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University of Glasgow European Legislation Questions

University of Glasgow European Legislation Questions.

Answering the following questions:1/ To what extent has EU legislation and CJEU jurisprudence affected the UK’s standard for originality in LDMA works? If there has been an affect, do you think this is desirable? ( The words count is 300 up to 400 words).2/ Distinguish between (i) formal sovereignty, (ii) internal sovereignty, (iii) external sovereignty and (iv) autonomy. Provide examples of each of these concepts? ( Free words count)3/ To what extent do you agree with Kobrin’s statement that “[T]o the extent that MNEs serve as a means for nation states to exert, and even increase, national power they are sovereignty affirming rather than sovereignty violating.” (Kobrin, at 7.1) (Free words count).
University of Glasgow European Legislation Questions

Compare the economics of the concentrate business to the bottling business: why is the profitability so different? (50%) Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola were both established at the very end of 19th century. Their history is more than a hundred years old and the size of these two companies is huge. Both of them work in the consumer goods industry providing beverages and other drinks to the customers (http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/historybottling.html) . Pepsi and Coke dominate the market in this sector and form oligopoly in the US and even in the world market: “Among national concentrate producers, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola claimed a combined 74.8% of the U.S. CSD market in sales volume in 2004, followed by Cadbury Schweppes and Cott Corporation.” (Financial data for Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, and Their Major Bottlers.) Their businesses are structured in the same way. They are the biggest concentrate producers. They sell ready concentrate to the bottlers which after convert it into the ready product which is brought to the shop shelves. Bottlers are situated all over the world as the principle of franchising is used. That greatly helps in the spread of CSDs across the globe. However, the returns received by concentrate producers differ from those received by bottlers for several reasons (Yoffie, 2007). Concentrate producers: Capital investment. Concentrate production business is less capital intensive than bottling. It requires less funds to be invested in machinery, labor and modernization. “A typical concentrate manufacturing plant cost about $25 million to $50 million to build, and one plant could serve the entire United States” (Yoffie, 2007). The number of significant costs is small. The major ones are: advertising, Market Research and product development. However, concentrate producers tended to employ large number of people to work with bottlers and their suppliers to ensure quality control and efficiency of production as well as reliable supply of raw materials (e.g. cans) and low prices (Yoffie, 2007). Franchising. The concentrate producers work using the principle of franchising. It means that bottlers pay them in order to become part of the bottling network and are granted “the sales operation in an exclusive geographic territory…(Yoffie, 2007)” Concentrate price. Coca-Cola was able to determine its concentrate prices since 1987 when the Master Bottling Contract was established. Pepsi’s Master Bottling contract was a bit different to Coke’s as it obliged bottlers “to purchase raw materials from Pepsi at prices, and on terms and conditions, determined by Pepsi”. They based the price of the concentrate on CPI and negotiated it with bottlers. “From the 1980s to the early 2000s, concentrate makers regularly raised concentrate prices, even as inflation-adjusted retail prices for CSD products trended downward”, – another reason for greater returns in concentrate production business. As brand promotion was very strong and formula was always kept a secret the whole thing with concentrate was kind of exclusive, so it greatly added towards the price of the concentrate itself and, as the result, towards the returns of concentrate producers (Yoffie, 2007). Raw materials. Concentrate producers required fewer raw materials and their major spending were on caramel coloring, citric acid, caffeine and natural flavorings. Bottlers, vice versa, required large number of production materials. Their major inputs purchased were: packaging (e.g. cans, glass bottles etc.), as well as sweeteners (e.g. aspartame). This process helped concentrate makers to reduce the outflow of the money which increased their profitability (Yoffie, 2007). Bottlers: Dependency. Bottlers were always very dependent on concentrate producers as they were obliged to buy raw materials from them (Pepsi Master Bottling Agreement). They were also very dependent on suppliers of packaging, flavors and sweeteners (Yoffie, 2007). As the price of the concentrate rose, bottlers could not react in the same way and increase price of the final product as they were squeezed by other suppliers of different fruit drinks and other beverages. All of these factors contributed to lower returns in bottling business (Porter, 1997)). Bottling is much more capital intensive industry than concentrate production. It requires huge fund investments and on-going improvement and modernization of bottling lines. Large bottling plant with “a capacity of 40 million cases, could range as high as $75 million” (Yoffie, 2007). High competition. The number of bottlers is much greater than the number of concentrate producers, so the competition took place between them. There was approximately 2000 bottlers in 1970s and the figure dropped to less than 300 by 2004. Ongoing modernization and increasing capacity was required from bottlers (which were often small and family-owned) and not all of them could meet those requirements, so their number dropped. High competition ensures that returns are really low, only enough to survive (Yoffie, 2007). Investments. Besides investments in modernization, bottlers bought trucks for transporting and established the distribution channels. It all required some investments as well (Yoffie, 2007). “Bottlers’ gross profits routinely exceeded 40%, but operating margins were usually in the 7% to 9% range (Comparative Costs of a Typical U.S. Concentrate Bottler and Producer) . Stability. The returns received by bottlers are less than returns received by concentrate producers due to the risk levels as well. The concentrate producers are responsible for brand promotion and invest heavily in trademark to stimulate sales. High returns is what they get as the result. However, bottlers have little risk in their operations as they are given the famous name well-known all over the world. This development provides them with stable returns, and low risk. Can Coke and Pepsi sustain their profits into the future in the wake of flattening demand and the growing popularity of non-carbonated drinks? Justify your answer. In order to answer this question, it is necessary to look at the history of the two companies, as they fought for every customer and had to cope with flattening demand in the past already. Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola are the world’s leading concentrate producers in their industry. These two are U.S. original Multinational Companies which sell their concentrate to the bottlers around all around the world (http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/historybottling.html). Both of these companies have a lot of experience gained during the years of “Cola Wars” and enough funds to keep going and compete for the customers. Coke and Pepsi have innumerous techniques and ideas on how to keep and increase their sales. For example, the introduction of Diet Coke in 1982 was a huge success, ant it was said, that it was the “most successful consumer product launch of the Eighties” (Yoffie, 2007). The Eighties were very important for both companies as a lot of things, which helped sales, happened and new products were introduced. New types of packaging were introduced by the companies and there was a huge rivalry over the shelf space in the shops. Besides, Pepsi and Coke , both had around ten well-known brands, which helped them to enter the other markets (Yoffie, 2007) . In my opinion, both of these firms will be able to sustain their future profits. At the very beginning of the 21st century, Coke had some problems with execution, whereas Pepsi did quite well and acquired some other companies (e.g. Quaker Oats, South Beach Beverage). These actions increased Pepsi’s success and helped it to gain more diversified portfolio. The future of Pepsi and Coke possibly lies in diversification into other non-CSD products (Yoffie, 2007). Due to the health issues (“regular CSDs as the largest source of obesity-causing sugars…”), the consumption of ordinary CSDs dropped. However, brands like Coke Zero and Pepsi Diet helped to keep total sales stable as there was a decrease in the consumption of regular soda, but an increase of these substitutes (Yoffie, 2007). Pepsi realized that in order to be successful it needs to diversify and diversify aggressively, so it did: “Pepsi developed a portfolio of non-CSD products that outsold Coke’s rival product in each category…” As the result of that development Pepsi was sharing 47.3% of the non-CSD market comparing to Coke’s 27%. Both, Pepsi and Coke, diversified into non-CSDs (e.g. Nestea, Gatorade) (Yoffie, 2007). Introduction of new brands and diversification is not enough to sustain profits, and both companies understand that. The U.S. market is very close to satisfaction as an average American consumes approximately 52 gallons of CSDs a year. As the result Coke and Pepsi looked abroad for the future profits. Coke has a big advantage over Pepsi, at it secured its place as the largest soft drink producer just at the very end of the Second World War. During the period after the war Coke expanded its international distribution channels and became a synonym of the American culture. Later Pepsi could move into Middle East and Soviet bloc (Yoffie, 2007). Another reason for Pepsi and Coke remain in business and sustain all the profits is that the barriers to entry exist. Product differentiation exists on the market and CSD is a very specific type of product. It means that if a person wants a can of cola there is not many substitutes he/she can get instead of it (Pepsi, Coke or Schweppes). As the result of huge investments in advertising, customer service and trademark itself there is a strong brand identification and “It is perhaps the most important entry barrier in soft drinks…” This fact ensures stable consumption levels and profit sustainability in future (Porter, 1997). In order to plan for the future SWOT analyses can be done for the firms to see what they have and what challenges they will possibly face. Strengths: Brand identification (Porter, 1997) Well established distribution channels (Yoffie, 2007) Retained earnings and past experience Economies of Scale (Porter, 1997) Weaknesses: Conflicts with Bottlers (Yoffie, 2007) Execution (Yoffie, 2007) Opportunities: Further diversification into other non-CSDs (Yoffie, 2007) Further internationalization Threats: Competition (Porter, 1997) Substitution (Porter, 1997) Suppliers (Porter, 1997) Buyers (Porter, 1997) Brand identification. As the result of the heavy investments of the concentrate producers, the brand is well-known all over the world, and a consumer will choose rather choose something he/she has already tried before. (e.g. between Pepsi-Cola and Pepsi-Kola the consumer would rather pick the first one). This gives Pepsi and Coke the advantage over their rivals. Well-established distribution channels. Both companies have worked with their bottlers, literally, for ages. They have worked with other buyers like Wal-Mart as well, so the system of supply works really well and is very efficient. New competitors will have to shift these international giants from the shelves to enter the market. Retained earnings and past experience. For more than a hundred years Coke and Pepsi were and still are the leading concentrate producers and gained enough funds and experience during the “Cola Wars” to keep going and increase their profits and market share. Economies of Scale. These market leaders (Pepsi and Coke) are very big players who have gained very big economies of scale and can undercut many of their competitors. Conflicts with bottlers. Pepsi and Coke were increasing the concentrate prices squeezing their bottlers and their profits for too long. CCE had to increase its retail price between 6% and 7% as it was in debts already, so did PBG, this resulted in decrease in concentrate makers’ profit. These conflicts could be very dangerous, as the competitors can always act fast. Execution. There was a big problem with execution within Coke in 2001, when it missed few big steps of Pepsi (e.g. SoBe acquisition). Another miss was that Pepsi purchased Quaker Oats. Further diversification into other non-CSDs. As the consumption of non-CSDs is increasing it can be a good opportunity for Coke and Pepsi to further integrate their businesses into production of other soft drinks excluding Pepsi and Coke themselves (e.g. bottled tea). This will help both companies to increase their share of the market. Further internationalization. As American market is very close to the point of saturation the concentrate producers need to further expand in international markets in Europe and especially Middle and Far East. New consumers will help both companies to sustain their profits. Competition. As the industry grows new competitors enter the market, so competition rises and profits can be decreased, so the weaker players will be pushed out of the market. This case can decrease the profits of both companies, so they might suffer. Substitution. New firms enter the market, so they develop new products which become substitutes for the existing products, this can as well decrease the companies’ profit and decrease their share on the market. Suppliers. As number of competitors rises, suppliers can manipulate them and alter the prices, as the concentrate producer market will look more like imperfect competition, so in order to sell more you need to drop the price. Buyers. Very big buyers, like Wal-Mart, can put pressure on the industry as it may ask to lower the prices and as a result profit will drop. Both of these companies are very mature players and well-established businesses. They have been fighting for the consumers for several decades and faced a lot of challenges. Of course, challenges like globalization, increased demand for non-CSDs and competition can result in decreased profits and market shares, but these obstacles make the firms more efficient and consumers benefit because of that.
investment project.

For the final assignment, you will “buy” the investments that have been selected, track those investments on a weekly basis, calculate returns, and then report the results to the client(s).The buy date is Friday, October 19.You will “buy” the selected investments using the closing prices on Friday October 19.The closing prices on Fridays will be available on finance websites starting with the market close on Friday until the markets open on Monday (8:30 our time).You must wait approximately 20 minutes past market close to get the final closing prices.Financial markets close at 3:00 pm (our time), so closing prices will be available at 3:20. The team will create a spreadsheet to record investment information and track prices.The required information in the spreadsheet is:Stocks – company name, ticker symbol, number of shares (fractional shares not allowed), purchase price on 10/19, value (price x shares) at purchaseStock Mutual Funds – name, ticker symbol, number of shares (fractional shares to three decimal places allowed), purchase priceon 10/19, value at purchaseBond Mutual Funds – name, ticker symbol, number of shares (fractional shares to three decimal places allowed), purchase price on 10/19, value at purchaseShort-term Investments – name, amount of money invested, yieldWeekly update of prices for all investments (10/19, 10/26, 11/2, 11/9).The value for short-term investments will remain constant from week to week.Value of all investments (price times number of shares) and overall portfolio value on final date on 11/9Calculate holding periods returns (capital gains or losses only) for each investment, asset class (stocks, stock mutual funds, and bond mutual funds), and overall portfolio for holding period.Assume short-term investments have zero return over the period (stay constant over tracking period).Market benchmark for stocks (SPY) and bonds (AGG) – price on 10/19, 10/26, 11/2, and 11/9 and calculate the holding period returns for each benchmarkPlease note that your allocation after investing may be slightly different than the planned allocation.This will be fine as long as the final allocation is close to the planned allocation.Short-term investments will be the residual value that is not invested in stocks, stock mutual funds, and bond mutual funds.Transaction costs can be ignored.Your team will “track” the prices using Friday closing prices for the dates of 10/26, 11/2, and 11/9.At the end of the tracking period, holding period returns (capital gains and losses only) must be calculated in the spreadsheet.Calculate holding periods returns (capital gains or losses only) for each investment, asset class (stocks, stock mutual funds, bond mutual funds), and overall portfolio for holding period.The short-term requires no update and stays at the initial value.Also, you will calculate the holding period return for two exchange traded funds as market benchmarks, one for stocks (S&P 500 – ticker symbol SPY) and one for bonds (Lehman Aggregate Bond – ticker symbol AGG) for comparison.After calculating the returns, the portfolio performance needs to be discussed (how did your investments perform; which asset class was the riskiest (from observation of weekly price changes); were individual stocks more volatile than stock mutual funds; how did the performance of international mutual funds compare to domestic funds; how did the stocks and stock mutual funds perform compared to bond mutual funds, etc.)The team also is required to discuss the portfolio performance compared to market benchmark.For the discussion, bonus points may be possible if the discussion is outstanding.In your final summary, critique your investment selections, discuss what would you do different with your clients’ portfolio (asset allocation, investment selection, etc.) if you could start over with the project, and what you learned from the project.On that day, the team must submit two items:1) the final excel spreadsheet with all required information and calculations (in excel)2) a word document with the discussion of the performance and summary.I almost done the part of price stock. check the picture at first. you could make everything better . it is best if you could add one more stock.the excel is sample for help. let me know if you have any questions.
investment project

Reflection on Classroom Management as a Teacher

My teaching career has just begun. I do not have my own classroom yet and have only obtained one year of experience, last school year, as an elementary aide for a kindergarten and first-grade classroom. After several years in another field of work, I quickly realized my initial calling of being a teacher had to be answered. I earned my bachelor’s degree in Finance and worked in financial institutions, then quickly realizing my passion for children, teaching, and making a difference in a child’s life is what I was meant to do. I am on the road to achieving the education that I need to do just those things. Being committed to students and their learning is the first step I took to beginning my teaching career, and one that I believe every aspiring teacher takes. You must be devoted and passionate for what you are doing in these young children’s’ lives. During my experience as an elementary aide, I became quickly committed to the students in my classrooms. I was not their primary teacher; however, they looked to me as a helpful resource when needed and just saw themselves as having two teachers. I eagerly stepped in and participated in every single part of the instruction that went on in the classes. These students knew they could call on me to assist them with anything they needed. There were times I gave money to those who were having a bad morning and parents forgot to send snack money. I had days I gave snacks out of my lunchbox to students who did not have one thing to eat for a snack. These students often received snacks from their teachers due to family situations. There was no fuss or scene made. I simply would just hand out the snack or place on the student’s desk, and most often the rest of the class never even noticed what was going on. These students began to entrust in me and feel a sense of security from our relationship. They knew I would do whatever I could, within feasible realms, to be there for them. This trust goes a long way in a student-teacher relationship and can make for a great impact on the learning-teaching going on in the classroom. Most people think if a teacher is teaching a subject then they should be a mere expert in the content. However, I know that once I am assigned my grade level and subjects, I will definitely have to use other resources to brush up my knowledge on the content I am going to teach. Not having my own classroom right now or ever limits the content knowledge I have for specific areas of teaching. I feel confident in the basic elementary content knowledge required to teach early childhood education. When I begin teaching the way I plan to get students to fully understand the content will be based on my lesson structure, grouping strategies, and technology I use in the classroom. I plan to use a mixture of teacher-led and student-led instruction, small group settings, such as those needed for remediation, and partner talks. I hope to have a smart board and internet access in my future classroom to be able to really tap into technology that will be needed to drive some of the curricula. One classroom management practice that we used in my kindergarten class was a golden ticket system. It is more of a “catch me being good” system, including a more positive disciplinary plan. Students who are caught doing something “extraordinary” and not something that is a standard procedure or rule of the classroom, will be called on to get a golden ticket out of the cup. We had a pocket chart with each child’s name on a pocket and this is where they keep their golden tickets. There is a reward system for certain benchmarks of golden tickets they receive, such as 5 they can get a sucker, 10 goes to the prize box, etc. They do not have to cash their tickets in at each benchmark. They are allowed to save them up to receive one of the bigger prizes. This also teaches them about the values of saving up or anticipating something. I plan to use progress monitoring as a major academic assessment strategy in my classroom. In the kindergarten classroom that I aided in we did pre-assessments on phonemic awareness and a reading assessment test to determine a reading level. These assessments helped us to group students initially based upon their abilities coming into the school year. We began tracking their progress with things such as a sight word rainbow. Each color in the rainbow contained different sight words and they could begin reciting each color strip to us after the first few weeks of school. This allowed them to work at their own pace, but allowed us to see where each student stood regarding the success of knowing and reciting their words. We could then group our reading groups accordingly. Some students took all year to be able to sight the seven color strips of the rainbow, while others were finished by the third semester of school. Although I do not have my own classroom to implement my own assessment strategies, one strategy that I know I will use is formative assessments. I have studied about these in several classes I have had and have seen them implemented in some classrooms I completed observation hours in. One way this was used was during small group remediation, having exit tickets. This requires the students to have skill mastery before moving on to the next thing. Having routines in place, clear directions, and classroom rules that are visually placed in the classroom are very important in running a systematic classroom. Being very organized and OCD I will have a set of classroom rules placed in the front of my classroom. On the first day of school, this will be a critical topic we cover in the classroom. Dependent upon the grade level I teach, we may review these rules over a course of the first week or two until they are absorbed into the little ones’ brains, mainly early childhood age. Allowing the children to know the expectations of themselves and the classroom, makes for smoother transitions and better flow of daily activities. I have not experienced creating or teaching my own lessons yet, but I do know that I will be using reflection time generously in my future teaching career. I feel this is the only way to better my teaching planning, instruction, and assessing. Noting and reflecting each lesson I teach will be my way of evaluating myself and knowing how to remediate before the next lesson or the next school year when I teach the content again. Not having my own classroom responsibilities or full-time teaching position has limited my experience as a member of a learning community or me having extra duties outside of teaching each day. I did, however, attend the students I was an aide for extracurricular activities, like their baseball games. The excitement they had once they saw that one of their teachers was coming to watch them was so heartwarming. I loved to see the students in a different setting other than school. Although I am not a practicing teacher yet, I learned so much during the one school year I served as an aide. Each day inspired me to complete my education requirements so that I could soon be serving in a classroom somewhere. Being a teacher is a fulfilling experience and the challenges you face and the accomplishments of these challenges make each and every day worth going to work for. It is truly not a job but something that I love and enjoy and knowing each day that I could have a positive impact or make a difference in just one child’s life makes it all worthwhile. National Board Teaching Practices Rubric Teaching Practices 3-5 typed pages (5 ½ max) Evidence of the following: One: Teachers are committed to students and their learning. Two: Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students. Three: Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning. Four: Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience. Five: Teachers are members of learning communities. Organization/Clarity Grammar/Editing APA Errors (-1 each, up to -3) Overall quality TOTAL ______/10 ______/10 ______/10 ______/10 ______/10 ______/10 ______/10 ______/30 ______/100

Excelsior College Public Health Community Gardens Position Paper

custom essay Excelsior College Public Health Community Gardens Position Paper.

Your paper must contain the following elements:An introduction including a statement that describes your selected public health topic. Topic selected: neighborhood characteristics like ‘food deserts’ and how they affect health; community gardeners can assist the public by having accesible free food, decreased the risk of chronic conditions and even decreased violence int he area. A detailed description of your position on the public health topic. The description must include:Identification and explanation of at least three (3) factors that contribute to your selected public health topic (i.e., what has made this an issue, made it worse, or made it better?)Epidemiological information about who is most affected by your selected public health topic (e.g., specific age, gender, racial, income groups, etc)A detailed explanation of at least one policy or specific challenge that has created and maintained this public health topic. In particular, please answer the following questions when/if applicable: A detailed description of at least two (2) strategies or solutions (e.g., policies, programs) that could help solve challenges of your selected public health topic.A conclusion summarizing the main points of the papera.Whether you believe the topic is related to public health and why/how or why notb.Potential implications of this topic (i.e., what does this mean for the public?), positive and/or negativec.Relevance of the topic to you personally a.Who initiated the policy?b.When was the policy enacted?c.What was the original intent of the policy? d.What circumstances contributed to the development and enactment of the policy? The final paper must meet the following formatting guidelines:Length: At minimum, 5 pages double spaced (The cover/title page, references, and appendices are not included in the length requirement)References: Must be formatted to according to one of the professional citation styles mentioned above (APA). A minimum of 7 different sources must be cited My college uses Turnitin for all written assignments
Excelsior College Public Health Community Gardens Position Paper

Planning Activities to Meet Individual Needs in a Child

Nisha Patel (1) Explain the benefits for children when their individual needs are met. In the setting as every child is different, it is important to think about, plan for, and interact with the individual, as well as the group as a whole. Consider the range of children’s styles, social interactions and personalities: Some are quiet; others are noisy Some like to spend time by themselves; others are the life of the party Some are shy; others are outgoing Some are active; others are quiet Some enter into new situations easily; others like to stand back and watch There are differences in cultural and language backgrounds, life experiences, temperament, interests, skills and talents. If you are a new staff member, talk to colleagues who already know the children. Take advantage of what they know and how they see the child. A caution however: try not to use ‘labels’ and fixed ways of seeing a child. Everyone sees and relates to people differently. It may be hard to both listen to what others say and form your own opinion, but do try to keep an open mind about a child who is considered difficult or challenging in some way. Ask if you can look at the enrolment forms. They may have non-confidential information that could be useful to you in getting to know a child. Talking formally to the child’s family. They will have great insights about the child. Learn from their perspectives. Help nurture a culture among staff of talking to each other about children and sharing insights. Learn children’s names, greet them by name, and take every opportunity to have individual conversations with children. Be careful about talking only or mainly to the whole group or numbers of children at a time. You don’t really get to know somebody unless you interact individually. As you get to know children, try to notice, comment on or talk about something that is unique to that child – a new haircut or piece of clothing, a comment about something you did or talked about yesterday, something you read or heard that you think he or she might be interested in. Pay attention to a child who is telling you something. This is a challenge, as it might be necessary to maintain supervision and awareness of what is going on around you while at the same time engaging with the child. Be a good listener and observer. Spend time just watching children interact with others and engage with the material. Listen in on conversations. Make notes so that you can remember and make constructive use of the information. Accept individual differences in children. This doesn’t mean tolerating disruptive or destructive behaviour, but it does mean working with the fact that each child is different. Be aware of your own notions or biases of the ‘ideal’ child. Each of us probably has preferences – some like outgoing cheeky children, while others gravitate towards dreamy, quiet or reflective children. Think about how these ideals might affect your interactions with children. Similarly, think about what kinds of behaviour or characteristics really bother you in children. Acknowledge these biases to yourself and maybe even to your colleagues, and then work against them as you interact with children. When a child has an additional need such as a disability, or when there is a language or cultural barrier or a behavioural problem, try to figure out ways to deal constructively with it – for example to communicate with a child who has limited English, or to truly include a child in a wheelchair. At all times, there are choices of things to do among a range of different kinds of activities. There is flexibility about who is doing what, when and for how long. There are relatively few if any times when everyone is expected to do the same thing. The majority of materials are open- ended – that is, they lend themselves to a variety of uses so that children can adapt them to their own interests and agendas. (2) Describe how the principles of anti- discriminatory practice can be applied to practice. In the setting anti-discriminatory practice is very important in a childcare setting to ensure that everyone involved in the setting, such as children, parents/carers and staff members are not discriminated against in relation to their age, disability, ethnicity, gender, health, religious beliefs and sexuality. In my setting we apply anti-discriminatory practice with children by ensuring we show no favouritism in children and all the children get treated the same, also we ensure we do not refuse any children because of their beliefs, religion etc. Our setting is committed to anti-discriminatory practice to promote equality of opportunity and valuing diversity for all children and families. We aim to: provide a secure and accessible environment in which all children can flourish and in which all contributions are considered and valued; include and value the contribution of all families to our understanding of equality and diversity; provide positive non-stereotyping information about gender roles and diverse family structures, diverse ethnic and cultural groups and disabled people; improve our knowledge and understanding of issues of anti-discriminatory practice, promoting equality and valuing diversity; challenge and eliminate discriminatory actions; make inclusion a thread that runs through all of the activities of the setting; foster good relations between all communities. We do not discriminate against a child or their family, or prevent entry to our setting, on the basis of a protected characteristic as defined by the Equalities Act 2010. These are: disability; race; gender reassignment; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation; age; pregnancy and maternity; and marriage and civil partnership. We do not discriminate against a child with a disability or refuse a child entry to our setting for reason relating to disability. We believe that no child, individual or family should be excluded from Pre-school’s activities on grounds of age, gender, sexuality, class, family status, means, disability, colour, ethnic origin, culture, religion or belief. In the setting we will ensure that our service is fully inclusive in meeting the needs of all children. We recognise that children and their families come from diverse backgrounds. All families have needs and values that arise from their social and economic, ethnic and cultural or religious backgrounds. Children grow up in diverse family structures that include two parent and one parent families. Some children have two parents of the same sex. Some children have close links with extended families of grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins while others may be more removed from close kin or may live with other relatives or foster carers. Some children have needs that arise from disability or impairment or may have parents that are affected by disability or impairment. Some children come from families who experience social exclusion or severe hardship. Some have to face discrimination and prejudice because of their ethnicity, the languages they speak, their religious or belief background, their gender or their impairment. (3) Describe why it is important to plan activities that meet the individual needs of children. In the setting it is important for practitioners to identify children’s care and learning needs in a setting, there are many reasons for this. Firstly, is to promote development. Some children develop and learn faster than others and it is partly our responsibility to ensure all children’s needs are cared for no matter what stage of development they are at. We can do this by carrying out observations; these help us to identify the exact learning needs of children. They can show us clearly what stage of development each individual child is at, we would compare each child against milestones for that age and stage of development and then we can begin to plan to meet the learning needs of certain children who are not meeting milestones and also plan to accommodate for those children who are over excelling the milestones. Children will develop better if there are adequate numbers of staff/adults present, taking into account the correct staff ratios for each particular age of children. With more hands on around the setting children will benefit greatly so it is important to plan how many adults/staff should be present for a particular day/activity, by doing so there is a higher chance of meeting all of the children’s needs. For example, in my placement I am in a Primary 1 class where there is a teacher and a classroom assistant. For this age range of children the extra support is extremely important as the children’s care and learning needs are higher than that of a Primary 7 child i.e. toileting, a Primary 1 child would need more assistance than that of a Primary 7 child. So if a teacher is caring for the needs of a child who has had a toileting accident it is important to have a classroom assistant so that the other children are supervised and their needs also met. (4) Explain how the practitioner can promote children’s physical and emotional well- being within an early year setting. Physical well-Being Between birth – 6 months a child will: Turn their head toward sounds and movement Watch an adult’s face when feeding Smile at familiar faces and voices Reach up to hold feet when lying on their backs Look and reach for objects Hold and shake a rattle Put everything in their mouths Between 6 – 12 months: Move from sitting with support to sitting alone Roll over from their tummy to their back Begin to creep, crawl or shuffle on their bottom Pull on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position Raises arms to be lifted Turn and look up when they hear their name Pat and poke objects when playing Pass objects from hand to hand Look for things that have been hidden or dropped Reaches hand towards source of food Between 12 -24 months: Begin to walk Sits alone indefinitely Feed themselves Push and pull toys while walking Wave goodbye Point or make noises to indicate wants Enjoy a picture Shake head for ‘No’ Uses thumb and first two fingers to grip Bangs objects together Stoops to pick things up from the floor Begins to show preference for one hand Builds tower of few bricks Holds crayon in palm and makes marks on paper Between 24 – 36 months : Kneels to play Throws Kicks ball Builds larger brick tower Pour liquids Between 36 – 60 months: Jumps with feet together Walks on tip toes Walks up and down stairs Catches a gently thrown ball Climbs with increasing confidence Paints Gains control over eating tools Pedals Throws with aim Uses scissors Holds a pencil and can draw people/houses Hops Kicks with aim Catches ball Handles pencil with control Copy shapes and write some letters Sews stitches Emotional well- being: Birth- 3 months: Responds to adults especially mothers face and voice Smiles, concentrates on adults face during feeding Very dependent on adults for reassurance and comfort, quietens when held and cuddled Fleeing smiles when asleep Between 6 – 12 months: Enjoys company of others and games like peek-a-boo Shows affection to known carer, but shy with strangers Between 12 – 24 months : Likes to please adults and to perform for an audience May become anxious or distressed if separated from known adults May use comfort objects Mostly cooperative and can be distracted from unwanted behaviour Between 24 – 36 months: Developing sense of own identity, wanting to do things for self Demanding of adult attention, jealous of attention given to others, reluctant to share playthings or adults attention Acts impulsively, requiring needs to be met instantly, prone to bursts of emotion tantrums Enjoys playing with adult or older child who will give attention, beginning to play with others of own age for short periods Between 36 – 48 months: Becoming more independent and self motivated Feels more secure and able to cope with unfamiliar surroundings and adults for periods of time Becoming more cooperative with adults and likes to help Between 48 – 60 months: Makes friends but may need help in resolving disputes Developing understanding of rules, but still finds turn-taking difficult Enjoys helping others and taking responsibility Learns lots about the world and how it works, and about people and relationships Makes friends (often short-term) and plays group games Needs structure and a routine to feel safe When behaviour is ‘over the top’, they need limits to be set Bibliography:- (1) Kate, Kath, Sue, Penny.(2010) 1st edition, London: Heinemann. (2) Kate et al (2010) 1st edition, London: Heinemann.

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Hyderabad Technology Acceptance Model Research

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Hyderabad Technology Acceptance Model Research.

This week’s journal article was focused on how information and communication innovation drives change in educational settings. The key focus of the article was how technology-based leadership has driven the digital age. Also, the role of technology leadership incorporates with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).In this paper, address the following key concepts:Define TAM and the components.Note how TAM is impacting educational settings.Give an overview of the case study presented and the findings.Google Scholar is also a great source for research. Please be sure that journal articles are peer-reviewed and are published within the last five years.The paper should meet the following requirements:· 3-5 pages in length (not including title page or references)· APA 7 guidelines must be followed. The paper must include a cover page, an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.· A minimum of five peer-reviewed journal articles.The writing should be clear and concise. Headings should be used to transition thoughts.Note: Based on the provided instructions, you can choose relevant articles from google.
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Hyderabad Technology Acceptance Model Research