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University of Central Missouri Privacy & Compliance Data Privacy Discussion

University of Central Missouri Privacy & Compliance Data Privacy Discussion.

Learning Objectives and OutcomesAnalyze importance of privacy and compliance with the privacy regulations.Identify information that is protected by the Privacy Act.Assignment RequirementsRead the worksheet named “Privacy and Compliance” and address the following:Using what you have learned about the importance of privacy and compliance with the privacy regulations, identify information that is protected by the Privacy Act.Respond to your peers with your point of view on their answers. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ original thread posts with between 100 – 150 words for each reply. Make sure your opinion is substantiated with valid reasons and references to the concepts covered in the course. In addition, initiate a discussion with the students who comment on your answer.
University of Central Missouri Privacy & Compliance Data Privacy Discussion

Need chemistry help to balance the following half-reaction occurring in an acidic solution..

Balance the following half-reaction occurring in acidic solution. NO3–(aq) → NO(g)Select one:a. NO3–(aq) + 4H+ (aq) + 3e- → NO(g) + 2H2O(l)b. NO3–(aq) + 4H+(aq) → NO(g) + 2H2O(l) + 3e-c. NO3–(aq) + 3e-  → NO(g) + 4H+(aq) + 2H2O(l)d. NO3–(aq) + 4H+(aq) → NO(g) + 2H2O(l)
Need chemistry help to balance the following half-reaction occurring in an acidic solution.

University of Wisconsin Madison Chilean Coup and Dictatorship Paper.

Wikipedia is a powerful tool for gaining a quick understanding of new subject matter. Most articles have an outline that can help you pinpoint areas of further study as well as holding potentially useful links to accurate sources. However, Wikipedia has limits for deeper research because it is erratic.For an exercise, Google “Chile coup,” as you may have done for last Thursday’s homework. The first entry listed is the Wikipedia link below:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_Chilean_coup_d%27état (Links to an external site.)Let’s hypothesize that you had heard the US was somehow involved with the coup and wanted to learn if it was true. Read the first two paragraphs. Notice the last sentence on paragraph two. It states that the Nixon Administration “worked to create the conditions for the coup.” Hover your curser over the footnotes listed there: [9][10][11]. These are the sources used to support the statement. Make note of the authors of each source; write them down if you can’t remember them.Next, Google “Chile dictatorship.” The first entry listed is again, a Wikipedia link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_dictatorship_of_Chile_(1973–1990) (Links to an external site.)1-Read the first paragraph of the article. What is the last line in essence informing the reader?2-Do you recognize any of the authors from the first article? What does this suggest about the Wikipedia’s content and sourcing? 3-Open the footnoted source article, [1], using ELAC’s library if needed. You don’t have to read the arguments in the article, but try to explain what the purpose of the writing is. Who are the two authors? What’s taking place here? What does this tell us about Wikipedia?
University of Wisconsin Madison Chilean Coup and Dictatorship Paper

Resolving the tensions between Privacy and Intellectual Property Interests The article begins by giving background information on two related cases; the Verizon vs. RIAA case and the MGM vs. Grockster case. The appeal process in the Verizon case according to the author was ruled in favor of the privacy rights of users of P2P networks while appeal processes in MGM case was ruled in favor of property rights holders. According to the author the decreasing public domain in extending the extent of copyright of any copyrightable material is infringed by the Copyright Act of 1976 (Grodzinsky

Academic Essay with the following hypothesis as the title: “In order to sustain a competitive advantage and/or deliver value Essay

Academic Essay with the following hypothesis as the title: “In order to sustain a competitive advantage and/or deliver value Essay. Academic Essay with the following hypothesis as the title: “In order to sustain a competitive advantage and/or deliver value for money, both the private and public sectors must rigorously adhere to the traditionally accepted concepts, theories and elements of Strategic Management and Strategic Project Management” Please see the attached further instructionsAcademic Essay with the following hypothesis as the title: “In order to sustain a competitive advantage and/or deliver value Essay

Effect of visual and auditory memory on learning

essay writing help This investigation was carried out with the collaboration of sixty college students aged from 19 to 20-years-old from my college. The main aim was to investigate which stimulus-audio and visual was a better method on daily-learning. This large group was broken down into two smaller groups comprising of thirty subjects for the testing on each stimulus. First group was given an article to read while the second group was allowed to listen to a short sound clip without any disturbance. Once they were done with the article and the recording clip, a distraction test- Sudoku (Easy) was given. Both groups were then required to answer fifteen short questions. Z-test was used as the statistical model and led to the rejection of the null hypothesis which claimed that there will be no significant difference between the two groups. To round it up, the mean score of visual memory test obtained was 10.2, significantly higher than auditory memory test which obtained 6.1; hence proving that visual stimulus was better than audio stimulus in terms of keeping short-term memory. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There will be no significant difference between the results of auditory and visual stimulus on the test and both should share the same mean score in the experiment. EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: Visual stimulus will have higher significance result in the memory test compared to auditory stimulus. Cumulative word count: 236 RESEARCH AND RATIONALE: Figure 1: Different parts in brain. (Canadian Institute of Health Research) Our brain is the centre of information processing where instructions can be relayed in the form of electrical impulse to bring a coordinated response to the whole organism. Our sensory organ (e.g. ear or eye) detects a stimulus (e.g. music or notes) via its receptors (either visual or auditory); the new information will then be processed into a short-term memory. Short -term memory (STM) will only last for a short period like one minute normally. (8) Certain regions such as the pre-frontal lobe (Figure 1) in our brain are activated when such stimulus is being detected. Cumulative word count: 346 Figure 2: Synapses between NMDA and AMPA (Source: www.google.com.my/search?q=LTP) Hippocampus holds new information such as short notes (reading) and song’s rhythm temporarily and may integrate these two stimuli into various aspects of an experience. Undergoing consolidation of memory, memory can be then stored longer in our brain resulting in long-term memory. The underlying mechanism requires both AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors and NMDA (N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid) receptors (Figure 2) are two types of vital receptors present on plasma membrane of post-synaptic neurone. When pre-synaptic neuron is stimulated, neurotransmitter glutamate is released. It will then bind with AMPA receptors on post- Cumulative word count: 444 synaptic neuron and at the same time NMDA receptor will be blocked by magnesium ion. Subsequently, ion channels open up, allowing sodium ions to pass into post-synaptic neuron, thus depolarize the membrane. If postsynaptic membrane is strongly depolarized, magnesium ion will move away from NMDA receptors, allowing glutamate to bind with it. This will lead to the opening of calcium ion channel and resulted in more AMPA receptors to be inserted into membrane. Finally, nitrogen oxide will be released due to stimulation of calcium ion diffuses into pre-synaptic neuron and release more glutamate. This phenomenon is termed as long term potentation (LTP). (8) Figure 3: Baddely;s Model (Source: http://ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca/kin356/cexec/cexec.htm) Working memory is the further extension from short-term memory, where sophisticated task such as thinking, reasoning and learning information are being held firmly in our mind. According to Baddeley’s model of working memory, the Homo sapiens have a central executive that stores and maintains new information with the aid of 3 slaves Cumulative word count: 605 mechanisms: Phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad (VSSP) and episodic buffer. (Figure 3) The phonological loop stores audio information, while the VSSP stores visual and spatial information and the episodic buffer act as integrator of phonological, visual and other information unrelated to slave systems. (2) Figure 4: Image of fMRI of brain when visual stimulus is detected. (Canadian Institute of Health Research) Figure 4 shows fMRI image when a visual stimulus is detected. The visual stimuli were seen and undergoes rehearse with a solid image build-up in our brain whereas for auditory stimuli, mental images are ‘created’ instead of ‘received’. (1) This suggests that our brain has to think harder in order to get a ‘picture’ for audio stimulus instead of receiving a complete and precise image from visual stimulus. According to an experiment conducted by Elizabeth Hilton, the mean score for visual group is higher than auditory group by 11%. Thus, she concluded that visual condition did relatively better than the auditory condition. “As hypothesized, visual short-term memory will have a longer and more accurate duration than auditory short-term memory.” (1) Cumulative word count: 786 The outcome of this experiment may have significant impact on our future learning. In college, students and lecturers often have to race against time to complete the entire syllabus in order to meet the demands of examination. Thus, facilitators tend to speed up the classes by merely summarising the vital points verbally and resulted in certain students facing problems in their respective courses. The outcome of this study can be used as a yardstick, for lecturers to refine their teaching method in order to present key ideas for each topic efficiently. In addition, they can prepare their slides using PowerPoint, as it will yield a better understanding between students and the subject taught. Besides, notes in the form of hard copies can be distributed as this is far better than merely orally presentation. Cumulative word count: 919 PLANNING: Trial A: To determine the length of an article. First and foremost, two short scientific articles have been collected with varies number of words. Ten students were given a passage titled-‘Study Explores Which Carnivores Are Most Likely To Kill Other Carnivores’-Science Daily, an article of 227 words and were then required to read through the article once and answer ten short questions related to the article. The trial was then repeated with the same group with another scientific article entitled-‘Beyond Fossil Fuels’ by Harrison Dillon which has approximately 1200 words. No. of words (article) Students’ Achievement Replicate 1 Replicate 2 Median Score Mean Score Median Score Mean Score 227 10.0 9.8 10.0 9.7 1200 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.5 Table 1: Results on the achievement of students. Results collected from trial A depicted that students actually performed better in the first article, which average scoring at near full-mark as compared to the second article, where majority only managed to score merely more than half of the score. Therefore, an article around 400-600 words was chosen so that the results obtained will be more reliable as for means of comparing between these two stimulus. Cumulative word count: 1112 Trial B: Selection on the number of questions and type of answers (multiple choice and written type). The aim for trial B was to set the most suitable number of questions for subjects to answer. Eight participants were divided into 4 groups and were required to read an article entitled-Agriculture by Science Daily (410 words), and were tasked to finish all the questions given. Number of Questions Types of answer Mean scores Percentage (%) 10 Multiple choices 10.0 100.0 Written 9.0 90.0 20 Multiple choices 17.0 85.0 Written 14.0 70.0 Table 2: Results from Trial B. Cumulative word count: 1208 Participants from the third and fourth group claimed that the number of questions was too much while students from first and second group expressed satisfaction for both number of questions and types of answer. Subjects who participated in the objective session clarified that they did randomly circled answers for questions that they didn’t know how to answer. Hence, the number of questions was set to 15; and answers presented should be in written form to avoid random luck and aimed to test purely on their memory capability. Trial C: Duration of distraction task. A third trial was conducted to determine the length of distraction task. The main purpose of distraction task was to prevent the information from being rehearsed in their mind. Ten random pupils were divided into five groups and were tasked to finish a ‘6×6 Sudoku’ after finishing an article entitled Agriculture by Science Daily (410 words) and were required to finish the ‘Sudoku’ as much as they can within duration of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 minutes. After that, they were required to answer a set of 15 questions regarding the article they had just read. Time Median score Mean score 1 minute 14.0 13.7 2 minutes 13.0 13.0 3 minutes 10.0 10.3 4 minutes 8.0 7.7 5 minutes 5.0 5,3 Table 3: Results for duration of distraction task on median and mean scores. Cumulative word count: 1436 As shown in table 3, the longer the time taken for a distraction test, the lower the mean score will be. Hence, 2.5minutes was chosen as a compromised time in order to finish the Sudoku and prevent the memory from decaying further with time. Trial D: Time required finishing answering all the questions. A fourth trial was conducted to determine a suitable time limit for students to finish their questions. Six students were divided into three groups and each groups were required to read an article entitled- Agriculture by Science Daily (410 words), and complete a 6X6 Sudoku in maximum 2.5 minutes or less, and were required to finish all the fifteen questions within 2 minute, 4 minutes and 6 minutes. Time (minutes) Median score Mean score 2 8.0 8.0 4 11.0 11.0 6 14.0 14.0 Table 4: Results on the scores obtained in different times. According to the result obtained, the more time allocated for the trial, the better a subject performed. Feedbacks collected from the first two groups of students were that the time allocated was brief and needed to be increased in order for them to complete all the questions, while subjects from the third group(6 minutes) expressed satisfaction on the time given, but felt slight stress upon completing the questions. Thus, no time limit is set so that students could answer the questions comfortably without feeling any pressure. Cumulative word count: 1668 Trials conducted above were merely tested on visual input and these factors were assumed to have the same effect on auditory input. The manipulated variable in this experiment was the type of stimulus tested. The responding variable was the mean score obtained from these two tests. The constant variables were the time of day for this test to be conducted, age of subjects, level of education, condition of surrounding, and proportion of genders in each group. All the tests were conducted in the evening by students from UiTM INTEC. With each participants set at the age of 20 years old, and currently undertaking the same GCE-A level this year. Proportion of gender for each group was set as 15 males and 15 females. Cumulative word count: 1791 PROCEDURE: A number of sixty participants were divided into equal number of males and females, with each member numbered with odd and even digits. Odd digits group members were tasked to test on visual stimuli in conference room A, while even digits group members were tasked to test on auditory stimuli in conference room B. Both group members were each given a confidentiality form, a foolscap paper as answer sheet, and a closed-paper with 15 questions. An article entitled- Wild Birds May Play a Role in the Spread of Bird Flu, by Science Daily (Appendix 1) was distributed only in group A and can only be opened once they are told to do so. On the other hand, members from group B were required to listen to a sound clip regarding to the same article played by a computer connected to speakers in the room. Before the recording was played, the volume of speakers was adjusted to ensure a clear sound throughout the room. Group A was asked to read through the article once, and was tasked to complete the Sudoku distraction test (Appendix 3) within 2.5 minutes or less, and then finish all the 15 questions (Appendix 2). As for group B, the recording was played only once in the room. Subjects were required to listen carefully, and were tasked to finish the same Sudoku distraction test (Appendix 3) in 2.5 minutes or less and then finish all the questions related subsequently. The answer sheets were then collected and the data were recorded in tables. Z-test was used as statistical method to analyse the mean score for both groups. Cumulative word count: 2066 RISK ASSESSMENT: This experiment was conducted in the safest manner and deemed low-ranked in terms of risk, given zero complaint in students’ feedbacks. For visual experiment, the room was well lit and the brightness of light was altered according to students’ demand. Subjects with eye defects such as myopia (short-sightedness) were required to wear their optical aid such as glasses and contact lenses. On the other group, the volume of speakers was adjusted to a reasonable and clear volume to avoid impairment on hearing before the experiment begun. Everyone was briefed beforehand with the utmost aim of the experiment that was to determine which stimulus is better for daily learning purposes only, and neither to undermine nor challenge one’s intellectual. They were also given assurance on their real identity, which will be kept anonymous. Participants who felt unwell or unhealthy will be exempted and those who opted to withdraw themselves from this experiment were replaced. This was to ensure every student is willing to assist in their own accord and assist the experiment whole-heartedly. Cumulative word count: 2240 OBSERRVING AND RECORDING: Score(s) Obtained Number of subject(s) Visual Stimulus, X1 Auditory Stimulus, X2 1 0 0 2 0 1 3 1 1 4 0 2 5 0 5 6 0 8 7 0 10 8 4 2 9 5 0 10 6 0 11 9 1 12 2 0 13 1 0 14 1 0 15 1 0 Total (participants), 30 30 Table 5: Results collected from 60 participants for both memory tests. Cumulative word count: 2314 Quartiles Visual Stimulus Auditory Stimulus Lower, Q1 Ã-30 = 7.5 8th place = 9 Ã-30 =7.5 8th place = 5 Median, Q2 Ã-30 = 15 = 15th and 16th place = (10 10) = 10.0 Ã-30 = 15 = 15th and 16th place = (6 6) = 6 Upper, Q3 Ã-30 = 22.5 23rd place = 11 Ã-30 = 22.5 23rd place = 7 Table 6: Quartiles calculated for both stimuli. Cumulative word count: 2389 Graph 1A: Box plot of the scores for visual stimulus. Graph 1B: Box plot of the scores for auditory stimulus. Cumulative word count: 2409 INTERPRETATION: From the box plot, 50% of the participants managed to score 10.0 marks, which was significantly higher than auditory stimulus which obtained a median score of 6.0. These showed that majority of students scored higher if visual was used as an input. However, both shared the same inter-quartile range (Upper quartile – Lower quartile) of 2. Both data were assumed to be normally distributed as Q3Q2 = Q2 Q1. Z-test was applied as statistical method as the number of samples (participants) for each stimulus was more or equal than 30, n Sixty college students were randomly selected from a group of 200 pupils and all of them have the same chance to be selected to assist in this experiment. One the other hand, t-test was not applied as the statistical method as the number of samples in this experiment is more than 30. (4) Cumulative word count: 2553 Types of Stimulus Visual, X1 Auditory, X2 Number of Subjects,Æ’ 30 30 Mean, = = =10.2 (1 d.p.) = = =6.1 (1 d.p.) Æ’ X2 = 3237 = 1197 Standard Deviation, σ = =1.96468827 = =1.640121947 Table 7: Statistical data tabulated from both types of tests. Cumulative word count: 2620 Hypothesis Test for Two Mean Scores H0: 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 (The mean scores for both stimuli tests are equivalent.) H1: 𝜇1 > 𝜇2 (The mean score of visual memory test is higher than auditory memory test.) Significant level: 5% Provided, Null Hypothesis= 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 σ1 = 1.96468827 σ2 = 1.640121947 n1 = 30 n2 = 30 Then, 1 2 ~N Using Central Limit Theorem, the test statistic will be: Z= With H0, 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 (mean score for visual stimulus = mean score of auditory stimulus) Hence, Z= = = 8.774529412 8.7745 (4 d.p.) Cumulative word count: 2724 From the Table of Percentage Points of The Normal Distribution, 0.05 or 5% probability gives a z-value of 1.6449. The value obtained from the one tail-test above is significant. Null Hypothesis was thus, rejected with sufficient evidence to conclude that visual memory has better effect on this experiment than auditory memory. The result obtained from Z-test clearly favoured visual memory more than auditory memory. At 5% of significant level, z (8.7745) was higher than critical value of 1.6449, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. At least 95% chance that the results of both groups were significantly different; with visual will have a greater impact than auditory. This experiment was concordant with the one Elizabeth Hilton conducted, where the mean score for visual memory is 13% higher than auditory memory. (1) Cumulative word count: 2853 Graph 2: Bar chart of memory scores obtained by participants in both groups. Cumulative word count: 2866 Participants for visual memory quiz clearly outperformed participants from auditory group. Majority of them scored between 8 to 15 marks for visual quiz, while most of the participants scored between 2 to 8 marks for the auditory group. Twenty students managed to score between 10 to 15 marks in visual group; while twenty-three students only managed to obtain score between 5 to 7 marks. The mode score for visual group was 11 marks, while auditory group was 7 marks, four marks of difference. Incredibly, a student managed to score full marks in the visual group, due to the photo genetic memory as assumed. From the results obtained, it was clearly shown that pupils do score much more when they were given visual input, as the information can be held and rehearsed longer in the brain. Although subjects in visual group tend to score higher marks than auditory group, there was one student who scored exceptionally low with a mark of 3. This anomalous may be due to subjects’ interest in this experiment. Neither credits nor reward will be given, thus resulted in lackadaisical in subject to complete the task attentively. On the other hand, there was a participant who scored an eleven points in the other group, which was above the range score of majority. The subject may have better phonological memory compared to others, and have the potential to be an auditory learner. When our brain received a stimulus (auditory or visual), it functions cognitively to create a ‘mental image’. This image is created instantly when visual stimuli are detected by receptors located in retina in our eyes. Pictures from past experience will protrude immediately with every word read. (6) Cumulative word count:3147 On the other hand, auditory stimulus needs to be pictured to create a ‘mental image’. This burdens and fatigue the brain, with more time needed to process the image in phonological loop, resulted in decrease of time in rehearsing. Thus, the results of the experiment favoured for visual input. (1) Cumulative word count: 3197 EVALUATION: Sixty participants that involved in this experiment are currently undertaking GCE A-level this year. These people were randomly selected from 200 students from the same college which have good command in English especially for reading and listening sector. These two properties were essential elements in this experiment as visual input requires reading, and audio input requires listening. These subjects scored at least band 7.5 for these two parts in IELTS examination. Hence, the quality of English was ensured. In order to increase the reliability of this experiment, most variables were controlled as much as possible. As such, the gender of subjects was divided equally in each group with 15 males and 15 females. Participant’s health was prioritised as unfit individual were replaced with equivalent standard individual. Each participant was required to complete the task in a conference room. There were few unavoidable disturbances such as the sound produced by a swinging fan and bad weather such as raining which caused sound pollution, thus affecting the results. These natural disturbance were treated as constant variable as each participant was assumed to experience the same thing. The experiment was set up after college hours (around 2.00 p.m.). This was essential to reduce disturbance as the conference area will be cleared and be more peaceful in order for them to perform at their best. Mobile phones and electronic devices were shut off to prevent unnecessary distraction which may affect the outcome of this test. Large sample size was selected so that more anomalies can be observed and refined to give a better understanding on this experiment. Cumulative word count: 3461 LIMITATIONS AND MODIFICATIONS: Although majority managed to score within the mean score, there is always an exception in every group. Enthusiasm lies within one and can’t be controlled unless the subject is serious and work in high concentration. Furthermore, not everyone can perform efficiently at the time set (afternoon). Different people have different time where they can work in focus. Some students even experienced drowsiness after lunch as most of the blood is diverted to the abdomen, supplying more oxygen to the digestive organs. (7) It was then assumed that each subject was performing at their peak. Further modification can be used to rectify this woe that is to ensure candidate to have a good night sleep or have their meals earlier so that they can perform better and efficiently. The purpose of distraction task was to bring the number of occurrence in terms of rehearsing information to a minimal level. However, some people have the ability to remember anything they have just seen vividly. ‘Mental images’ are being created and stored instantly, thus resulted in the participant scoring full marks for the visual group. (1) The time set for distraction task (2.5 minutes) was only assumed to compromise between the rate of decaying and rate of rehearsing, so that both rates can be balanced up. One further modification is that conduct another trial on smaller time intervals such as 30 seconds to yield the best time frame for distraction task, in order to increase reliability of result. Cumulative word count: 3709 The method of marking the answers for each question was lenient. Some subjects may give almost or near accurate answer, which was deemed acceptable here as the aim of this experiment was to determine which stimuli input is better in daily learning. Further modification can be done such that answers from the marking scheme can be specified with one word or number to improve the accuracy of the results. Besides, data collected from a single location is limited as samples were from one particular college. It is insufficient to substantiate claims that visual memory is better than short term memory. Bigger scope such as repeating the same experiment in different college will give different trends, and by collecting these trends, more accurate statistical testing can be conducted. Other than that, further testing can be used to determine which gender has better short-term memory, as different genders have different memorising ability. Equal number of male and female can be divided into two groups, with each group to be tested with both stimuli. Data collected can be used to determine which group has better visual or auditory short-term memory. Cumulative word count: 3896 SOURCES EVALUATION: Source 1 and 6 are research articles regarding the similar experiment conducted by a verified expert. Both reports have been referred by various authors, thus proven reliable. Source 2 and 4 are websites verified by trust worth-it experts and are constantly updated, hence proven higher reliability. Besides, both sites have been referring to many other references too and thus increase its reliability. Source 3 is a website currently run by Canadian Institute of Health Research, hence proven its credential on the genuine of information. CIHR is a global leader in health research as a result of its pivotal contributions to the international advancement of health research, hence information provided are factual and reliable. Source 7 is an article edited by BBC, which is a world renowned media that provide accurate and reliable results. The BBC is the largest broadcasting organization in the world, which has a great reputation in providing unbiased and accurate information. Source 8 was written by prominent scientists who are internationally recognized. Source 9 was written by a PHD holder from Mcgill University of Montreal thus proven its reliability Cumulative word count: 4080 CONCLUSION: It was clearly depicted from the result of this experiment that visual input does have higher significant impact on short-term memory than auditory input. The mean score of visual memory test was 10.2, significantly higher than auditory memory test which was only 6.1. Using z-test, it is calculated that 8.4179 is outside the critical value at 5% significant level, thus the experimental hypothesis is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that visual memory can be employed as a better teaching alternative for lecturers to present their ideas efficiently. Cumulative word count: 4169 APPENDIX: (1) Wild Birds May Play a Role in the Spread of Bird Flu, Science Daily A study by the U.S. Geological Survey, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the Chinese Academy of Sciences used satellites, outbreak data and genetics to uncover an unknown link in Tibet among wild birds, poultry and the movement of the often-deadly virus. Researchers attached GPS satellite transmitters to 29 bar-headed geese — a wild species that migrates across most of Asia and that died in the thousands in the 2005 bird flu outbreak in Qinghai Lake, China. GPS data showed that wild geese tagged at Qinghai Lake spend their winters in a region outside of Lhasa, the capitol of Tibet, near farms where H5N1 outbreaks have occurred in domestic geese and chickens. This is the first evidence of a mechanism for transmission between domestic farms and wild birds, said Diann Prosser, a USGS biologist at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. “Our research suggests initial outbreaks in poultry in winter, followed by outbreaks in wild birds in spring and in the breeding season. The telemetry data also show that during winter, wild geese use agricultural fields and wetlands near captive bar-headed geese and chicken farms where outbreaks have occurred.” The part that wild birds play in the spread of bird flu has been hotly debated since the 2005 outbreaks in Qinghai Lake. Bird flu that spread beyond Asia and into Europe and Africa was later found to have genetically originated in the Qinghai Lake area. Discovering the Tibet connection adds another significant link in the global transmission of bird flu. Cumulative word count: 4437 From 2003 through 2009, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau experienced 16 confirmed outbreaks of the virus in wild and domestic birds, most of them in the newly documented migratory pathway of the wild bar-headed geese. “Every summer, more than 150,000 migratory birds use Qinghai Lake, which sits within the eastern portion of the Central Asian Flyway, which extends from India to Russia,” said John Takekawa, a wildlife biologist at the USGS Western Ecological Research Center. The study also uncovered an undocumented migratory link between Qinghai Lake and Mongolia, further suggesting that Qinghai may be a pivotal point of H5N1 transmission. Scott Newman, Head of the EMPRES Wildlife Health and Ecology Unit of the FAO, noted that poultry production at the southern end of the Central Asian Flyway is extensive, which has resulted in many more HPAI H5N1 outbreaks there than in the northern end, where poultry production is more limited. “In general,” said Newman, “H5N1 outbreaks along this flyway mirror human and poultry densities, with domestic poultry the primary reservoir for this disease.” This study is part of a global program to not only better understand the movement of avian influenza viruses and other diseases in the Central Asian Flyway, but also to improve the understanding of the ecological habits of water birds internationally, identify important conservation issues, and better define interactions among wild and domestic birds. The H5N1 virus continues to reemerge across much of Eurasia and Africa, with high fatality rates in people, and t

University of Houston Rabies Disease Etiology Pathology Signs and Symptoms Paper

University of Houston Rabies Disease Etiology Pathology Signs and Symptoms Paper.

The paper must include:Name of the disease/illness: (include the name of the disease/illness (include the medical/scientific name), morbidity, mortality, and statistics).Etiology of the disease/illness: How is this disease/illness contracted or spread? Is it internal to the person (e.g. depression)? Or is it external (e.g. meaning caused by something or someone else, e.g. malaria). What are the risk factors to the illness/disease? Are there any preventive measures or precautions against the disease/illness?Pathology of the disease/illness: How quickly does the disease/illness advance from pre-clinical stage (incubation) to clinical stage? Does it advance throughout the body or is it localized to an area? Is it fatal? How likely is an infected individuals to die without treatment? What is the outlook for recovery if someone does engage in treatment? If possible, use some of the medical terminology that we learned in this course.Signs and symptoms of the disease/illness: Cover this area using the medical terminology we covered in the course.Tests or screenings used for the disease/illness: How do we test or screen for this disease/illness? If equipment is used, list the equipment. Current treatment or evidence based practices for disease/illness: How do we treat this disease/illness? Is there treatment? How effective is the treatment? Is it curative? List the medications or the treatment regimen used. If not curative, is there any practices used for palliative care?References: Use APA style for in-text citations and for the references section. *This will be typed in Times New Roman and in 12 inch font. The paper will be written using 1 inch margins throughout the paper (normal margins). It will be double spaced. This paper should be a minimum of three pages.
University of Houston Rabies Disease Etiology Pathology Signs and Symptoms Paper

Advanced Composition The Theme of Family in Homeward Bound By Wu Essay

Advanced Composition The Theme of Family in Homeward Bound By Wu Essay.

InstructionsStep 1 Read the Essay Project 2 Assignment Sheet 124 Writing about Literature Essay Eng 124-1.docxAttached below Step 2 Complete all Writing TasksPlease complete the revision checklist for your essay. Step 3 Complete the final draft of your essayFollow the guidelines in the assignment letter for the essay. Use all of the information you have learned so far in the course about writing to improve your final product. This should be a complete draft, not the just the initial draft used for the draft submission. Step 4 Save and submit your final draft assignment along with the original rough draft.Be sure to also include your rough draft, so your instructor can see the changes you made. When you have completed your assignment save a copy for yourself in an easily accessible place and submit a copy to your instructor using the dropbox. Submitting Your AssignmentPlease be sure to include the following: For an essay about literature, you need to have these elements in your title: Your own unique title suggesting your key insight. The name of the author(s) of the work(s). The title (s) of the work(s) For Example: The Gluttony of Ignatius in A Confederacy of Dunces by Toole Thesis statement. You need to include a clear and concise thesis statement. It should include: Your limited subject.Your distinctive approach to the to that subject.The name of the author(s).The work(s) of literature being discussed This essay should be 500 to 600 words long.It must be in the third person. Include an MLA reference page. Happy Writing,
Advanced Composition The Theme of Family in Homeward Bound By Wu Essay

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