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University of California SB Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Replies

University of California SB Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Replies.

I’m working on a biology discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

posted your discussion, reply to at least two other student posts. Write 50+ words for each reply post.1. Obesity is an endocrine disorder caused by excessive food consumption and a lack of exercise exacerbated by “EDCs” or endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in the environment, industrial chemicals (e.g. bisphenol A), and consumer products. Accidental exposure to EDCs is attributed to the consumption of certain foods, such as meat, fish, and dairy products, and contaminated tap water or caused by direct skin contact or inhalation of contaminants. EDCs interfere with the endocrine system processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathway and promote adipogenesis in animals and humans (Nappi et al., 2016). Adipogenesis is increased storage in pre-existing fat cells which coincides with prenatal or early-life exposure to EDCs. The “obesogen hypothesis” identifies the adipose tissue as an endocrine organ susceptible to disruption especially during pre- and early postnatal life or puberty, and is the preferred storage site of EDCs. One example of an EDC which affects birth weight in human offspring is TBT, or a fungicide known as tributyltin. Exposure to TBT during pregnancy results in offspring with heavier birth weights compared to offspring who weren’t exposed (Giovanna et al., 2017). Another toxic EDC which causes a higher birth weight in offspring is BPA or bisphenol A. Found in certain food and beverage cans, polycarbonate plastic, and developers, BPA is a common endocrine disruptor that plays a crucial role in determining adult body weight and fat mass. Furthermore, exposure to it has been shown to increase inflammation in adipose tissue which can lead to metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Muscogiuri, G., Barrea, L., Laudisio, D. et al. Obesogenic endocrine disruptors and obesity: myths and truths. Arch Toxicol 91, 3469–3475 (2017).…Nappi, F., Barrea, L., Di Somma, C., Savanelli, M. C., Muscogiuri, G., Orio, F., & Savastano, S. (2016). Endocrine Aspects of Environmental “Obesogen” Pollutants. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(8), 1-16.…2. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals are chemicals that are exogenous and interfere with hormone action, thereby increasing the risk of cancer, other diseases, cognitive deficits, and obesity. The endocrine system is composed of glands that secrete chemical messengers hormones that interact with specific target receptors. These interactions lead to the regulation of a vast set of functions, including growth, development, reproduction, energy balance, metabolism, and body weight regulation. However, exogenous chemicals can interfere with this complex communication system and cause horrible side health effects. The key components of the endocrine disruptors were developed by recognizing that there are common features of hormone regulation and action that are independent of the diversity of the effects of hormones during the life cycle. It is also known that there are the actions of chemicals that interfere with hormone regulation and action. All hormones act by binding to a specific receptor or receptors. Endocrine disruptors that inappropriately bind to and/or activate hormone receptors can produce adverse biological effects. There are numerous examples of chemicals that cause detrimental effects after binding to nuclear hormone receptors. The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things, if this system gets disrupted, then our body won’t be able to function properly. MLA Citations:Merrill, Michele A. La, et al. “Consensus on the Key Characteristics of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals as a Basis for Hazard Identification.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 12 Nov. 2019, (Links to an external site.).Zimmermann, Kim Ann. “Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases.” LiveScience, Purch, 16 Feb. 2018,,and%20mood%2C%20among%20other%20things.Comment on the two releases separately
University of California SB Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Replies

Table of Contents Introduction Project Initiation and Design Decline of Pruitt-Igoe The Demolition The Causes of Failure and Meaning Conclusion Works Cited Introduction St. Louis, Missouri is one of the most heard about cities in the United States; it is also a major port city in the country. St. Louis is a large city with densely populated urban areas. The most recent survey showed that its current population exceeds 315 thousand residents. Throughout its history, St. Louis has seen periods of rapid expansion and growth dictated by the attraction of large groups of the American population to its urban areas. As a result, the housing of the city had to be adjusted in order to be able to host the expanding number of dwellers. However, as it often happens in the urban centers all around the world, the parts of the city that saw a rapid expansion were also affected by a fast decline. One of the most legendary urban housing projects implemented in the territory of St. Louis during its growth was Pruitt-Igoe project that was designed for the purpose of offering new accommodations for the urban population of the city. This housing project is known to have been rather short-lived and is often regarded as a major failure of a design as its demolition followed its opening in just about a couple of decades. Pruitt-Igoe urban housing project and its history can serve as an excellent demonstration of the economic and social changes the city of St. Louis faced in the 1950s and 1960s; today, the project’s history works as a reminder of the city planning complexities and the need for a sustainable approach to urban construction, expansion, and revitalization. Project Initiation and Design Pruitt-Igoe urban housing development project was the response of the St. Louis city authorities to the problems of overpopulation and decay in the inner city areas (“Public Housing Has a Bad Name”). The entire project was sponsored by the government and represented the care that the political authorities show as a reaction to socioeconomic issues concerning housing and overpopulation. In that way, this public housing development, as well as its quick and unexpected decay, has been interpreted as a symbol of the low quality of any projects sponsored and supervised by the government. Practically, Pruitt-Igoe is often recognized as a failure of the government to fund a housing project appropriately or to take about the residents of the city (“Public Housing Has a Bad Name”). Consequently, the very concept of public housing is often regarded as something untrustworthy and of extensively low quality. Pruitt-Igoe public housing project was comprised of 33 buildings each of which had 11 floors; overall, the project was to occupy a portion of land as large as 57 acres (Bristol 163-164). The panning of the project began at the onset of the 1950s when it was decided that the entire site would consist of two major parts – the first one was named after an African-American pilot W. O. Pruitt and was expected to house specifically Black residents, and the second part received the name of Congressman Igoe and was to host white dwellers of St. Louis. A total of 15000 tenants were planned to be placed in the territory of Pruitt-Igoe. Also, it is important to mention that the buildings on the site were specifically situated very close to one another for a higher level of density; as specified by Bristol, “the high density resulted from housing and redevelopment officials’ expectations that these projects would eventually come to house not only those displaced by slum clearance… but also by demolition for redevelopment projects and for future public housing” (164). In that way, initially, the project was expected to include multiple tenants to accommodate a large number of displaced families. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Decline of Pruitt-Igoe Completed by the middle of the 1950s, Pruitt-Igoe project was a representation of an optimistic view of the revitalization of the declining districts of the densely populated city center and a smart government initiative helping address some the major socioeconomic problems such as unemployment, poverty, and high rates of criminal activity. However, the images of the newly opened Pruitt-Igoe are often contrasted against the ones that occurred approximately a decade later when the relatively new site was destroyed and sunk in violence, crime, vandalism, and poverty. Pruitt-Igoe is described as a “dumping ground” for the impoverished groups of the urban population (Rainwater 9). In addition, the decline of Pruitt-Igoe is frequently explained as caused by the inability of its new residents to get accustomed to the city life; according to this opinion, the poor dwellers of the area torn apart their new homes due to facing a difficulty in adaptation to the urban way of living (“Public Housing Has a Bad Name”). The standard approach to the story of Pruitt-Igoe revolves around the hope that was broken and the heavy disillusionment that followed. However, discussing the phenomenon that resulted in the failure of Pruitt-Igoe, it is important to remember that the aforementioned perspective is just one view on the events. This point of view does not take into consideration some of the critical factors that contributed to the decay of the site. In particular, first of all, Pruitt-Igoe is one of the largest public housing projects of the time supervised by the government which failed to provide sufficient funding for the high-quality construction. Secondly, the first decade after the site was opened has seen a massive outflow of the urban population from St. Louis and the abandonment of many urban areas – a phenomenon typical for many industrial cities worldwide (“Public Housing Has a Bad Name”). Finally, in the 1950s and 1960s, public housing projects such as Pruitt-Igoe was a common tool for the enforcement of “clearance of poor and working-class neighborhoods” that in reality was the major way to facilitate and maintain racial segregation in the cities (“Public Housing Has a Bad Name”). The Demolition By the end of the 1960s, due to the rapidly progressing decay of Pruitt-Igoe, the government authorities started to encourage the remaining dwellers of the area to relocate (Bristol 166). This was the case because living in the area had become very dangerous; in fact, soon after that, the buildings of Pruitt-Igoe were recognized unsuited for living. However, prior to the decision to level the entire site, the city and government authorities spent a significant amount of funds for the purpose of maintenance of the tenants (Bristol 167). Overall, about 60 million dollars was spent on versatile adjustments that never helped prevent the destruction of the buildings. The Causes of Failure and Meaning As specified by Lawson, “the Pruitt-Igoe complex, which attained social, cultural, economic, and political significance when city officials began dynamiting it in 1972, was one of the most visible–and misunderstood–symbols of the late Vietnam-era urban malaise” (2). Instead of viewing the failure of Pruitt-Igoe in accordance with the well-known myth about the violent and wasteful nature of the populations who were placed there, one could review the construction and planning of the building and the site. In particular, Bristol pointed out that “corridors were too long and not visible from the apartment… The entryways, located in large, unprotected open plazas, did not allow tenants any control over who entered the building” (167). The aforementioned factors contributed to the feeling of alienation of the dwellers from the buildings, prevented the people from connecting with the areas and considering it their home. We will write a custom Essay on The History of Pruitt-Igoe Urban Housing Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the fiscal problem was another significant determinant of the construction failure of Pruitt-Igoe. Practically, the extremely low cost of the construction resulted in the creation of low-quality tenants that literally expired within the next couple of decades and became unsuitable for habitation and dangerous to be around. Conclusion Pruitt-Igoe public housing project is a known symbol of a construction failure that was initiated, supervised, and funded by the government. The initial explanation of the quick deterioration of the site and its consequent demolition linked the decay of Pruitt-Igoe to the kinds of people that inhabited it. However, in reality, the actual factors that contributed to the failure were multiple and complex. First of all, this public housing project was completed at a very low cost, and thus resulted in the construction of poor-quality buildings that fell apart within a couple decades. Secondly, the architectural design of the areas and spaces there encouraged criminal behaviors and endangered the dwellers. Finally, the entire project, as well and the initial explanations of its failure are directly linked to the intention to segregate the people of St. Louis on a racial basis. Works Cited Bristol, Katharine G. “The Pruitt-Igoe Myth.” Pruitt-Igoe, 1991, . Accessed 13 May 2017. Lawson, Benjamin Alexander. The Pruitt-Igoe Projects: Modernism, Social Control, and the Failure of Public Housing, 1954-1976. “Public Housing Has a Bad Name.” Pruitt-Igoe, n.d. Rainwater, Lee. Behind Ghetto Walls: Black Families in a Federal Slum. Transaction Publishers, 1970.
Idealist, idealized, ideal (adjective), and the ideal (noun), all of are derived from the Greek idea which means new thought flashed across the mind. This signifies “image”, “figure, “form”: it can be used in the sense of “likeness”, or “copy” as well as in that of “type”, “model”, or “pattern”: it is this latter sense that finds expression in “ideal”, and “the ideal” and the derivatives are mentioned above. When we talk about the ideal or idealism, it is not the copy of a out of the world image or object, but it is only a type which can be a thought. It cannot beyond reality but it can only be a fairer, nobler and the most perfect which exists in reality. [ (23-Nov-2010)] It is the characteristics of those people who respect the ideas and who pays respect the truth According to Plato, visible world is simply a copy of a super sensible, intelligible, ideal world and consequently ‘things’ are but the impress stamped on reality by that which is of a higher, spiritual nature. It is just a technical term which was made by Plato and it has a vital and important affect on the task to be attained and it has significance influence on the people. It has a impressive affect on reality which help in obtaining the higher level or we can say spiritual nature. There are two theories which are interrelated to each other, Idealism and other is Realism. Plato is in favour of Idealism and hence known as Platonism while Aristotle is in favour of reality and so called as Realism. Platonism is one of the oldest form idealism and is in favour of the idealist to long extent. Normally, it is the contrast comparison of the both the philosophies of Idealism and Realism. Realism does not support the new concepts and thoughts but it is in favour of the real world and supports the things as they happen which is just the copies of every day life. Plato is in favour of the idealism and therefore it is considered to be more accurate and correct as idealism is more important in teaching and it helps in putting new ideas into art. Both, Aristotle and Plato have a vital influence on the Greek life, their life style, their style of thinking and their actions which carries the deep moral and ethical influence on their life. On the basis of these theories and their deep influence, convicted the first and highest principle of all things is the one perfect spiritual which is the transcendental idealism of Plato and with which they call God and by which means of intermediate principles, essence and form, purpose and law, and some of the working individual which obey these principles are the visible world. So, idealism is the doctrine philosophy which leads towards the high spiritual principles and which lowers downs the materialism. On the base of these characteristics, idealism is being called as the dual characteristic philosophy and it is against the single characteristic philosophy which describes as the higher and the lower are same. The principle philosophy of higher is against the philosophy of the lower material and again this philosophy is against the single characteristic philosophy or doctrine. When we talk about the older version of the idealism, it clearly indicates that there is no one which is ‘One- All’, but there are different individuals who have some different roles and they have some specific features and there is certainly some alpha and omega i.e. a supermundane cause and end of the world. I affirm without hesitation that the assertion, ‘the existence of the world consists merely in our thinking’, is for me the result of a hypertrophy of the passion for knowledge. To this conclusion I have been lead chiefly by the torture I endure in getting over ‘idealism’. Whosoever attempts to take this theory in downright earnest, to force his way clean through it and identify himself with it, will certainly feel that something is about to snap in his brain. (Jerusalem, “Die Urtheilsfunktion”, Vienna, 1886, p. 261). J. Volkelt (Erfahrung u. Denken, Hamburg, 1886, p. 519); It should kept in mind that the term, idea has a lot of contents and should be so far degraded as to signify such aberrations of thought. “Geschichte des Idealismus” (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1907) has taken the ground that the original meaning of these terms should be restored to them. Realism Realism is the philosophy which can be described as the independent of conceptual schemes, having linguistics practices, beliefs, etc. According to the international business point of view, it is the dominant thinking within the international relations which is interlink with the ideology, security, morality, reconstructions, socialism and political realm. Most of the philosophers who are in favour of the realism, they believe in reality having strict point of view against idealism and they are the speaking to the other minds, their past, present and future as well. Realism deals with the universalism, morality, materialism, thinking, and natural numbers as well. The people who believe in realism, they consider the reality and how approximate is the reality, they also believe that whenever there will be any new observation, it helps the individuals to come closer to each other and they are against idealism and anti realism. The philosopher has been discussing on the realism. While discussing, they have been looking for the true meanings of the realism and the origin of realism. They have been discussing this issue from so long and the history of philosophy is full of this discussion. If we talk about the medieval interpretation and adaptation of Greek philosophy, it clearly signifies that the origin of this term ‘Real’ is from the medieval period and according to this philosophy, the meaning of this word is ‘some thing different’ and in present it means ‘opposite’. It should also be kept in mind that realism is the contrasting philosophy of ‘conceptualism, nominalism and idealism’. The philosophers who have been discussing realism have found out the problems which a universe has been facing and these problems are being called as the problems of universals which is a term that does not describes a single individual but it is being applied on many things and hence it is believed that realism is the thing which really exist and it is associated with other things and also to the world. When we consider it to be associated with the world, we can definitely say that it is linked with Plato. It should also be considered that conceptualism exists in this world but this is the only thing which exists in mind and moderate realism say that it exists in some specific things where as philosophers when they start discussion about the nominalism, they say that universals do not exist at all and this is to be believed that realism exists in the world from the centuriesand. In its Kantian sense, realism is contrasted with idealism. In a contemporary sense, realism is contrasted with anti-realism, primarily in the philosophy of science. Conversational is simplicity and oneness with nature. Idealism vs. Realism To make the clear differences, it is necessary to understand the clearly idealism and realism. Idealism is to see things in a way as we want where as realism is to see the things as they happen in a current situation and what they are and how they are. Idealism is the philosophy that describes that the current situation is being shaped into by our thoughts while realism is independent of our thoughts but it’s the existence. A person, who believes in idealism, always looks for the good and he can be less affective while a person who believes in realism can be more affective. Idealists are more positive where as realists are less positive. Idealists are more goal ambitious as compared to realists.

The gold standard as a monetary system

What is Gold Standard? The Gold Standard is a monetary system in which the standard unit of currency is a fixed weight of gold or freely convertible into gold at a fixed price. Under the Gold Standard system, paper money which circulates as a medium of exchange is convertible into gold on demand. The exchange rate between paper or fiat money and gold is fixed. Same thing happened to the rates of exchange between national currencies, it is fixed. The Gold Standard can be divided into two types: full Gold Standard and “partial” Gold Standard. A 100 percent reserve Gold Standard or full Gold Standard occurs when all circulating money can be represented by the appropriate amount of gold. Whilst in “partial” Gold Standard, circulating notes can be redeemed for their face value; it can be either higher than its actual value or lower. Why gold being selected as a reserve for most countries and even for today? Many nations hold the gold reserves in significant quantity in order to defense their currency and hedge against the US dollar which forms the bulk of liquid currency reserves. Some more, the weakness of the US dollar can be offset by strengthening the gold prices. Yet, compared to other precious metals or major competitors such as US dollar and real estate, none of them has the stability as the gold as well as its rarity and durability. Gold is also used as a store of value starting from the early monetary system since it is high value enough due to its utility, density, resistance to corrosion, uniformity, and easy divisibility. As we know, banking began by depositing the gold into a bank and it could be transferred from one bank to another bank. Until today, gold remains to be a principal financial asset of almost all central banks. By looking back at the past, before 2000 BC, the first metal that human being used as a currency in trade was silver. According to the history, we know that gold has been used as a mean of payment since long time ago. After 1500 years, the first coinage of pure gold was introduced. The adoption of Gold Standard was preceded after that. Yet, the fiat monetary system came and took over the Gold Standard system during the outbreak of World War I. This happened for most of the nations are due to the excessive public debt and the government is unable to repay all the debt in gold or silver. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY / RESEARCH IN GOLD STANDARD As a banking and finance student, we have to study and understand any history that regard to the field, included the topic of our assignment this time – Gold Standard. This is because people live in present and they have to plan for and worry about the future. History is the study of past. It gives the information of the past in order to anticipate what is yet to come. Understanding history is important to develop the linkages to predict the future. Yet, history also provides us abundant of information about how the Gold Standard was formed and how it operated. Understanding the operations of the Gold Standard is difficult currently since it was collapsed and we cannot be exposed ourselves to it. The current data that we have is relied on what happened into the past. By using the historical materials, we can make our own analysis on the Gold Standard and understand its weaknesses and problems. Besides, the study of the Gold Standard can help us to understand the changes of the monetary system and how the financial world affects the global economies. From the historical information, we know when the adoption of the Gold Standard was and when the collapse of the Gold Standard was. Yet, we also know that the monetary system had been changed over time to time and which system was being created in order to take over the original system. For instance, Gold Standard was took over by Bretton Woods System and followed by Contemporary Monetary System. There is always a reason there for the changes made. This is because of the discovery of the shortages of the system. Once the deficiencies being located, the new system would be established. If there is still do not have any actions taken, it will affect the economies of the world since finance cannot be separated with the economy. In addition, as a financial student, we have to understand about the differences between fiat money and Gold Standard. From the project we done, we know that fiat money is money that no have intrinsic value and cannot be redeemed for any commodity. The paper currencies and coins that are available in markets nowadays are considered as fiat money and the strength of the economy of the issuing nation is the determinant used to determine the value of fiat money. Mostly, inflation will follow with the enormous issuing of fiat money. Whilst, The Gold Standard is a monetary system in which the standard unit of currency is a fixed weight of gold or freely convertible into gold at a fixed price. Under the Gold Standard system, paper money which circulates as a medium of exchange is convertible into gold on demand. The exchange rate between paper or fiat money and gold is fixed. PART II : THE GOLD STANTARD 2.1 HISTORY 2.1.1 History of Gold Standard The first nation that officially adopted the Gold Standard system is England (also called as Great Britain) in 1821. The list below is the dates of adoption of the Gold Standard system: 1821 England 1871 Germany 1873 Latin Monetary Union Belgium Italy Switzerland France 1875 Scandinavia(Monetary Union) Denmark Norway Sweden 1875 Netherlands 1876 France 1876 Spain 1879 Austria 1893 Russia 1897 Japan 1898 India 1900 United States During that century, there was a dramatic increase in global trade and production which brought enormous discoveries of gold. The discoveries aided the Gold Standard remain intact well on the following century. As all trade imbalances between nations were settled with gold, governments had strong incentive to stockpile gold for more difficult times. The emergence of the International Gold Standard is on 1871 since the Germany also started to use the system. By 1900, most of the developed countries were linked to the Gold Standard system, but surprise that the United States was the last nation to enter. This is because there was a strong silver lobby that prevented gold from being the sole monetary standard with the U.S. throughout the 19th century. The Gold Standard was at its pinnacle from 1871 till 1914. During the period, there were near ideal political conditions existed in the world. Governments tried to corporate nicely in order to make the Gold Standard system work, but the system was collapsed during the duration of outbreak of the Great War in 1914. In 1925, it was reestablished. But due to the relative scarcity of gold, many countries adopted a gold-exchange standard, supplementing their gold reserves with currencies convertible into gold at a stable rate of exchange. Unfortunately, the gold-exchange standard was ended during the Great Depression. The United States had set a minimum dollar price for gold in order to aid for the restoration of international gold standard after World War II. In 1971, dwindling gold reserves and unfavorable balance of payments led the U.S. to abandon the Gold Standard system. 2.1.2 Timelines of Gold Standard 1717 The Kingdom of Great Britain went on to an unofficial Gold Standard. 1816 Gold was partially displacing silver as a standard. 1821 The Gold Standard was first out into operation in Great Britain. 1873 The Coinage Act of the United States Congress came into operation on 1st April and constituted the gold one-dollar piece as the sole unit of value. 1900 Gold Standard Act was established on 14 March 1900 and gold was the only standard for redeeming paper money. 1914 The abandonment of the Gold Standard by Russia. 1925 The return of the Gold Standard. 1971 The abandonment of the Gold Standard by the United States. 2.1.3 Timelines of Fiat Money 1690 There are three types of currency according to American History: Fiat money Certificates based on coin or bullion Bank notes (Fiat money is one type of currencies that being used during the time.) 1789 France was undergoing economic downturn and due to lack of money, fiat money being used. 1862 There was a paper currency that printed upon one side in green has been created with a promise to pay – Greenbacks. 1878 An argument in favor of honest money and redeemable currency. 1896 Paper-based global economy has been collapsed. 1913 Establishment of Fed. Fiat money became the United States legal tender. The mercy of the fiat money system has led to the greatest debt bubble in world history. 1933 Inflation occurred. 2008 Under the fiat money system, money as debt. 2.1.4 History of Shifting Between Fiat Money and Gold Standard in U.S. As stated as below, there were a lot of shifting between a fiat money and gold standard had been made by the United States over the past 200 years which in order to avoid hyper-inflation. Hyperinflation occurs when the confidence in money had gone and it leads to no value in the money. As mentioned as earlier, the gold standard was over due to the reason of the government was unable to repay for the excessive of public debt in gold or silver that its countries owe. 1785-1861 Fixed Gold Standard : 76 years It was issued by American colonists for the Continent Congress in order to finance the Revolutionary War. It was produced by the United States Federal Government. It was authorized by the Act of March 3, 1849. 1862-1879 Floating Fiat Currency : 7 years The fiat money of the United States above is Greenbacks. It was created to pay for the enormous cost of the Civil War. It was the debt of the U.S. government which could be redeemable in gold at future without any specified date. It was circulated along with the Gold certificates. 1880-1914 Fixed Gold Standard: 34 years It was ended due to the financial needs of World War I. 1915-1925 Floating Fiat Currency : 10 years It was created to pay for World War I countries. There was insufficient of gold to support the paper currency. 1926-1931 Fixed Gold Standard : 5 years It was ended due to most of the nations tried to deposit their pounds and dollars for gold when the depression occurs. 1931-1945 Floating Fiat Currency : 14 years It was ended due to the outbreak of World War II. 1945-1968 Fixed Gold Standard : 26 years On 24 June 1968, a proclamation that Federal Reserve Silver Certificates could not be redeemed in silver was issued by President Johnson. 1971 Floating Fiat Currency : 5 months It was established by President Nixon on August 1971. 1971-1973 Fixed Dollar Standard : 2 years It was passed by the Smithsonian Agreement. 1973-today Fiat Currency : 37 years It was established by the Basel Accord. 2.1.5 Evolution of International Monetary Systems International Monetary System had been undergoing several stages of evolution which are stated as below: Bimetallism (before 1875) A “double standard” in the sense that both gold and silver were used as money. Some nations were on the gold standard, some on the silver standard, and some on both. Both gold and silver were used as international means of payment and the exchange rates among currencies were determined by either their gold or silver contents. Classical Gold Standard (1875-1914) During this period in most major countries: -Gold alone was assured of unrestricted coinage. -There was two-way convertibility between gold and national currencies at a stable ratio. -Gold could be freely exported or imported. The exchange rate between two countries’ currency would be determined by their relative gold contents. Highly stable exchange rates under the classical gold standard provided an environment that was conducive to international trade and investment. Misalignment of exchange rates and international imbalances of payment were automatically corrected by the price-specie-flow mechanism. Interwar Period (1915-1944) Exchange rates fluctuated as countries widely used “predatory” depreciations of their currencies as a means of gaining advantage in the world export market. Attempts were made to restore the gold standard, but participants lacked the political will to “follow the rules of the game”. The result for international trade and investment was profoundly detrimental. Bretton Woods System (1945-1971) Named for a 1944 meeting of 44 nations at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The purpose was to design a postwar international monetary system. The goal was exchange rate stability without the gold standard. The result was the creation of the IMF and the World Bank. The system was a dollar-based gold exchange standard. Flexible Exchange Rate System (1971-today) The system was declared acceptable to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) members. Central banks were allowed to intervene in the exchange rate markets. Gold was abandoned as an international reserve asset. Managed Float System (1973-today) 2.2 INTERNATIONAL GOLD STANDARD 2.2.1 Chronology of Gold and International Monetary System 1717 Master of the Mint, Sir Isaac Newton gave guinea statutory valuation of 21 shillings. Commence of the United Kingdom Gold Standard. 1797 Occurrence of Napoleonic Wars. Bank of England abandoned gold payments. 1816 Establishment of UK Coinage Act. 1844 Bank of England obliged to buy gold. 1870-1900 Except of China, most of the nation abandoned Bimetallic Standard and switched to Gold Standard. 1913 The United States system of reserve banks was established by Federal Reserve Act. At least 40% of notes were gold-backed. 1917 U.S. prohibited gold exports. 1919 UK went off Gold Standard. Establishment of London Gold Fixing. 1925 Return of Gold Standard in the United Kingdom. Establishment of UK Gold Standard Act. 1931 The United Kingdom abandoned Gold Standard. 1933 Suspend of the United States convertibility. Prohibition of exports, transactions, and holding of gold. 1934 Presidential Proclamation of making dollar convertible to gold again. 1936 Establishment of Tripartite Agreement (Countries involved: U.S., UK, and France) 1939 Close of London gold market due to the outbreak of war. 1944 Establishment of Gold Exchange Standard as a result of Bretton Woods Conference. 1945 International Monetary Fund (IMF) Articles of Agreement became effective. 1954 Reopen of London gold market after World War II. 1961 Establishment of Gold Pool (Members: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, UK and Federal Reserve Bank of New York) 1967 Buying of gold increased due to the devaluation of sterling. 1968 Close of London market. Abolishment of Gold Pool and establishment of 2-tier market. Establishment of Special Drawing Right (SDR). 1971 Suspend of U.S. convertibility to gold. Establishment of Smithsonian Agreement. 1972 Devaluation of the United States dollar. 1973 Suspend of dealing in foreign exchange markets by most of the central banks. Adoption of floating exchange rate regime. Abandonment of 2-tier gold market. 1975 Abolishment of restriction on citizen buying, selling or owning gold by U.S. First U.S. gold auction on January. Establishment of agreement between G10 countries and Switzerland on no attempt to peg the gold price. 1976 First gold auction by IMF on June. 1978 Disappear of formal role of gold in International Monetary System. 1979 Establishment of European Monetary System. Final U.S. gold auction on November. 1980 Last 45 IMF gold auctions on May. 1982 The United States Gold Commission reported to Congress. 1985 Establishment of Plaza Agreement on currencies. 1987 Establishment of Louvre Accord on currencies. 1992 Sign of treaty on European Union at Maastricht. 1998 Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain joined Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). 1999 Began of EMU. Announcement of Central Bank Gold Agreement (CBGA). 2004 Announcement of Second Central Bank Gold Agreement. 2.2.2 Gold Standard Went International *The picture above the gold and silver coins that available around the world during 19th century. From the chronology above, we know that most of the countries (except China) had abandoned their silver or bimetallic standard and went for a full gold standard between the years of 1871 to 1900. There is always a reason. German asked for “war indemnity” to be paid in gold by France right after the Franco-German War. German used this gold to finance a new gold standard in their home country. This had lead to an increase in the demand of gold and there was unload of tons of silver on the neighboring nations. Due to the fear towards silver inflation, the neighboring countries decided to follow German. The list below is the date of first gold standard: 1871 German 1873 Belgium 1873 Italy 1873 Switzerland 1874 Scandinavia 1875 Denmark 1875 Norway 1875 Sweden 1875 Holland 1876 France 1876 Spain 1879 Austria 1893 Russia 1898 India 1900 USA International Gold Standard existed when the following condition being fulfilled: Gold alone is assured of unrestricted coinage. There are two way of convertibility between gold and national currencies at a stable ratio. Gold may be freely imported and exported.

Miami Pedestrian Bridge Collapse Instances of Behavior Ethical Issues Case Study

term paper help Miami Pedestrian Bridge Collapse Instances of Behavior Ethical Issues Case Study.

March 15, 2018: a partially constructed pedestrian bridge in Miami, Florida, experienced a catastrophic structural failure•174-foot long bridge fell 18.5 feet onto SW 8thstreet6 of the 8 lanes of the street were open to traffic•1 bridge worker and 5 vehicle occupants were kill; 5 workers and 5 others were injured; 8 vehicles were crushed• The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) conducted an investigation.•A summary of NTSB’s findings are posted in the attached.write 2-3 pages (1.5 line spacing) addressing the following:1.Identify three instances of behavior on the part of the engineering/construction firms involved in the project that led to the collapse of the pedestrian bridge. Drawing on concepts from class, discuss the ethical issues associated with these behaviors 2.Provide three recommendations for actions that can be taken to prevent such a collapse from happening in the future. Recommendations should address the behaviors identified in step 1 and may be directed to the engineering/construction companies involved, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), or the Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
Miami Pedestrian Bridge Collapse Instances of Behavior Ethical Issues Case Study

The Mines And Mineral Environmental Sciences Essay

The relevant rules in force under the MMDR Act are the Mineral Concession rules, 1960, outlining the procedures and conditions for obtaining a prospecting license or a mining lease, and the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules,1988 that lay down the guidelines for ensuring mining on a scientific basis and without environment degradation. All the major minerals come under the purview of the Central Government. Minor minerals are separately notified and come under purview of state Government who have formulated Mineral Concession Rules for this purpose. Ministry of Coal and Public Sector Coal Companies At the Government level projects each costing Rs.20 Crores and above are being monitored. As on 31-12-2001, there are 63 such projects (mining

Financial Management; Transparency

Financial Management; Transparency. Paper details   Read the following links, then prepared 2 page critical analysis (Summary, analysis, evaluation). (**Must related to topic of “Financial Management; Performance Assessment; Transparency; Accountability”) Management; Transparency

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