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University of California Los Angeles Nursing as a Career Reflection Paper

University of California Los Angeles Nursing as a Career Reflection Paper.

ElimiMajorActions (picking your major may help pick your career)ElimiMajor is an exercise developed by the staff of Santa Monica College’s Career Services Center. As career professionals they have learned that students may not know what they want to choose as a major, but they always know what they DON’T want as their major. You will have the opportunity to identify majors that you are NOT interested in, and circle the majors that you are interested in. Please click here to complete ElimiMajor sheet Actions Career Exploration ResourcesReview the following resources for more information and to help you EXPLORE:- Career For Students in This Major… (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)This website links academic majors to career alternatives by providing information on career paths and sample job titles.- What Can I Do With a Major In…? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)Great website that provides summaries for majors, sample job titles, possible employers, professional associations, and resources for finding employment.- Occupational Outlook Handbook (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a nationally recognized source of career information, designed to provide valuable information to individuals making decisions about their future work lives.- Santa Monica College Career Services CenterLinks to an external site.- View many helpful links about career exploration- Find information about making an appointment with a career counselor- Find information about jobs both on and off campusInternship ProgramLinks to an external site. – Earn academic credit and gain valuable experience. STEP 1-GATHER INFORMATIONFind the description of a Career you are interested in exploring. You can use any of the resources I provided below.- Occupational Outlook Handbook (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)- What Can I Do with a Major in… (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)MAKE SURE TO WRITE ABOUT A CAREER NOT A MAJOR. If you are unclear about this, just ask!See information at the bottom of these directions to access www.Choices360.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.) to gather information on your career. Then, go to YouTube and find a video about your career as a way of learning more information. Here’s one on a typical day in the life of an elementary school teacher. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)STEP 2-WRITE REPORT (See details below)Your answers must be thorough and reflect college-level thinking and detail.Your responses should be detailed, accurate, complete, in complete sentences, and written in your own words. Do not copy info from Choices360. Com but use this website to answer questions below.Although there is no minimum word count required, you could not answer all the questions in less than a page if you did a thorough job.This assignment is valuable for every student with a career goal!Here are 2 examples of completed assignments that earned an “A”. This is what I am looking for.Exploring Majors and Careers Example 1ActionsExploring Majors and Careers Example 2Actions Your report must include: (from Choices360) ***Instructions on how to access Choices360 are at the end of the page.Title of the careerA detailed description of the career in your own words. What does someone do in this career? This information is found in the “What They Do” section and from the YouTube video. This must be a minimum of a paragraph of 3-5 sentences. For most careers, this area would be longer.A list of two related careers or occupations. This is found in the “What They Do” section of Choices360.com or “What Can I Do With A Major In” website. You can also use the resources I provided in previous pages or any resource you find on the Career Services websiteLinks to an external site.. The Occupational Outlook Handbook (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.) is very helpful with all this information as well.A discussion of the training and/or education required. Be sure to list any degrees, certificates, and/or licenses required. This is found in the “What to Learn” section.The salary and hourly rate you would make if you worked in Los Angeles, California. This is found in the “Money and Outlook” section.The job outlook for the career found in the “money and outlook” section.Explain why this major is or is not a good fit with your academic abilities (e.g., math, science, English, history). Identify two things you liked about the career. Explain why they appeal to you.Identify two things you disliked, or found surprising about the career. Explain’A conclusion paragraph: How did this project help you? Be detailed and specific. Did this assignment lead you to change your mind about the major and/or career goals? EXPLAIN. STEP 3- SUBMIT ASSIGNMENTSave assignment as: lastname_majorsandcareers.docSubmit assignment BEFORE 11:59pm(PST) Sunday night or it will be late. HOW TO ACCESS CHOICES 360: Go to www.choices360.comClick Create an AccountEnter Access Key: CA01218Click NextClick the name of the role that best describes you in the Who Are You? SectionEnter your date of birth and select Santa Monica College– Select NextEnter your account information. Create a user Account Name and Password. IF INTERNET EXPLORER DOES NOT WORK FOR CREATING YOUR ACCOUNT, TRY A DIFFERENT BROWSER. (for example, if you put an account name in and it keeps telling you it is already in use, this is an internet explorer issue)
University of California Los Angeles Nursing as a Career Reflection Paper

A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain Case Study.

The Assignment Examine Case Study: A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes. At each decision point stop to complete the following: Decision #1 Which decision did you select? Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources. What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources. Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different? Decision #2 Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources. What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources. Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different? Decision #3 Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources. What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources. Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different? Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients. Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of five or more academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement. White Male with Hip Pain BACKGROUND This week, a 43-year-old white male presents at the office with a chief complaint of pain. He is assisted in his ambulation with a set of crutches. At the beginning of the clinical interview, the client reports that his family doctor sent him for psychiatric assessment because the doctor felt that the pain was “all in his head.” He further reports that his physician believes he is just making stuff up to get “narcotics to get high.” SUBJECTIVE The client reports that his pain began about 7 years ago when he sustained a fall at work. He states that he landed on his right hip. Over the years, he has had numerous diagnostic tests done (x-rays, CT scans, and MRIs). He reports that about 4 years ago, it was discovered that the cartilage surrounding his right hip joint was 75% torn (from the 3 o’clock to 12 o’clock position). He reports that none of the surgeons he saw would operate because they felt him too young for a total hip replacement and believed that the tissue would repair with the passage of time. Since then, he reported development of a strange constellation of symptoms including cooling of the extremity (measured by electromyogram). He also reports that he experiences severe cramping of the extremity. He reports that one of the neurologists diagnosed him with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). However, the neurologist referred him back to his family doctor for treatment of this condition. He reports that his family doctor said “there is no such thing as RSD, it comes from depression” and this was what prompted the referral to psychiatry. He reports that one specialist he saw a few years ago suggested that he use a wheelchair, to which the client states “I said ‘no,’ there is no need for a wheelchair, I can beat this!” The client reports that he used to be a machinist where he made “pretty good money.” He was engaged to be married, but his fiancé got “sick and tired of putting up with me and my pain, she thought I was just turning into a junkie.” He reports that he does get “down in the dumps” from time to time when he sees how his life has turned out, but emphatically denies depression. He states “you can’t let yourself get depressed… you can drive yourself crazy if you do. I’m not really sure what’s wrong with me, but I know I can beat it.” During the client interview, the client states “oh! It’s happening, let me show you!” this prompts him to stand with the assistance of the corner of your desk, he pulls off his shoe and shows you his right leg. His leg is turning purple from the knee down, and his foot is clearly in a visible cramp as the toes are curled inward and his foot looks like it is folding in on itself. “It will last about a minute or two, then it will let up” he reports. Sure enough, after about two minutes, the color begins to return and the cramping in the foot/toes appears to be releasing. The client states “if there is anything you can do to help me with this pain, I would really appreciate it.” He does report that his family doctor has been giving him hydrocodone, but he states that he uses is “sparingly” because he does not like the side effects of feeling “sleepy” and constipation. He also reports that the medication makes him “loopy” and doesn’t really do anything for the pain. MENTAL STATUS EXAM The client is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. He is dressed appropriately for the weather and time of year. He makes good eye contact. Speech is clear, coherent, goal directed, and spontaneous. His self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect consistent to self-reported mood and content of conversation. He denies visual/auditory hallucinations. No overt delusional or paranoid thought processes appreciated. Judgment, insight, and reality contact are all intact. He denies suicidal/homicidal ideation, and is future oriented. Diagnosis: Complex regional pain disorder (reflex sympathetic dystrophy) Decision Point One Savella 12.5 mg once daily on day 1; followed by 12.5 mg BID on day 2 and 3; followed by 25 mg BID on days 4-7; followed by 50 mg BID thereafter RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE Client returns to clinic in four weeks Client comes into the office to without crutches but is limping a bit. The client states that the pain is “more manageable since I started taking that drug. I have been able to get around more on my own. The pain is bad in the morning though and gets better throughout the day”. On a pain scale of 1-10; the client states that his pain is currently a 4. When asked what pain level would be tolerable on a daily basis, the client states, “I would rather have no pain but don’t think that is possible. I could live with a pain level of 3.”. When questioned further, the PMHNP asks what makes the pain on a scale of 1-10 different when comparing a level of 9 to his current level of 4?”. The client states that since using this drug, I can get to a point on most days where I do not need the crutches. ” The client is also asked what would need to happen to get his pain from a current level of 4 to an acceptable level of 3. He states, “If I could get to the point everyday where I do not need the crutches for most of my day, I would be happy.” Client states that he has noticed that he frequently (over the past 2 weeks) gets bouts of sweating for no apparent reason. He also states that his sleep has “not been so good as of lately.” He does complain of nausea today Client’s blood pressure and pulse are recorded as 147/92 and 110 respectively. He also admits to experiencing butterflies in his chest. The client denies suicidal/homicidal ideation and is still future oriented Decision Point Two Continue with current medication but lower dose to 25 mg twice a day RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO Client returns to clinic in four weeks Client comes to office today with use of crutches. He states that his current pain is a 7 out of 10. “I do not feel as good as I did last month.” Client states that he is sleeping at night but woken frequently from pain down his right leg and into his foot Client’s blood pressure and heart rate recorded today are 124/85 and 87 respectively. He denies any heart palpitations today Client denies suicidal/homicidal ideation but he is discouraged about the recent slip in his pain management and looks sad Decision Point Three Discontinue Savella and start tramadol 50 mg orally every 6 hours. Client may increase to 100 mg orally every 6 hours if pain is not adequately controlled Guidance to Student The client has a complex neuropathic pain syndrome that may never respond to pain medication. Once that is understood, the next task is to explain to the client that pain level expectations need to realistic in nature and understand that he will always have some level of pain on a daily basis. The key is to manage it in a manner that allows him to continue his activities of daily living with as little discomfort as possible. Next, it is important to explain that medications are never the final answer but a part of a complex regimen that includes physical therapy, possible chiropractic care, heat and massage therapy, and medications. Savella is a SNRI that also possesses NMDA antagonist activity which helps in producing analgesia at the site of nerve endings. It is specifically marketed for fibromyalgia and has a place in therapy for this gentleman. Tramadol is never a good option along with other opioid type analgesics. Agonists at the Mu receptors does not provide adequate pain control in these types of neuropathic pain syndromes and therefore is never a good idea. It also has addictive properties which can lead to secondary drug abuse. Reductions in Savella can help control side effects but at a cost of uncontrolled pain. It is always a good idea to start with dose reductions during parts of the day that pain is most under control. The addition of Celexa with Savella needs to be done cautiously. Both medications inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and can, therefore, lead to serotonin toxicity or serotonin syndrome.
A Caucasian Man With Hip Pain Case Study

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction and Discussion There can be health communication issues among nurses giving care to patients such as for example patients positive with breast cancer. Health communication among nursing care unit is a tough responsibility wherein oncology serves as one underlying factor in determining actual communication process. There can be imperative base of nurses skills in a clinical manner in which several cancer oriented nurses have received formal training in dealing with patients and communicate with them in all care level. Thus, there might have inadequate health related communication provided by nurses, can be due to culture related factors of breast cancer patients themselves like for instance, age and gender factors, family and social economic factors that adhere to the everyday life and work of these patients. Poor healthcare communication among nurses may come into the picture without spontaneous and precise conformity of both sides. This means that, nurses should overcome culture related hindrances to apply effective healthcare communication mostly to those breast cancer patients living in remote areas and or indigenous sites. Health communication problems that are brought about by certain culture barriers can ideally cause such distressing mood for breast cancer patients as well as with their families, who often want considerable and accurate information coming from nurses and care providers more often as possible. Some of the patients leave consultation unsure about diagnosis and prognosis when culture communication issues strikes in a confusing way and the lack of compelling awareness by nurses in lieu to further diagnostic tests on patients’ situation and true standing of well being, putting communication issues in black and white state can lead to unclear health management plan and in turn, nurses will be uncertain about real therapeutic intent on the breast cancer treatment. Accordingly, there have been initiatives upon improving health communication skills training for nurses and other care professionals located in the breast cancer field from influencing culture continuum in broader communication stature of nurses giving ultimate patient care and support. Health communication difficulty may slow down conscription of breast cancer patients into clinical trials, delaying introduction of effective innovative treatment into healthcare base. The shortage of effective health communication among nurse specialists and care setting can cause culture oriented perplexity and such loss of poise amongst nursing care team. Culture disparities can put the scenario on higher assumption, healthcare system advocates will acknowledge insufficient training in health communication and management skills can be served with little dedication thus, contributing to nurses’ stress, lack of job pleasure and poignant burnout in the work area. Case Study Example Culturally, there is a stigma associated with the word ‘cancer’ that some cultures perceive such as rude and disrespectful while other cultures think of it as an offensive term. Egyptian breast cancer patients, for example, believe that in dealing with illnesses within a family context they should be dignified (Butow, Tattersall and Goldstein, 1997). Same goes with other cultures such as the Navajo or the Native American tribe in Northern America. Navajo people also illustrate diverse cultural attitudes when it comes to dealing with various illnesses. What is important for these people is the feeling of orderliness and harmony hence disruptions by receiving negative information is frowned upon (Baile et al, 2002). As such, Navajo people perceive adverse diagnosis and prognosis as curse (Mitchell, 1998). Further, communications pertaining to cancer are also culturally bounded hence there is a need to carefully consider the cultural background of an individual before information about the cancer can be communicated to him/her and the family. As such, there are also familial barriers related to telling the truth (truthfulness) to terminal cancer patients. Taiwanese family members believe that there is no need to tell aged patients about their condition since they can be better-off unknowledgeable of cancer (Hu et al, 2002). On the other hand, Ethiopian refugees with cancer believe that it would be better to tell the family first about their condition. However, information that is unfavorable should not be given at night for the purpose of avoiding the burden of sleepless night (Mitchell, 1998). When it comes to the breast cancer experiences of Asian American women, Tam Ashing et al (2003) found out that there are cultural factors as well as gender role and family obligations that can contribute to the women’s inadequate involvement in their treatment. This manifests that while there is abundance in the study of cultural standpoints on the disclosure of the diagnosis and in the study of how culture affects the communication process, there is little study on the cultural influences on the interrelationship of patients and health care providers. How culture may affect the information patients might want and their participatory preferences as well as other interactions warrant future study (Tam Ashing et al, 2003). Cultural Factors Age, Race, Ethnicity and Communication Communication problems may emerge because of the differences in communication between nurses and doctors and the patients as well, better patient and nurse communication has been associated with patient choice regarding their treatment, satisfaction level of care and quality of care provided to cancer patients especially for the vulnerable groups like aged and disadvantaged (Liang et al, 2002). It was found out that age and [Latina] ethnicity are negatively associated as older age patients receive less interactive informational support from their respective physicians compared to their younger counterparts (Maly, Leake and Silliman, 2003). As it involves interactive information support, proponents noted that there is a need to improve the quality of communication at the patient-physician level. Proponents also noted that this is a significant venue to reduce age and ethnic treatment disparities among breast cancer patients (Maly, Leake and Silliman, 2003). In specific cases, breast cancer patients aged 80 years and older are reported to be receiving markedly less information about treatment options as compared to younger patients (Liang et al, 2002). These patients stated that they were communicated with fewer choices for treatments. Likewise, they noted that they were less likely talked to by their surgeons and their surgeons were less like to initiate communicating with them (Liang et al, 2002). Silliman et al (1998) emphasised the significance of communication between older breast cancer patients and their respective physicians. And while older women tend to obtain information from other external resources, these women mostly depend on the informations that their physicians can provide them. Regardless of expectation and knowledge about the value of communication, breast cancer patients undergo surgery less frequent than younger women. Even though many factors could explain patterns of care, (Zuckerman, 2000) it is possible that quality of communication between patients and their nurses contribute to observed treatment variability though medical standard of care (Zuckerman, 2000). Socioeconomic Status When it comes to decision-making about their health, younger and educated breast cancer patients are more ready to take active roles. Nonetheless, it was observed that low income and uneducated women diagnosed with breast cancer are communicating less with their respective physicians. This is more so when it comes to their preferences for treatment and other concerns and fears (Degner et al, 1997; Hietanen et al, 2000; McVea, Minier and Johnson Palensky, 2001; Zuckerman, 2000). Being unmarried, older women are also diagnosed with the disease also discussed risk factors frequently with their physicians. This group also predicted to prefer to receive conservative therapies as treatment (McVea, Minier and Johnson Palensky, 2001). Influence of Culture/Ethnicity/Language In lessening the levels of distress experienced by the breast cancer patients and their families upon learning of the disease, there are culturally appropriate approaches especially in terms of communication. For the clinicians, being aware of these cross-cultural communication practices about disclosing cancer diagnosis means developing sensitivities to the expectations of the involved. As such, during discussions of diagnosis and treatment options for patients from various cultures, clinicians shall consider striking a balance on commitment to straightforward discussion while also respecting the cultural values of the patient (Hern, Jr., 1998). Commonly, breast cancer patients with Western background tend to conform to certainty, expectedness, power and available outcomes (Mishel, 1990). Such Western philosophies engendered fostering of self-determination and autonomous decision-making (Gordon and Daugherty, 2003). As a cultural prerogative, the need for complete information to make accurate evaluations about their health is reflected as a social value (Hern, Jr. et al, 1998). The Western culture is particular of what is good, just and ethical in receiving health care, this forms part of the principle of self-determination where the goal is to make autonomous decisions about their treatment (Baile et al, 2002). The Cancer Patient’s Family Families of the breast cancer patients can aid the patients in making better, informed decisions about their care and treatment (Ballard-Reisch and Letner, 2003). There is a need therefore to shift patient decision-making with family-centered strategies particularly because most decisions in cancer health care are carried out in the familial care and obligation context. Active role of health care practitioners is shaped by their structured and ongoing dialogue with the members of the family of the patients. Dialogues between the two mostly centered on the goals of treatments, care planning and expectations about patient outcomes (Given, Given and Kozachik, 2001). As an advanced part of the cancer care, caregivers specifically coming from the family should be treated as an integral part of the process (Given, Given and Kozachik, 2001). In the cancer care scenario, while nurses may easily attend to the needs alongside those of cancer patient caregivers should be also given a legitimate place in the medical setting (Morris and Thomas, 2001). Other Communication Barriers There are indirect indications that signal emotional needs from the patients than direct requests for informational support. In parallel, health care providers can readily respond to direct expressions of need coming from the patients. The problem lies in the difficulty in detecting and responding to the indirect signals that cues patient needs. Indirect communications that are not immediately and easily identified by the care providers could be allusions as well as paraverbal expressions and nonverbal behaviors (Butow, Brown, Cogar et al., 2002). It would be easy for the breast cancer patients to assume that their physicians will naturally make them informed of relevant things. However, patients do not necessarily ask for information as this may appear ignorance on their part while some patients may feel guilt when eating most of the busy nurses’ time (Fallowfield and Jenkins, 1999; Maguire, 1999). Other communication barriers may include the presence of multiple specialists that the patients may see within the treatment team (middle level practitioner, nurse) hence becoming confused. Other than the educational background of the patients, anxiety and medicinal side effects may affect the comprehension and understanding of the patient (Towle and Godolphin, 1999; Ballard-Reisch and Letner, 2003). Role of Nurses and Communication Nurses play an important role in communication and supporting breast cancer patients especially that they are a part of a multidisciplinary cancer team. Nurses perform different functions in various stages of the breast cancer trajectory. Nurses served as the initial interface or the first clinical contacts for patients and their respective families (Fallowfield and Jenkins, 1999; Maguire, 1999). Thereby, nurses create a supportive environment throughout the course of the patient’s care. Nurses are also served as critical sources of information particularly on procedures, treatments and other phases of the patient care. Since they spend most time with the patients, nurses are considered to be the most trusted member of the cancer team when it comes to informational support (Fallowfield and Jenkins, 1999; Maguire, 1999). Nurses, as part of the supportive environment, also deal with the emotional needs of the patients upon learning the diagnosis. As such, nurses are able to witness emotionally draining situations including the anger of the patients as well as their family members or the withdrawal and depression of these people. Nurses acts as physician extenders as they manage most of the daily care of the breast cancer patients. Nevertheless, communicating with them has been acknowledged most important aspect of being a nurse (Armstrong-Esther et al, 1989; Van Cott, 1993). Furthermore, communication serves as an important aspect of the quality of care, from several studies it appears that poor communication is the largest source of dissatisfaction in patients (Macleod Clark, 1985; Ley 1988; Davies and Fallowfield 1991). As an outcome, the quality of care may improve with effective communication. Effective communication does not just depend on the acquisition of the right communication skills (Wilkinson, 1991). From the preceding account, there appears that time pressure, especially in the residential home, is determinant for the verbal communication of nurses and the topics that come up for conversation. As nurses experience more time pressure they talk less about topics concerning lifestyle and emotions. There can be an important point for consideration because, in nursing, high pressure is often present, appeared that simply employing more staff does not lead to better communication (Pool, 1996; Liefbroer and Visser, 1986; Wilkinson, 1991). Conclusion Therefore, poor communication with health professionals and in particular nurses creates the most distressful situations for breast cancer patients and their families. In addition, small research has been undertaken to examine specific culture related problems and challenges that confronts the nursing community There will be a need to conceptualise the perceptions of the nurses about communication as well as how they perceive the potential barriers and strategies of overcoming these communication barriers Thus, it can be that nurses described communication difficulties being encountered when interacting with cancer patient families. The culture related factors appeared to be central determinant of quality of nurses’ healthcare communication as nurses described difficulties associated with delivery of bad news and treatment plans that are not evidently defined for the breast cancer patient. Indeed, effects of poor communication on nurses were remarkable and brightly described, recommendation for nursing clinical practice and subsequent research are to take place in time. Lastly, upon continuing of nursing education nurses should be trained to be sensitive to the needs of patients and will need to create atmosphere that facilitate cancer patients’ question and express imperative needs. Amicably, nurses should be trained to use their time efficiently thus, appeared that nurses’ verbal communication is hardly connected to patient characteristics. Then, it is important for nurses to learn how to standardize cancer patient needs, in order to offer nursing care that is tailored to effective health communication and the success of it. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
4-4 Project 1: Writing Plan Submission. Can you help me understand this History question?

Hello, please the rubric for the assignment.
Instructions

Submit your Project 1: Writing Plan Submission. For additional details, please refer to the Project 1 Guidelines and Rubric document.

Keep in mind it builds from what we have been working on and up to the final project. I’m just writing because it said it wasn’t enough information.
4-4 Project 1: Writing Plan Submission

Magnetoreception Mechanisms and Research

Magnetoreception Mechanisms and Research. Species Selection Authors Following a thorough journal trawl, it is revealed who are the major contributors to magnetoreception research, many of which are specialised in a certain group of vertebrate. Wiltschko and Wiltschko (1999) for example, are key providers of magnetoreceptor information in homing pigeons and European robins, Lohmann and Lohmann (1994) for loggerhead sea turtles and Phillips (1986) for eastern newts. These publishers, among others, are pioneers in their field providing multiple experiment results over the years. As magnetoreception is yet inconclusive in many animals, having a large data pool within any species is invaluable to uncovering their magnetoreception status. If identified to utilise an aspect of the earth’s magnetic field, further research can then be carried out to answer further quandaries as to how it is accomplished and why. It is the author’s choice that is ultimately responsible for what species is selected for study. The importance of authors who specialise in a species is that in time, they undoubtedly become more familiar with the chosen species and advance their own research by trial and error methodology, providing increasingly significant results for the latest questions in this field of research. Species size and age specific theories Several ecological and evolutionary outlines or ‘rules’ have been put forward since the first conception of magnetoreception, mainly in relation to body size; these are apparent in the literature. Noticeably distinguished is Bergmann’s rule (Miguel, Miguel and Bradford (2006), Cope’s rule (Rensch 1948; Stanley 1973) and Rensch’s rule (Rensch 1950). The functioning core mechanisms tied to these models and their precise workings are still unknown. A keystone study by Nishimura et al. (2008) focused on the connection between magnetic field exposure and animal body size, as Bergmann’s rule holds that organisms tend to be larger at higher latitudes, where the geomagnetic field is more than doubled in strength in comparison to that of lower latitudes. Using data in the literature, a meta-regression analysis was carried out by Nishimura et al. (2008) to determine the effect of electromagnetic exposure on animal weight in contrast to that of unexposed controls. The results demonstrate that electromagnetic field exposure had a considerably positive relationship with relative weight in males, whilst in females this conclusion did not apply. Thereby, the body weight increase would explain Rensch’s rule. Bergmann’s and Cope’s rules would be explained by the male’s relative weight increase. To further support Cope’s rule, it was concluded that, over consecutive generations, animals would increasingly gain a substantial amount of body size if natural magnetic fields and/or electromagnetic fields become stronger over time (Nishimura et al. 2008). In many migratory orientation experiments only young birds (e.g. Mouritsen and Larsen 2001; Muheim and Akesson, 2002), or the age is not stated (e.g. Able and Dillon, 1977; Able and Cherry, 1986), are used. If however certain senses develop at a specific age, this must be accounted for when choosing a species to study for magnetoreception. A study by Munro et al. (1997) who found that a short, high-intensity magnetic pulse, an action intended to alter the magnetisation of magnetite, had no effect on juvenile Zosterops lateralis orientation. They continued to select their seasonally appropriate migratory direction (Munro et al. 1997). In comparison, mature silvereyes from the same population had reacted to the same experimentation with a 90° clockwise deflection from their normal migratory course (Munro et al. 1997). This outcome proposes that magnetite is a component in an orientation model used solely by adult migrants. Also, study results from Munro et al. (2014) back the hypothesis that magnetoreception appears in the second week of life in Gallus gallus domesticus. Due to the difficulty in determining to what extent of development this sense is in, further research is needed. This has huge implications for the results of past and future studies. For example, if chickens are found to develop a fully functioning truly directional magnetic response at two weeks of age, all studies that will test or have tested chickens younger than two weeks of age will contain misleading results. Research Limitations Unlike most senses, the physical foundation being defined, no mechanism for magnetoreception has been identified with certainty. Thus, recognising the limitations could be valuable to the illumination of this mechanism; which has so eluded scientists in the field of sensory biology for more than four decades. The limitations consist of several factors. First, humans appear to lack the capability to detect magnetic fields (Wiltschko and Wiltschko 2012). In comparison, the majority of non-human senses (UV vision and polarisation detection) are somewhat direct additions of known human abilities, magnetoreception being an exception. Consequently, neither medical literature nor innate comprehension can be used as an advisory tool with regards to human senses. Another impediment is that organic matter is fundamentally not physically affected by magnetic fields (Hulot et al. 2012), resulting in magneto-receptors having the potential to being situated anywhere within the organism (feasibly in microscopic intracellular arrangements) which is dissimilar to the majority of other sensory receptors. Another obscuring factor is that the existence of sizeable auxiliary edifices used for fixing and influencing the magnetic field, for example components of lenses and eardrums, are unlikely to be found due to the lack of natural materials which can impact on magnetic fields (Chauhan and Vaish 2012). Finally, the faintness of the collaboration amid the Earth’s magnetic field and the magnetic instances of electrons and atoms, approximately one five-millionth of the thermal energy kT at body temperature, makes it problematic to even propose a reasonable mechanism (Johnsen and Lohmann 2008). To what intensity and degree each possible mechanism detects the magnetic field of the Earth, is another realm of questions entirely. Magnetoreception Uses Once an ability such as this is identified in a vertebrate species, not only is it a breakthrough in scientific terms, but also has the potential for a multitude of commercial applications which can be used for human and/or species benefit. Agribusiness A study by Burchard et al. (2003) assesses the assumption that electric and magnetic fields could interfere with dairy production in Bos taurus. Exposure to electromagnetic and magnetic fields resulted in an average reduction of 4.97% in milk yield, 13.78% in fat corrected milk yield, and 16.39% in milk fat and an increase of 4.75% in dry matter intake. Similar studies on cows back up these findings (Burchard et al. 1996; Burchard, Nguyen and Block 1998; Burchard, Nguyen and Rodriguez 2006). Domestic chickenshave ferrous naturally occurring inorganic substances in thedendritesin the top mandible and have the ability of magnetoreception (Falkenberg et al. 2010; Wiltschko et al. 2007). Since chickens use orientation guidance from the magnetic field of the earth to navigate in moderately sized areas, this highlights the risk thatbeak-trimming(subtraction of a portion of the beak to minimise harmful pecking often executed on egg-laying hens) compromises the capability of hens to navigate in large arrangements, or to move in and out of structures in free-range networks (Freire, Eastwood and Joyce 2011). Deterrent Spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), are thought of as pest species because of their large quantities in the western Atlantic, adding to their often formidable numbers in industrial fishing equipment. O’Connell et al. (2012) combined electropositive metal and magnetism, as possible elasmobranch deterrents, on a fishing hook – the SMART (Selective Magnetic and Repellent-Treated) hook and evaluated onspiny dogfishin the Gulf of Maine. Results revealed that SMART hooks reducedspiny dogfish catch by 28.2%, but had no perceived effect on thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata), barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis), and teleost catch. It is interesting to note, further investigation identified that SMART hooks created a mean voltage of 1.05eV for a period of 5 days; subsequently the material rapidly dissolved and the voltage dissipated. Despite being effective, the implementation of the SMART hook may not be financially practical at present as the general target catch (e.g. teleosts) did not compensate the price of the hooks. Since it has become apparent that elasmobranchs can identify tiny electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1 (Winther-Janson et al. 2011), using their ampullae of Lorenzini (Schäfer et al. 2012; Wueringer et al. 2011), reaction effects to electric fields have been analysed in different species with the purpose of producing shark repellents to minimise shark-human interactions. Huveneers et al. (2013) demonstrated the impact of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric repellent on white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). Two experiments were conducted, the first contained 116 trials using static bait and were executed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia (Huveneers et al. 2013). These results suggest that the quantity of bait taken throughout static bait trials was not influenced by the electric field. Nevertheless, the electric field lengthened the time it took the sharks to ingest the bait, decreased the number of contacts per advancement and reduced the quantity of contacts within two metres of the lure. It must also be noted that this effect of the electric field was not consistent in all sharks. Experiment two involved 189 tows using a seal lure and was executed near Seal Island, South Africa (Huveneers et al. 2013). 0 breaches and just 2 surface contacts were detected for the period of the towing when the electric field was initiated, this was compared to the 16 breaches and 27 surface contacts devoid of the electric field. Interestingly, it was concluded that the decrease in activity resulting from the electric field is situation specific and determined by the motivational state of sharks (Huveneers et al. 2013). Bird deterrents have been used for centuries, in a variety of forms (Avery et al. 1996). Increasing need for new methods have become apparent, for use in airports (Blackwell et al. 2013; Schmidt et al. 2013), farmland (Railsback and Johnson 2011) and other areas where birds are not welcome. Two magnetic tools developed by the Sho-Bond Corporation in Japan are currently being promoted as bird deterrents. The first, “Birdmag”, is made up of globular magnets, 1.5 cm in diameter, threaded along a wire at 25-cm intervals. The wire can be connected beside objects where birds are likely to congregate, nest, or roost. The second, “Birdpeller”, combines four 1.5-cm diameter crescent magnets linked to a propeller at 6-cm interludes. The developer claims that these devices produce magnetic fields which confuse birds, resulting in birds circumventing magnetic field locations. As mentioned (see section 1.3), the Earth’s existing magnetic field is exploited as a directional guide throughout migration or homing by a number of bird species (Moore 1975; Southern 1974, 1978; Wiltschko et al. 1981). It also is recognized that irregularities in the Earth’s magnetic field can cause disorientation in birds (Able 1994). Belant et al. (1997) aimed to clarify the effect of artificial magnets, with field strength of up to 118 Gauss, by inserting them into nest boxes known to be used by European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). This magnetic field was unsuccessful in discouraging starlings from nesting in the test boxes. However, the effectiveness of synthetic magnetic fields to deter birds has not had adequate research to conclude its effects. Invasive species Navigational ability is an essential factor of a vertebrate’s spatial ecology and may impact the invasive potential of a species, whether they relocate naturally or are introduced by man. Pittman et al. (2014) supplies evidence that Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) have navigational map and compass senses (described in section 1.1.2.1); this is not only a pioneering study for pythons but also for reptiles (see section 3.3.2 – Fig. 4. for reptile study quantity). Similar studies which aim to identify a navigational ability in: fish (Dittman and Quinn 1996), mammals (Holland, Borissov and Siemers 2010), amphibians (Rodda and Phillips 1992) and birds (Wiltschko et al. 2010) add to this growing list of potential species. It must be noted that not all species are invasive or cause detrimental effects to their new environment or local species. By identifying which species have high invasive potential and subsequently which of these can utilise magnetoreception, a better understanding of the navigational capacity of these animals will become apparent. Identifying the navigational capacity is the first step to creating a systematic understanding of species’ spatial dynamics (Putman et al. 2012) and is essential with regards to range expansion by invasive species (Holway and Suarez 1999). Natural resources that are widely spread or seasonally changing may be acquired by species, due to navigational capacity, which may also decrease risk linked with foraging possible treacherous or foreign areas. Navigational aptitude also influences population mechanics by allowing individuals to survive in large concentrations, including when there as sparse resources (Mueller and Fagan 2008; Barton et al. 2012). Although having possibly considerable effects on movement behaviour and resource use, limited research has been conducted on navigation in invasive species. Magnetoreception research on certain species has varied uses, the few areas reviewed show potential for future study. It appears negative effects on dairy production and chicken movement and welfare is just the tip of the iceberg. Studies propose SMART hooks, electric and magnetic fields are a theoretically functional tool to: improve discrimination of fishing equipment, induce behavioural responses in sharks and deter birds. Thus, further research is necessary for the progressive development of these uses. Additional improved selection of species for testing in this field of study is not only beneficial for agricultural industry and deterrent methods, but also conservation and ecology management (due to the huge implications for predictions of spatial spread and impacts). Travis et al. (2009) states the addition of density-dependent dispersal to high endurance of dispersers could result in fat-tailed dispersal kernels and advancing invasion borders. Comparative Studies This meta-analytical study is unique in that it does not draw on data within other studies per say, but instead combines other factors (publication years, quantity and species used) for analysis. The aims proposed (section 1.4) in this study have not been acknowledged before, resulting in the lack of comparable data. Some publications in the literature show similar aspects such as Feist (1997) who proposed the quantity of publications affected an individual’s standing in the academic workplace, and Laband (1985) who aimed to correlate quantity and quality of faculty publications, graduate student placement and research success. These employ the idea that a ‘quantity’ search of literature could provide correlations and pin-point gaps in certain fields of research. Although this loosely relates to the present study, it highlights that alternative methods (not commonly used) can be used to address relevant and perplexing problems. Magnetoreception Mechanisms and Research

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write my term paper Step One: View the PowerPoint (attached). Step Two: View the documentary https://www.history.com/topics/1960s/1960s-history (Links to an external site.) Step Three: Visit the website linked below and review the photographic essay on the anti-Vietnam War protests of the 1960s and 1970s and their impacts. https://www.thoughtco.com/vietnam-war-protests-4163780 (Links to an external site.) Step Four: Submit a short (1-2 paragraph summary of what you learned about 1960s protest movements by viewing the PowerPoint, documentary and the photographic essay.

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MC 621 KKCUICCD Target Market Research Effective Tool in Health & Wellness Essay.

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MC 621 KKCUICCD Target Market Research Effective Tool in Health & Wellness Essay

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University of California Los Angeles Effects of Gender Medicalization Questions