical attractive female traits, and explain how each preference is ‘gene deep’ effected. (one paragraph each trait)MLA or APAminimum of 2-3 page papers (single space)12 pt font/ 1 inch marginspapers require a score less than 8%Remember to avoid shallow reasons for choosing a mate. You are being asked to look gene deep.Lesson Objectives:Explain the biological principle of sexual selectionApply the principle of sexual selection to mate choiceDifferentiate the biology of beauty from cultural idealsActivity:List three physical traits that you find attractive in a mate.Explain how each preference is ‘gene deep.’ To help you to determine the biology of beauty, review “The Rules of Attraction in the Game of Love” at (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.and the scholarly journal entitled “Evolution of Human Mate Choice” at (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Write one paragraph on each of your three physical traits and be sure to focus on the biological rather than the cultural factors.Address how each of the three physical factors relate to sexual selection. Offer an example for each of your three physical features to demonstrate whether it helps with advertising or competing for a mate. Be creative, yet realistic.Conclude with a paragraph explaining how these traits relate to mate selection and the passing of genetic material across multiple generation.Additional resources can be found online by searching for biology and beauty, biology and mate selection, and science and symmetry.
Mate selection Paper

Sexism in language represents one of the major issues in sociolinguistic studies. As a phenomenon of society, sexism is reflected through language that expresses inclination in favor of one sex and treats the other one in a discriminatory manner. Characteristically, the bias is in favor of men and against women. Thus, the language is presented as a powerful tool of patriarchy. Even though in English-speaking countries all the people are considered equal, discrimination against women exists and this fact is observed in language. Given this evidence, the purpose of the research is to study morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of English sexist language. The research proposal will therefore seek to explore and investigate the following: • To define the concept of sexist language; • To identify and evaluate the cultural factor, social factor, physiological factor and psychological factor which influence the existence of sexism in English language; • To examine the elements of sexism in the English language which occur in the syntax, morphology and semantics of the language; • To determine the strategies for avoiding sexism in English language. The main method applied in this study is a literary overview of the works in which is treated the topic “Sexism in English language”. The theoretical framework which influenced the elaboration of this research for the deeper insight into the problem of morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of English sexist language is based on the relevant and recent works of such authors as Peter Trudgill in Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, Nilson, Alleen Pace and Haig Bosmajian, H Lee Gershung, Julia P Stanley in Sexism and Language, Nneka Umera-Okeke in Linguistic Sexism: An Overview of the English Language in Everyday Discourse and Hudson, R. A. in Sociolinguistics. These books were selected for the present research as they investigate the phenomenon of sexism in English language and they are recent studies from sociolinguistic domain. On the basis of their ideas concerning elements of sexism in English language, I will analyze and compare their assumptions and evidences about the topic under the discussion. Consequently, I will outline the similarities and differences between their points of view concerning the topic. In addition to this, I will try to determine if they contradict or share the same ideas about the problem investigated and if their arguments are reasonable and trustful, in order to clarify if English language is a sexist one, and if it is to examine the elements of sexism in the English language which occur in the syntax, morphology and semantics of the language. The motivation for choosing the topic of this research proposal is based on the fact that during the last decades a lot of questions and criticisms of sexist language have appeared, trying to identify whether English language is a sexist language or it does not. Thus, it would be relevant to perform a linguistic investigation of morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of sexist language. On the basis of this investigation, we will identify the role language plays in the society and how it influences the social attitudes of human beings. Taking into account the fact that women were regarded as a weaker gender in society, being discriminated for a long time, it seems interesting and challenging to explore this topic in order to identify whether this stereotyped social phenomena or subordinate status of women in society is reflected and preserved in language. Due to the fact that many students encounter difficulties in determining the gender of the nouns, the results of this research will help them to distinguish between the common gender, female gender and male gender of the words and to justify their use. This research could serve as a didactic material for teachers of sociolinguistics and help investigate the main morphological, syntactic and semantic peculiarities of sexist language. Definitions of Sexist Language One of the most important factors in the development of the world is language, which can be interpreted as a human creation. Taking into account the fact that humanity is divided into two spheres: the sphere of males and the spheres of females, it can be revealed a major ambiguity concerning the subject if the language is made by men or by women. Even though, English countries claim that all people are born equal, there are a lot of inequalities between men and women. It is put stress on this topic because according to sociolinguistic research, this inequality is reflected in language and this phenomena – sexism in language represents one of the major issues in sociolinguistic studies. According to Hudson, sexism in English languages has existed for a long time, which is reflected of the traditional ethics that men are superior to women [x; 38]. In this order of ideas, Deborah Cameron’ work, reveals that Men originate from Mars and Women originate from Venus [10]. Given this evidence, it can be seen that some gender differences do exist. Support for this interpretation comes from Peter Trudgell, through his work Sociolinguistics: An introduction to language and society [7; 100], who confirms that males are above females, due to the fact that in the past there existed the myth of superiority, when the entire power was in the hands of men. Thus, as a special social phenomenon, sexism is inevitably reflected through language and sexism in language reflects sexism in society. But, with the raise of women’s liberation, and the development of mass media, the whole English words start a social revolution to eliminate the sexism in the English language, because sexism in the English language is seen as a discriminating act of women. This point is particularly relevant for Nneka Umera-Okeke’s study Sexism in English Language, who asserts that sexism is a kind of discrimination by one sex against the other, especially by males against females [4; 7]. Applied to language, Robin Lakoff underlines that a sexist language takes a male-as-norm attitude, while female norms have a less positive connotation than males’. Thus, Robin Lakoff uses the example of master vs mistress to make the point: there are unequal connotations that surround these two matching terms – and to the detriment of the female – Master has strong and powerful connotation, while mistress does not [2; 67]. This evidence seems to indicate that a sexist language also presents stereotypes of both females and males, but more often to the disadvantage of females. A fuller discussion about sexist language appears in the study Beginner’s Guide to Language and Gender. Multilingual Matters, 2008, by Allyson Jule, who claims that a sexist language depicts women in the position of passive object rather than active subject, such as on the basis of their appearance (‘a blonde’) or domestic roles (‘a mother of two’) when similar depictions in similar contexts would not be made of men [1; 65]. On this basis it may be inferred that sexist language discriminates against women. Research by Nneka Umera-Okeke, Linguistic Sexism: An Overview of the English Language in Everyday Discourse, suggests that sexist language is considered to be any language that is supposed to include all people, but unintentionally (or not) excludes a gender -this can be either males or females. It is clear therefore that a look at sexist language is finding the relation between language and gender. A more plausible explanation for this phenomenon would refer to the moment when many people meet difficulties of making the choices between certain words in their everyday discourses. For instance, they wonder which to choose – the chairman has arrived for the meeting or the chairperson has arrived when referring to a woman. This fact lends weight to the argument that a sexist language excludes women and trivializes what women do [4; 32]. Sexist language is especially common in situations that describe jobs-common assumptions include that all doctors are men, all nurses are women, all coaches are men, or all teachers are women. These examples lend strong support to the fact that a sexist language transmits the stereotypes. Ivy and Backlund state that a sexist language refers to the attitudes/behaviors that denigrate one sex to the rise of the other. [5; 123]. Given this evidence it can be seen that sexist language is a verbal communication that transmit those attitudes and behaviors. Additionally to this, a sexist language can be viewed as an instrument used by the members of the society to damage someone. Cameron rightly points out that a language can be called sexist if it represents or name the world from a masculine viewpoint. This means that language encodes a culture’s values, and in this way reflects sexist culture [10]. The opinion of Parks

Nursing Processes: From Admission to Discharge

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Shan Jiang Develop an understanding of the nursing process from admission through to discharge of a client in a health care facility My patient is Mr. Peter William, 71 years old male, was found slumped in the shower accomplishing flaccid right limb and mouth and face drooping. In addition, this client also had slurred speech, and urine incontinence problems. In my care plan, I will outline the specific assessment tools and major health problems on Peter and present outcomes and interventions. There are two assessment tools that a nurse needs to do. One of these is the acute falls risk assessment tool. The main reason is that this client has right side weakness. This means that older people with limb flaccid contributes to high risks of falls. Nystrom and Hellstrom (2012, P. 473) state that the falling incidence of elderly with limb weakness is two times the number of those who are the same age without limb flaccid. Furthermore, Braden risk assessment scale also should be considered as a significant tool for this patient. The main reason is urine incontinence and limb weakness could lead to the impaired skin integrity and even pressure ulcer. Therefore, those two tools would be implemented due to urine incontinence and right side weakness. Peter has three main health problems, which are the guidelines to offer safe and high quality of care. The first and most urgent health problem is the risk of aspiration manifested by slurred speech and face and mouth drooping. The reason is that swallowing dysfunction contributes to high risk of aspiration and the difficulty of moving foreign materials from the airway (Garcia and Chambers 2010). As a result, this patient could not clear the airway effectively, leading to high risk of death. Another significant health problem is the risk of falls because of right side weakness. The reason is that this client would have high risk of injuries such as fracture even death, due to the high incidence of falling (Hindmarch et al. 2009

Technology in Second Language Acquisition Report (Assessment)

professional essay writers Key Professional, Public, and Scholarly Debates on the Chosen Topic The impact of technology on language learning, especially for English as Second Language (ESL) students is a topic that has raised a massive debate over the recent past as educators and other scholars try to find ways of improving the learning experience. In this study, the researcher selected two articles by Nomass (2013) and Akbar and Chen (2011), both of which focus on the importance of technology in second language acquisition. According to Ybarra and Green (2003), learning a second language may sometimes be very challenging, especially when it is done at advanced age in colleges. Professionals in the field of education have argued that the effect of first language often has a massive impact on one’s ability to learn a second language. For instance, Kenworthy (2004) observes that in some languages, there are some sounds that do not exist. When one is faced with a situation of learning about these new sounds, they tend to be distorted as they try to find an alternative sound in their first language to use instead of the new sounds. Languages are currently some of the top courses that students are pursuing in institutions of higher learning because of the increasing globalization and the need to interact with the outside world. English is becoming one of the most important languages at the international level (Constantinescu, 2007). Finding ways of making the process of learning this language simple has been a concern for the professionals in this field, the scholars, and general public. According to Bhatia and Ritchie (2009), the emergence of technology as a tool that can simplify learning of English among the ESL learners has attracted massive attention of scholars in the education sector. While a section of these scholars argue that some aspects of technology have eroded learning as a process of knowledge acquisition, others believe that technology is the best thing that ever occurred in the system of education. This issue has raised a massive debate as the public, scholars, and professionals in the field of education try to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of technology on education. A study by Abanami (2015) shows that technology has made it possible for students with special abilities to learn without facing serious challenges that were common before the invention of assistive technology (Zahrani, 2015). Devices have been developed for children with autism, visual or hearing impairments, and any other physical or mental disabilities. These learners can now get the opportunity to learn languages in an easier way than it was before. Technology is not only benefiting students with special needs but also normal learners. In the debate about the relevance of technology in learning, one of the main discussions that often emerge is online education. For a long time, learning has often been considered as a process that requires close interaction between a teacher and student. This is specifically the case among the ESL learners. It is possible for one to learn about grammar by reading books and other relevant literatures (AlMuaither

Genetic Algorithm Research Proposal

Genetic Algorithm Research Proposal. System Optimization The main concern is to find the optimum value for each design parameter for each prediction period for a total simulation time of 12 hours. The simulation is performed on the selected system based on the optimization timeframe with an acceptable accuracy and the optimization process is applied for a prediction period of one. The value of a single design parameter and internal loads are fixed during a prediction period and may vary from one prediction period to another. Genetic Algorithm Modeling the liquid desiccant system with the CC/DV system is complex task with multi-variables involved, several equations are coupled and indirect relations between different parameters are present. Since several non-linear equations are solved, it is advised to use a revolutionary derivative free optimization tool that follows the direct search technique. The simplest optimization tool that could be used for the proposed case is the genetic algorithm optimization tool because it is derivative free, based on numerical analysis, and is somehow efficient if compared with other derivative based optimization schemes. Moreover, it fetches the global minimum of a specific function. Our choice of using a derivative free algorithm to solve the optimization problem is implemented by the evolutionary genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithms are adaptive methods which may be used to solve search and optimization problems, and are based on the genetic process of biological organisms. Genetic algorithms are growing more and more popular and extending from simple design optimization to online process control. The power of the genetic algorithm arises from its robustness, being acceptably good in finding the near optimum solution and being relatively quick [1]. An efficient optimization technique uses two techniques to find the optimal solution, exploration and exploitation, and this is what genetic algorithm does. The Genetic Algorithm terminology The algorithm starts by seeding a set of trial combinations of the variables to be optimized and calculating the numerical value of the objective function for each combination selected. This set is called the “Initial Population”. The set of numerical values calculated for the objective function from the first trial, is then evaluated according the “Fitness Criteria”. The fitness criteria can be defined as the condition for the objective function numerical value to be better convenient than its pears. Based on their fitness, some combinations in the previously seeded set are chosen to be “Parents”. Parents then undergo either “Crossover” or “Mutation” procedure to produce “Children”. Most fitted parents simply jump to the next generated population without any change; such parents are referred as “Elite”. The current population is replaced by children from the next population. Elite children are the individuals in the current generation with the best fitness values. These individuals automatically survive to the next generation. Crossover children are created by combining the vectors of a pair of parents. Mutation children are created by introducing random changes, or mutations, to a single parent. The algorithm stops when the “Tolerance” in the objective function values between two generations is less than a certain set error value, or when the maximum number of “Generations” is exceeded, or by any other defined “Stopping Criteria”. For the optimized control strategy used for the chilled ceiling, displacement ventilation system the variables of the chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation are varied; this variation leads to a minimal optimal cost that results in the minimum cost that could be attained in the system. Referring to the system figure and considering the optimal control strategy, the variables that may be used for cost optimization are: The desiccant temperature at the inlet of membrane(). The supply air temperature(). The supply air mass flow rate(). Equation Chapter 6 Section 3Each variable in the optimization routine has a lower and an upper bound. These bounds define the interval where the genetic algorithm searches for the optimal cost and are based on physical considerations. The bounds for the different variables according to ASHRAE’s recommendations are: The supply air temperature is considered to vary between 17 and 23 °C. The supply air mass flow rate is considered to vary between 0.08 and 0.26 kg/s. Optimization Constraints There are several non-linear constraints that are applicable to the system. These constraints are related to thermal comfort issues, condensation inside the room and physical constraints. The constraints may be redefined in the following list The Percent People Dissatisfied inside the occupied zone is less than 10%. This condition is required for the human thermal comfort. The closer the PPD is to zero, it is assumed that the occupants inside the room would be more comfortable noting that the smallest percent people dissatisfaction is 5%. The temperature gradient shall not be greater than 2.5 K/m or 2.5 °C/m. This condition is required so that there would not be any large gradients in the human body. Large gradients cause thermal discomfort for living beings. The stratification height inside the room is greater than 1 m. This condition is required so that the stratified air does not mix with the breathing zone. The relative humidity inside the occupied zone is greater than 56% and less than 76%. The fitness function: To be able to enhance the speed of the genetic algorithm, the electrical cost function and constraints are combined in a single cost function by using penalty functions, thus the fitness cost function may be written as: The coefficients , , , , and in the above function are the weight factors for their related penalty costs. The weight factors values are set according to the system parameter. For the current system,‘s are set to unity. electrical cost The objective function that is to be optimized is the total operational cost of the system; this cost may be divided into: The cost of running the chiller. The cost of running the pump. The cost of running the fan. Note that in this work the cost is given in units of KW. Chiller Cost The chiller is the main energy consuming component in our system .The chiller cost is expressed in terms of the part load ratio. The part load ratio is defined as the ratio of the current load on the chiller divided by the design load that the chiller could handle. Mathematically, the part load ratio is found from the equation The coefficient of performance of the chiller is correlated to the load equation by using the following correlation: The cost of the chiller is calculated by using the following equation Fan cost The fan cost is directly related to the air mass flow rate by using the following equation: Pump cost The pump cost is related to the pump head, liquid desiccant mass flow rate, and the efficiency of the pump. The power of the pump is evaluated by multiplying the pressure difference by the volumetric flow rate and dividing the result by the pump efficiency; mathematically the pump cost equation may be written as Note that the pump cost is not included in the cost function, since the desiccant mass flow rate is costant. Therefore the total energy consumed can be expressed by the following equation: The Constraints Cost Functions The cost function for the constraints may be written such that they could be incorporated into the online cost function in a simple manner. These constraints are related to their respective threshold values such that when the constraints are violated, the fitness function would have a very large value. For the predicted person dissatisfied, the cost function The relative humidity cost function may be bounded from the upper side by using the relation The stratification height cost is bounded to be larger than 1m, thus the stratification height cost is The temperature gradient is to bounded to be less than 2.5 K/m, thus the temperature gradient cost function may be written as The exponential term helps to penalize the cost function when-ever the thermal comfort level of occupants in the room TH decreases below the minimum set value THmin. This will increase the value of the cost function dramatically and the set of variables at hand is rejected. The integration of the constraint terms within the objective function expression and the use of the exponential form to control the constraints’ cost were implemented by Keblawi et al. [13] and Hammoud et al. [4]. Genetic Algorithm Research Proposal

Structure of The Criminal Justice System Diagram

Structure of The Criminal Justice System Diagram. I don’t understand this Law question and need help to study.

The organization and structure of criminal justice services is an important building block in the quest for improved institutional performance. Understanding how departments interact with each other is the foundation of understanding whether or not the organization is meeting the goals of its mission statement. The diagram you create in this activity will serve as a visual representation of how the organization is structured and a starting point for your strategic plan. Prompt: Create a diagram or outline in which you display the structure of the criminal justice department that you are hoping to join after you complete your degree program. If you currently work in a criminal justice department, you may create a diagram of its structure. See this example diagram to assist you in completing the activity. However, you are not limited to this format. There are a variety of tools that you could use to create your diagram, including (but not limited to) Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint, and Regardless of which tool you use to create your diagram or outline, you must submit the final artifact as a DOC, PPT, or PDF file. Be sure to select the specific geographical area in which you wish to work, as that will influence the department’s structure. In addition to submitting your diagram, include a 3- to -5 paragraph paper reflecting on how the structure of the criminal justice department that you selected for this assignment is similar to and/or different from the organization presented in the case study in final project. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: A. Constructs a diagram representing the structure of a criminal justice department. B. Composes the structure of the criminal justice department specific to the geographical area. C. Compares and contrasts the selected organization from the organization presented in the case study. D. Analyzes how each department within the organization works symbiotically to achieve its mission statement. Guidelines for
Submission: Your diagram or outline must be submitted as a one-page Microsoft Word document, PowerPoint file (PPT), or PDF file. In addition, your reflection must be submitted as a 3- to -5 paragraph Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Any sources used must be cited in APA forma
Structure of The Criminal Justice System Diagram