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Unilever SWOT and PESTLE analysis

Company background and mission statement Unilever is a global company that can trace its origins to 1929, when a merger between a Dutch margarine manufacturer and a British soap maker was negotiated (Jones, 2002). Given the distinct sectors in which the two organisations were located, the merger was considered somewhat of a ‘curiosity’ (Jones, 2002, online), but it set the stage for a multinational corporation producing a wide portfolio of goods. Some of the world’s most recognised brands are produced by the company, including Surf, Lipton, Dove, Lynx, Magnum and Hellmann’s. Today, Unilever is one of Europe’s largest companies, and in terms of sales, it is the third-largest consumer goods firm in the world, after Nestle and Procter and Gamble (Thain and Bradley, 2014). The company has been floated twice, and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index and the AEX Index. The stated aim of the company is to “provide people the world over with products that are good for them and good for others” (Unilever, 2014, online). Strategic Audit A strategic audit comprises a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of a company’s business environment and internal assets. There are two key elements to the audit: the external environment and the internal environment. The external environment identifies issues concerned with customers and competition, and examines the social, economic, technological, environmental political and legal elements impacting the business. A typical tool used at this stage is the PESTLE analysis. The internal analysis focuses on the resources the company possesses, such as the product distribution, product portfolio, sales and profit margins. A typical tool used at this stage is the SWOT analysis, in which the strengths and weaknesses, and the advantages and disadvantages of a company compared to its competitors are listed. Below, these tools are in turn applied to Unilever. The External Environment PESTLE analysis The PESTLE framework below analyses the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental dynamics of the environment in which Unilever operates. Political Unilever is co-headquartered in London and Amsterdam. Both the Dutch and the British political systems are in a time of flux. The British government currently comprises the first coalition government in the post-war period, with another expected after the General Election in 2015 (Taylor-Gooby and Stoker, 2011), while in the Netherlands, coalitions are standard. Such governmental frameworks have important implications for the conduct of business, for there tend to be policy ebbs and flows over short periods of time. For instance, in the Netherlands, the rate of Value Added Tax (VAT) for businesses has changed three times since 2010 (Wolf, 2014). Both the United Kingdom and the Netherlands are original members of the European Union (EU) which facilitates trade among member states by the harmonisation of certain rules relating to business and the removal of trade barriers. There is some political impetus in both countries, however to leave the EU. For instance, in 2012, the prime minister of the Netherlands, Mark Rutte, threatened to pull the country out of the Eurozone as a means of easing the local Dutch economy (Dutch News, 2014), while in the UK there is a lobby for a referendum on EU membership. Exiting the EU would have massive implications for a co-headquartered business like Unilever. For this reason, Unilever has been vocal about its preference for both countries to remain in the Union (The Guardian, 2014). There is growing political unrest in the Middle East, and while Unilever does not currently operate there, 53 per cent of its business comes from developing markets (Unilever, 2014), and globalisation means that it may not be shielded from the effects of conflict and instability overseas. For example, in 2012, oil prices reached unprecedented levels (Smith, 2014). This is a matter of concern for the company because it directly impacts on transportation costs. Economic Shoppers in Europe are still suffering from the effects of the longest and deepest recession in the post-war period. Data from Eurostat shows that household consumption fell drastically across Europe following the recession, and while there has been some recovery in recent years, household consumption is still not back to its pre-2008 level (Gerstberger and Yaneva, 2013). In addition, unemployment has risen and wages have stagnated in several of the economies in which Unilever supplies consumers. Low household consumption, high unemployment and falling wages bring about drops in consumer demand which adversely affect manufacturers like Unilever. During recessions, households tend to cut back on non-essentials, which might impact some parts of the company’s product portfolio. While the West has suffered from the financial crisis, economies in other areas, such as Latin America and China, are booming, providing considerable opportunities for the company. For instance, in 2013, sales of the company’s products to emerging markets grew by 8.7 per cent (The Guardian, 2014). Social Life expectancy has been increasing over time in wealthy nations. For instance, in the UK in 1980, life expectancy stood at 70.4 years for men and 79.8 for women. By 2010, it had increased to 79.3 years and 83.6 years, respectively for men and women (Blossfeld, Buchholz, and Kurz, 2011). At the same time, the fertility rate has been falling over time. The increase in life expectancy and a below replacement fertility rate coupled with the ageing of the so-called ‘baby boom’ generation (those born between 1946 and 1965) are accelerating population ageing. The UK government has estimated that the proportion of the population aged 30 and under is set to fall, while the proportion aged 60 and above will increase. By 2034, it is estimated that 23 per cent of the British population will be aged 65, while just 18 per cent will be aged 16 or below (Office for National Statistics, 2009). There are important ramifications of the ageing population for businesses like Unilever. Firstly, there are likely to be changes in the structure of demand in future. Older people have unique needs and desires that will need to be met by Unilever. For instance, there is a greater demand for frozen ‘ready meals’ by older people (Ahlgren, Gustafsson and Hall, 2004) which will directly impact Unilever’s ‘Sara Lee’ brand. Secondly, there may be labour shortages in the future. Expanding businesses like Unilever will need to respond to this by encouraging workers to work longer or recruiting migrant workers (Maestas and Zissimopoulos, 2010) As a direct result of some high profile public campaigns, people are becoming more health and ethically conscious. This has led to an increase in demand for ethically produced and healthy products and heightened concern regarding genetically modified goods. This trend has already had a direct impact on Unilever’s product portfolio, with sales of two of its margarine brands (I Can’t Believe its Not Butter and Flora) seemingly in free-fall (The Guardian, 2014) Technological Increasingly, consumers, particularly younger individuals, utilise social media, retailing websites and mobile forms of communication to connect with retailers, to discuss with members of their social networks their purchasing decisions, and to review past purchases (Sashi, 2012). This means that consumables companies like Unilever need to harness the Internet and mobile technologies in accessing these customers. For instance, a growing number of companies now include social networking websites such as Facebook and micro-blogging sites like Twitter in their promotion mix as a means of engaging their current consumer base and recruiting new customers. At the same time, constant connectivity makes the selling environment for consumer products increasingly competitive. The readiness of product price and promotional information, the ability of shoppers to access online stores quickly and the aggregation of online content and offline information all mean that, in the digital age, firms like Unilever must carefully craft their marketing activity (Sashi, 2012). Legal Unilever has a presence in some 190 countries worldwide which means that it must abide by their national laws. The extent of the company’s multinational activity means that it must devote considerable resources to scanning the legal horizon and ensuring that it responds to changes accordingly. There have been significant legislative changes in the area of people management. For instance, across Europe many countries have enacted anti-discrimination laws which companies like Unilever must adhere to. In the United Kingdom, under the provisions of the Equality Act 2010, businesses are not allowed to discriminate against individuals on the basis of factors such as gender, age, disability, religion and ethnicity in their recruitment, selection, training and promotional practices (Hyman, Klarsfeld, Ng, and Haq, 2012). Legal frameworks have also been put in place as a response to the ageing of the population (Maestas and Zissimopoulos, 2010). For instance, the mandatory age of retirement has been removed in both the UK and the Netherlands, which means that Unilever can no longer compel employees to retire once they reach the age of 65. Large companies also must put adequate pension provisions for workers in place under a new British scheme, which has a direct impact on business costs Environmental There is increasing political impetus to respond to environmental degradation, and the onus is on large manufacturers like Unilever to use fewer resources and produce less waste. In Europe, a major development affecting the company is the establishment of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which was set up in 2005 as part of a concerted and collaborative attempt to reduce carbon emissions under the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. The EU ETS is a system under which polluters emissions are ‘capped’; in order to pollute more, manufacturers must purchase credits from other polluters. Participation in the EU ETS is mandatory for all large factories and plants that produce more than 25 thousand metric tons of carbon dioxide and that use ammonia or petrochemicals (Ellerman, Converey and Perthuis, 2010). The Internal Environment SWOT analysis The second element of a strategic audit is an analysis of the internal mechanisms of the business. This part of the paper uses a SWOT analysis to identify and critically examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing Unilever Strengths The size of the company is its major strength. Unilever manufactures more than 400 brands which it sells to some 190 countries (Unilever, 2014, the Guardian, 2014). In addition, it employs over 167,000 people and expends 928 million euros on research and development annually (Unilever, 2013). In terms of performance, the company has bucked recent economic trends. In 2013, the company reported profit growth of 9 per cent over the previous year, reporting a net profit of £4.4 billion. In addition, global sales grew by over 4 per cent that year, with sales to emerging economies growing by 8.7 per cent (the Guardian, 2014). As well as its sheer size, a major source of strength for Unilever is its longevity and brand recognition. The company has been in existence since 1929 and is the world’s oldest multinational enterprise (Thain and Bradley, 2014) Another strength of the company is its geographical spread. Unlike some consumable manufacturers, which are headquartered in just one country and found on just one public index, Unilever has headquarters in two countries, is floated on two indexes and is secondarily floated on the New York Stock Exchange. Another of the company’s strength is its human capital. Human capital is the volume of skills, knowledge, experience and competencies embodied in individuals that staff and run the business. This is important for there is a good deal of empirical research that links high levels of human capital with firm performance (Huselid, Jackson and Schuler, 1997). The company’s chief executive officer, Paul Polman, who held senior positions at both of the company’s major competitors, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, has been termed a ‘rainmaker’ that has taken the company from strength to strength (The Telegraph, 2014). On taking the reins in 2009, Polman set out a plan to double the size of the business, to double sales to £80 billion and to boost efforts at environmentalism and sustainability. Weaknesses Some analysts have argued that the company’s broad product portfolio is a source of weakness (the Guardian, 2014). The firm produces goods in four broad product categories – cleaning agents, food, personal care products and beverages. It is argued that such a broad portfolio can prevent the business from focusing its marketing efforts appropriately (Putsis and Bayus, 2001). Thus, in order to consolidate its activities, the company may need to divest some brands or product ranges in the future. Indeed, the company already seems to be taking steps in this regard, selling popular brands Peparami, Slim-Fast, Ragu and Bertolli in 2014 (The Telegraph, 2014). In addition, most of brands produced by the company are multinational brands which may prevent them from being tailored to the needs of local markets. A further weakness of the product line concerns the prices offered to consumers. The prices of Unilever brands are generally higher than those of its competitors (Thain and Bradley, 2014). The company has explained that prices are high to represent the quality of the goods, while analysts have attributed the high prices to the enormous amount the company spends on research and development and its massive marketing budget (Thain and Bradley, 2014). In 2010 alone, Unilever spent 6 billion euros on advertising, and today, the company is one of the world’s largest purchasers of advertising media (The Telegraph, 2011). Threats The company is facing a number of threats, particularly from competitors, the market and consumers. Firstly, while Unilever’s broad product portfolio might be conceived as unusual, it is not unique in this respect. Procter and Gamble and Nestle have very similar business models and product lines (Thain and Bradley, 2014). Indeed, in terms of sales, Unilever is outperformed by both of these competitors. A large proportion of Unilever’s products are premium brands aimed at consumers with relatively high levels of disposable income. This might be considered a threat in the context of the current economic downturn. Increased financial uncertainty might lead households to move away from these brands to own-brand and lower value products, negatively affecting both net sales and sales margins. Food prices have risen substantially worldwide (Headey and Fan, 2008). This represents a significant threat to the company because it must pass the cost of food inflation to customers in order to maintain current profit margins. This might explain why the firm’s CEO is starting to consider refocusing the company strategy on alternative product lines, such as sundries or hard lines (The Guardian, 2014) Although the company has a stated aim to double its sales levels, analysts have noted that the company is still far short of accomplishing that aim. As the Telegraph (2014, online) notes, “the acquisitions of TRESemmé shampoo maker Alberto Culver and Radox bath foam have added almost €3bn in turnover…However, these deals have hardly moved the needle and Unilever is still sitting on a big pile of cash. With growth slowing in emerging markets where 60pc of the group’s sales are generated, investors may start pushing for Unilever’s leader to be a bit bolder if he is to reach his ambitious €80bn sales goal”. In the context of the recent economic downturn, there have been some demergers and sell-offs in some of the sectors in which Unilever operates. While in some cases this has proven to be an opportunity for the company (for instance, the firm has recently been able to purchase top hair care brand TRESemmé), it also poses a threat should any of these product lines fall into the hands of its competitors. For instance, the 2008 purchase of shaving brand Gillette by Procter and Gamble immediately made it the biggest company in men’s personal care (The Telegraph, 2014) An increased social ethic and concern for the environment among consumers should also be considered a threat to the company. In Japan, Thailand and particularly in India, Unilever has attracted heavy criticism for the manufacture of so-called ‘fairness’ products. These are products that are typically aimed at women and used for lightening the skin. While such brands are a major source of income for the company – allegedly, one skin lightening agent produced by the company, Fair and Lovely, is used by 80 per cent of the population of Bangladesh (Unilever Bangladesh, 2014) – the company has also come under fire for promoting Westernised standards of beauty. In Thailand, an advert for one of the company’s fairness creams was withdrawn from media outlets after widespread censure because it correlated white skin and high levels of intelligence (The Guardian, 2014). Opportunities Social media offers considerable opportunities to Unilever, particularly given its aim to reduce its advertising expenditure (The Telegraph, 2014). Social media sites are increasingly used by companies to update consumers on new products, to offer discounts and special promotions, and to invite consumers to special events that are either held online or physically (Sashi, 2012). Unilever may be able to capitalise on this trend either through corporate accounts or through brand accounts. There are considerable opportunities to the company through its extensive research and development efforts. Unilever has research facilities in England, Shanghai, Bangalore, New Jersey and Connecticut, which are working continually to develop new product lines and refine existing ones. Through this investment the company is able to regularly introducing new brands or reintroduce redesigned brands to the market. Conclusion Unilever is a unique company. The firm is dual listed, co-headquartered in two of Europe’s wealthiest cities and it offers the market a vast and very broad range of products. This strategic audit has shown that while the company is operating in a turbulent business environment, it is managing to perform well, both in terms of sales and growth. Despite the company’s strengths, there are some external threats posed by market developments, customer attitudes and the actions of its key competitors. The company leadership will need to monitor these aspects if Unilever is to meet its objective to become the largest consumables multinational company in the world. References Ahlgren, M., Gustafsson, I. B.,
Lynn University Coping with Corruption in Trading with Vietnam Case Study.

I’m working on a marketing case study and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Choose one of the studies from the table of contents. Use the formal case study instructions to construct your response.**THE PDF IS ATTACHED BELOW FEATURING THE CASES. ( DO NOT SELECT MCDONALDS VS OBESITY CASE, IT WAS ALREADY SELECTED) ***You must choose a different case study for each of the case study assignments.A case study analysis requires you to investigate a business problem, examine the alternative solutions, and propose the most effective solution using supporting evidence.Preparing the Case Before you begin writing, follow these guidelines to help you prepare and understand the case study:Read and examine the case thoroughlyTake notesHighlight relevant factsUnderline key problems.Focus your analysisIdentify two to five key problemsWhy do they exist?How do they impact the organization?Who is responsible for them?Uncover possible solutionsReview course readingsDiscussionsOutside researchPersonal experienceSelect the best solutionConsider strong supporting evidencePros, and consIs this solution realistic?Drafting the Case:Once you have gathered the necessary information, a draft of your analysis should include these sections:IntroductionIdentify the key problems and issues in the case study.Formulate and include a thesis statement, summarizing the outcome of your analysis in 1–2 sentences.BackgroundSet the scene: background information, relevant facts, and the most important issues.Demonstrate that you have researched the problems in this case study.AlternativesOutline possible alternatives (not necessarily all of them)Explain why alternatives were rejectedConstraints/reasonsWhy are alternatives not possible at this time?Proposed SolutionProvide one specific and realistic solutionExplain why this solution was chosenSupport this solution with solid evidenceConcepts from class (text readings, discussions, lectures)Outside researchPersonal experience (anecdotes)RecommendationsDetermine and discuss specific strategies for accomplishing the proposed solution.If applicable, recommend further action to resolve some of the issuesWhat should be done and who should do it?Finalizing the CaseAfter you have composed the first draft of your case study analysis, read through it to check for any gaps or inconsistencies in content or structure:Is your thesis statement clear and direct?Have you provided solid evidence?Is any component from the analysis missing?When you make the necessary revisions, proofread and edit your analysis before submitting the final draft.The case study should be at least three pages in length. Preface by a recap of what the article/case study is about, include your analysis, if you agree or disagree with the conclusions made, and why/why not?Case Study Format:Cover pageIn text citationsWorks CitedFollow APA**EXAMPLE ATTACHED BELOW. (MCDONALDS VS OBESITY).
Lynn University Coping with Corruption in Trading with Vietnam Case Study

Living In A Surveillance Society Information Technology Essay

To say we are consciously or unconsciously sleep walking into surveillance society is a question of fact because frankly speaking individuals in society go through some form of surveillance. The security attached to surveillance allows individuals embrace it and sometimes with the knowledge of risks that come with being watched meanwhile others walk into a surveillance society without any knowledge of such dangers. 1.2 Judging from past and present events reported in several cases, journals and articles about the benefits and dangers that accompany a surveillance society, I am of the opinion that there is a need to analyse the concept of a surveillance society to ascertain if the concerns of the Information Commissioner are justified or not. 1.3 This essay would surround different issues in relation to a surveillance society such as individual privacy, data protection, laws that provide for data protection, different forms of surveillance and surveillance technologies with a view to providing some clarity regarding the concerns of the commissioner on the concept of a surveillance society. 2.0 Surveillance 2.1 Definition of surveillance Surveillance is viewed ‘as having information about one’s movement and activities recorded by technologies on behalf of the organisations and governments that structured our society’. [1] Surveillance was also defined as ‘a purposeful routine, systematic and focused attention paid to personal details for the sake of control, entitlement, management, influence or protection’. [2] In my opinion, to be under surveillance means that almost every aspect of an individual’s life is been watched, monitored and controlled by others who consider themselves superior and thereby deny people of their right to privacy and control of different aspects of their lives. Professor Ian J.Lloyd, referring to Alan Westin’s seminar work on ‘Information Technology in a Democracy’ identified three types of surveillance as: “physical, psychological and data surveillance” [3] Physical surveillance involves the watching and monitoring of acts of individuals in a society and can be carried out with or without the use of surveillance technologies. The use of spies, spooks and acts of security agencies fall within the above and is applied to limited individuals. Psychological surveillance involves the use of surveillance technologies to monitor the activities of individuals in a society by the use of interrogations. Furthermore, data surveillance involves the use of one’s personal information to monitor their activities. Due to technology compliance by countries, ‘dataveillance’ is the most prominent form of surveillance used which is supported by electronic devices. 2.2 Living in a surveillance society The idea of a surveillance society springs from the fears of the government and people as regards the reoccurring threats to lives of individuals based on past events like terrorism, fraud, armed robbery and shop lifting. In finding solutions to these problems, certain measures and forms of surveillance were introduced to provide security, and whether these solutions are appropriate, remains a question as there might be more invasive answers which result to an individual’s right to privacy and anonymity being infringed. Focus should reflect the attainment of social goals rather than living in the shadow of the consequence of a surveillance society. [4] The United Kingdom (UK)is an example of a country that is fully compliant with the idea of a surveillance society because almost every aspect of their lives starting from taking a walk on the streets, driving their cars, going shopping in the supermarkets, going to the hospital and even in their work place they are under surveillance and this is so because the UK is a highly technologically developed country with access to lots of surveillance technologies used to monitor the activities in the life of their citizens and the UK has been described as the most surveyed country with more CCTV cameras but the irony is that it still has loose laws on privacy and data protection. In Britain there are about 4.2 million CCTV cameras, one for every fourteen people, meaning that an individual’s activities can be captured by over three hundred cameras a day. Reporters claim Britain has the biggest DNA data base with over a million innocent peoples data on, with some being aware and others in the dark and with the advent of new and improved modern surveillance technologies being introduced individuals will be subjected to even more surveillance than they are going through today. [5] A surveillance society is not a totally bad concept as it has its advantages and disadvantages. Its advantages include provision of security and protection of people from computer hackers, terrorists, threats to public security, provides speed and enhances co-ordination [6] . Consequent upon the pros of a surveillance society, the greatest negative effect of a surveillance society is the threat to privacy of individuals, though we seem to be more concerned with our fears and in the process over look the possibility that being fully dependent on surveillance technologies for safety could end up being of more harm to us than good. Surveillance creates lack of trust and raises suspicion between citizens, citizens and the state, thereby heightening the need for us to control and monitor our activities. 2.3 Surveillance Technologies There are different kinds of surveillance technologies that are used in our society today which can also be summarized under the different forms of surveillance. Some examples of surveillance technologies includes as follows: (a) Video surveillance i.e. the use of Closed-circuit Televisions (CCTV) (b) Telecommunications surveillance (c) Biometrics (d) Shop Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (e) Loyalty cards (f) Internet cookies (g) Data Flows (h) Locating, Tracking Tagging Technologies (I) London Oyster Cards e.t.c Video Surveillance This is considered the most popular kind of surveillance technology used in a surveillance society because the use of CCTV cameras enable the capturing of images of individuals who go about their activities with the aim of preventing crime. CCTV cameras are devices that have actively been used in Britain to watch people and as such it has been predicted by experts that by the year 2009, 642 million pounds would have been spent on video surveillance software as against the 147million pounds spent in 2004 in a bid to reducing the crime rate. [7] Telecommunications surveillance This involves the use of technical equipments such as Global Positioning System (GPS), tapping of phones by the police or security services and it involves the exchange of data and information which is enabled by large scale digital and computing systems such as the internet. Biometrics Surveillance Biometrics is another very common surveillance technology being used today in most organizations, embassies and airports. This form of identification includes body trace e.g. fingerprints, iris scans, facial topography and hand scans which are all used on different passports and I.D card systems. Biometrics has been predicted to cause UK a healthy sum of 4.7 billion industry in 2009 which initially in the year 2003 cost 675 million and this is so because of the creation of more sophisticated surveillance technologies like smart cameras to iris identification, all with the belief that there will be accuracy in identification and crime will be reduced. [8] Radio Frequency Identification Technologies (RFID) It involves the use of radio frequency communications as a way to track goods as they move through the supply chain. RFID are embedded into products, pallets and cases thereby enabling the RFID readers read information from those tags [9] . Data flows Surveillance This is a very sensitive form of surveillance as it is gathered by surveillance technologies and it flows around computer networks and has been described by ‘Clarke R ‘as ‘dataveillance’ which is ‘the systematic use of personal data systems in the investigation or monitoring of the actions of one or more persons’ [10] .In most circumstances of data subjects consents to giving their data, but what now happens in a situation whereby the data is transferred elsewhere and there is no idea as to where the data goes by either the public or data sharing agencies. In such a case one tends to wonder if we can say we have confidence in the state as regards the safety of our data. With the use of these technologies you can see that in a surveillance society our lives can be monitored entirely as everything you do has one form of surveillance technology which can be used to track you. Some of these technologies include Global Positioning System(GPS) which can be use in tracking your precise location, loyalty cards which can be use to determine your capacity in shopping and as such marketers know how to target a customer based on his or her spending habits and even the internet can be monitored because every individual leaves trails when browsing the internet and this trails are called ‘cookies’ which are left on a user’s machine thereby recognizing when visits were made to that site thereby making the activities of user traceable [11] . There are also non-technological means of surveillance of surveillance which we practice as individuals in the society such as eavesdropping, watching, use of human spies and many others [12] . But these methods due to the advent of technology and modernity are gradually fading away because they are looked upon as ineffective compared to technological mediums. This is because surveillance technologies provide faster means of security, safety and certainty. We are left with the concern of how effective surveillance technologies are to our lives and to what extent can we say that they have made a positive impact on our lives than the negative ones. 2.4 The Negative and Positive Impact of Surveillance on our society. A surveillance society has its negative and positive impacts on our lives as individuals in the society but the negatives impacts are greater than the positive ones. Surveillance society has a way of setting traps for individuals in a society and this trap includes: (a)Thinking that surveillance is a product of new technologies and (b)Thinking of surveillance as a malign plot hatched by evil powers. [13] Ones an individual’s looks at the concept of a surveillance society in this light then it is easy for one to fall into the trap of a surveillance society and the dangers that it poses to how lives. Apart from a sense of security, safety, minimum amount of risks, swift flow of goods, people and information which we as individuals believe are the positive effects of surveillance on our lives, what other way can we really say that a surveillance society has improved our lives or limited the risks and dangers we go through every day because irrespective of all the different forms of surveillance both technological and non-technological, It has not kept us out of harm’s way. The presence of CCTV cameras in the UK has not reduced the level of crime as terrorist still find means of operating and planning attacks. More so, individual personal data are still being used against them and all thanks to surveillance. Surveillance creates room for suspicion and lack of trust in the society because why should employers feel there is a need to monitor the affairs of their employees by bugging their cell phones, putting tracking devices in their company vehicles, storage of employees personal data, making them undertake certain medical tests and answering personal questions about their lives which could be used against them in the future. Surveillance exposes individuals in a society to harm as we may not know who is watching us and what purpose our data is being used for because in the UK and the world at large, we still do not have updated data protection laws that would secure our database from unauthorized access or leakage and therefore leaving us in harm’s way if our personal data was to fall into the hands of the wrong person because those watching us could pose a threat to us, instead of providing us with security. Surveillance encourages social discrimination relating to race and ethnicity as sometimes our personal data is used to determine the level of benefits we get in the society. Surveillance encourages deceit, dishonesty and function creep in the sense that the data controllers tell the people that they need their data for a particular purpose and end up using such data for another purpose. Also surveillance technologies help marketers to manipulate customers data in the sense that the use of ‘Loyalty Cards’ which is common in the UK helps producers to monitor the resources of a customer by their shopping habits and as such they come up with ways to direct marketing to that customer in order to make profits and this is wrong. Another negative effect of a surveillance society which I consider to be the most crucial is the infringement of one’s right to privacy and the total loss of an individual’s anonymity in the society. Privacy is a fundamental right of every individual in a society but you find that in a surveillance society, it is not possible for one to exercise that right because everywhere you go, you can’t be anonymous because cameras are watching in the streets and as such the whole idea of privacy and anonymity has been defeated. The above effects of surveillance are more negative than positive and much more has to be done to grant us more confidence that our society is safe. 3.0 The Right to Privacy In Relation to a Surveillance Society 3.1 What is Privacy? The concept of Privacy in relation to a surveillance society is of paramount importance because an individual’s privacy in society is a constitutional right which should not be infringed. One cannot talk about a surveillance society without the issue of privacy. Privacy and surveillance cannot co-exist together without one being a hindrance to the other. A surveillance society cannot function without crossing the path of privacy while privacy cannot be secured in a surveillance society, which poses a dilemma to individuals because we are left with two options which are: (a)Choose Surveillance and forego your privacy and (b)Choose your Privacy and live with the possibility of being exposed to danger and risks at any time With these options, whatever choice will make us prone to loosing something important to our lives. 3.2 Definitions of Privacy Privacy was defined by Judge Cooley in the year 1888 as ‘The right to be left alone ‘ [14] . Privacy has also been defined by some writers as: ‘The right of the individual to be protected against intrusion into his personal life or affairs or those of his family, by direct physical means or by publication of information’ [15] Privacy is very important to individuals in the sense that it is the only form of dignity and pride individuals have. Therefore laws need to protect this right, otherwise people in a surveillance society will become ‘puppets’ who have no control as to how their personal data and information is used and manipulated by the ‘Puppet masters’. Article 8 of the Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms (Convention), 1985 provides which was ratified by the Council of Europe provides that: ” (1) Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence. (2)There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interest of national security, public safety of economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health morals or for the protection of the rights of freedoms of others.” [16] This convention as of that year was not a confirmed law and its provisions could only be confirmed in European Courts and because UK was a signatory for the Council of Europe, the Convention applied to the UK but in 1998 the Human Rights Acts (HRA) was enacted in the UK and were incorporated into the UK law and a more recent Law was enacted in 2000 in charter (7) of the Fundamental rights of the European Union which provided for right to privacy in respect to modern day communication.” [17] 3.3 Issues of Privacy in Relation to a surveillance society A surveillance society is a huge area of contention in relation to privacy in the sense that it affects every aspect of an individual’s life. Eric Barendt ,Described the fight between surveillance and privacy as (‘Political’) he said: ‘prominent figures mostly politicians, celebrities, members of the royal family are trying to protect their lives from media scrutiny meanwhile on the other hand the press which is surveillance in this case is fighting to retain their liberty of publication’ [18] He was also of the view that ‘privacy is a fundamental human right that should not be Infringed on either by the government, business, individual or the media” [19] As individuals in a surveillance society we need to have the right to preserve our privacy but if our actions keep on being monitored by technological or non-technological means of surveillance, it will leave a trail which can be traced back to us. Also, the fact that our personal data is constantly being transferred from one data base to another and processed by different processors makes access to our personal information easy. In the case of R v Brown [20] , Lord Hoffman in his judgement stated: “Privacy which is the right to keep oneself to our self, to tell other people that certain things are none of their business is under technological threat due to the different and various types of surveillance e.g. surveillance cameras, telephone bugs, which are used by individuals in the society today”. [21] Also in the case of Leander v Sweden [22] , Mr Torsten Leander was denied employment as a result of his personal information which was held in a register and was revealed to his employer without knowledge of the kind of information that was kept about him and for what purpose it will be used and this constituted a breach of his right to privacy provided for in Article 8 (1) Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms (Convention). In the case of Campbell v Mirror Group Newspapers [23] , taking pictures of Miss Campbell outside the “Nacortics Anonymous”, breached her right to privacy when her photos were published. She appealed on the grounds of breach of confidence by the media and which is one of her fundamental human right and against the provisions of the Data protection Act (1998). The court of appeal was against the verdict of the case but on appeal the House of Lords passed judgement in her favour which also gave rise to other opinions concerning the extent to which ones privacy can be said to have been breached. In the case of Craxi v Italy, it was established that there was indeed an infringement of Article 8 of the European convention on human rights, though Mr. Craxi was guilty of committing certain offences, it was held that: ‘the state failed to provide safe custody of the transcripts of telephone conversation which Were presented as evidence before the court and to subsequently carry out an effective Investigation as to how those private communications were released into public domain” [24] Privacy is gradually becoming lost in our society irrespective of the different Laws that have been established in our society, we can’t honestly say that they protect our personal information from the dangers of a surveillance society such as globalization, the internet and the continuous invention of new technologies by virtue of new discoveries. 4.0 REGULATIONS A society cannot exist without laws and supervisory authorities that would regulate the actions and behaviours of individuals. In a surveillance society, there is a great need for laws and bodies to be established in other to oversee and supervise the way our personal data is being used because without people watching those who process our data, there is a risk of danger to us as our information could be manipulated and used against us if it were to fall into wrong hands. Blackmail by criminals and discrimination to our person could result where medical data about an individual who has “HIV” or other deadly diseases was to leak, as the person could be subject to social discrimination and stigmatisation. As a result of this, different countries have supervisory authorities who possess some powers to ensure that our privacy is protected in a surveillance society. Article 28 (1) and (2) of the data protection Directive provides for the establishment of these supervisory authorities and their powers. In the UK we have the information commissioner meanwhile other member countries except Germany have a single supervisory authority who supervise the affairs of their personal data. [25] Different Laws have been enacted and put in place in our society today so as to make sure that our personal information is protected but these laws have their strengths and weaknesses and cannot be relied on completely by individuals in a surveillance society. Most of this law are guided by some basic principles such as: (a)Personal data must be processed fairly and lawfully. (b)Personal data should not be use for any purpose other than the purpose it was obtained for. (c)Personal data must be accurate and kept up to date. (d)An individual must be informed of when personal data about them is collected. (e)The purpose for which personal data was obtained should be stated. (f)The consent of the individual must be obtained before obtaining their personal information (g)Individuals must be told how their data will be protected from misuse. (I)Individuals should be told how they can access their data and should be able to verify its accuracy and request changes where necessary [26] . The above represent the basic fair information principles (FIP) that regulate the control of our personal data in a surveillance society. These principles exist side by side with some laws in controlling the use of our data. Some of these laws include: (1)European Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. (2)Data Protection Act 1998. (3)Regulation of investigatory powers Act 2000. (4)Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001. (5)The Council of Europe Convention. (6)OECD 1980 Laws. (7)Telecommunications Directive (97/66/EC). (8) Electronic communications Act 2000. 4.1 Data Protection Act (1998) The need of data protections laws arouse out of the growing use of computers in the 1970s and the threat to personal privacy that rapid manipulation of data posed and as a result data was made easily accessible from many different points. Computer technology makes it possible for data to be transferred from one data base to another by data controllers and processors such as employers, companies, government agencies and so on and data subjects most of the time are not aware of the purpose for which their personal data is being used. [27] Schedule 1 of the Act provides for the principles of data protection, schedule 2 provides for all personal data and schedule 3 provides only for sensitive personal data. The Act defined ‘personal data’ in section 1 as ‘data which relate to a living individual who can be identified from those data or from those data which are under procession of or is likely to come into the possession of the data controller’ [28] . It also provides in section 2 for ‘sensitive personal data’ which is ‘personal data consisting of information as to racial or ethnic origin, sexual life, mental health, religious beliefs’ [29] The Act is a regulatory law that is recognised by the UK and as such section 6 [30] of the Act provides for the Office of the Information Commissioner and the tribunal and their powers as supervisory authorities with regards to our personal data and this Act applies to the United Kingdom (UK) and any other (EEA) state by virtue of section 5 of this act [31] The Act also provides data subjects with some rights in order to protect their personal data such as: Right to access of our personal data Right to be informed of our personal data and the purpose for which they are used Right of rectification and erasure of data when it appears incorrect e.t.c Schedule 1 of the Data protection Act (1998) provided for eight principles which data controllers and processors are to apply when handling our personal data which is in conformity with the fair information principles mentioned above. 4.2ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT ( OECD 1980) LAWS The OECD guidelines were adopted in 1980 on the protection of privacy and trans-border data flows of personal data. It comprised of 24 countries throughout the world and including the U.S and it was enacted to harmonize national privacy legislation and uphold human rights and prevent interruptions in international flows of data. The OECD 1980 guidelines include: (1)Collection limitation: There should be limits to the collection of personal data and it should be obtained by lawful means with the consent of the data subject where necessary (2)Data quality principle states that personal data should be relevant for the purposes in which they are used and should be accurate and up to date. (3)Purpose specification: The purpose for which the data was collected must be specified (4)Security safeguards principle for example loss, unauthorized access, destruction and so on should be observed. (5)Openness Principle (6)Individual participation principle (7)Accountability principle: A data controller should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above (8) Use limitation principle: Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or used for purposes other than those specified except with the consent of the data subject or the law. [32] 4.3 Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act (2001) This law was established to reduce the level of terrorism and crime and to provide for the retention of communications data and for many other connected purposes. This law is issued by the secretary of the state who from time to time can revise a code of practise in relation to the retention of communications providers of communications data obtained by and held by them in other to safeguard national security and prevent crime by virtue of section102 (1),(2) and (3) of the Act. [33] Judging from our analysis of a few laws, reports have shown that these privacy laws are not efficient enough to safeguard our privacy and personal data in a surveillance society. Other measures of regulation include: (1)Self regulation by the use of codes to regulates their conduct [34] (2)Privacy enhancing technologies (PET) [35] (3) Individual s

Legal Aspects in Professional Psychology Essay

order essay cheap Table of Contents Legal issues Importance of confidentiality Impact of legislation Role of competence Conclusion References Psychology is a developed field of study which can be applied in broad fields which include educational, clinical, sports, business, and health areas. Psychologists, just like other professionals, undergo intensive education and training before they are allowed to practice (Nancy, 2007). Professional psychologists are equipped with scientific foundations that prepare them to offer high quality services and use their practical skills effectively. The skills include, but not limited to, psychological examination, clinical supervision, consultation, as well as psychotherapy. Owing to the broadness of this field, there are a number of legal aspects which should be considered in the practice of professional psychology. The code of ethics clearly provide for the general principles expected in the practice of virtually all professional fields such as medicine, law, and dentistry. The essay elaborates the legal issues related to knowledgeable approval and refusal of medical care as well as evaluating the legal issues associated evaluation and diagnosis in the field of professional psychology. It also offers the explanation of the need to enhance confidentiality in the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the psychologist. Moreover, the essay offers an evaluation of the impact of government legislation and the role of competence in professional psychology. Legal issues The legal aspects in the field of professional psychology apply to all instances where psychological ethics are to be exercised. Professional psychologists are expected to understand the legal issues and concerns that may be raised especially by their clients. Apart from the practical concerns, the legal aspects of psychology cover broad areas such as understanding the role of government laws and the regulations associated with human behavior as well as the various mental processes (Nancy, 2007). The practice of professional psychology should not violate any of the legal provisions stipulated in the professional code of conduct and ethics. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The codes of ethics are generally uniform in all the states although licensing may be done by individual states. The handling of clients by psychologists is one of the most sensitive areas which should abide by the legal requirements. Professional psychologists are expected to ensure that they get informed consent from their clients. This implies that the client has to agree with terms and conditions of medical treatment or any assessment/testing (Nancy, 2007). Such consent must be well informed, competent and voluntary in nature. In case the client is not in a position to give consent, then a recognized health attorney or next of kin may be allowed to stand in for the patient. The doctor must inform the client of the possible risks as well as benefits associated with the intended treatment process (Berger, 2002). Additionally, the client should be given the alternative ways of treatment in order to make appropriate personal choices. Another legal doctrine under informed consent is self-determination. It refers to the right of an adult client who is of sound mind to decide what can be done on their body in the course of treatment (Nancy, 2007). The psychologist is expected to communicate sufficient information to the client in order to facilitate the consent process. At the end of the consent process, the client should sign appropriate documents before the commencement of any medical care. The right to informed refusal is another legal requirement in the practice of professional psychology. This provision empowers the client to refuse any given medical care regardless of how crucially important it is meant to save his or her life (Berger, 2002). For example, a patient suffering from kidney failure may decline a transplant despite knowing that refusal may result in death. Furthermore, a client suffering from serious heart attack may opt to depart the hospital even though they are likely to die (Nancy, 2007). A client may refuse treatment due to several reasons such as depression, lack of trust, fear, and misunderstanding. A psychologist may make further attempts to convince the client if he or she thinks the decision to refuse treatment is incompetent. Importance of confidentiality The legal provisions are also geared towards ensuring confidentiality between clients and their psychologists. The professional code of conduct and ethics protects clients from any form of abuse especially emotional and or physical. We will write a custom Essay on Legal Aspects in Professional Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommended practices by professional psychologists are guaranteed. They include the maintenance of medical files, and appropriate ways for terminating a given therapy process. A psychologist is not expected to share any of the client’s crucial medical information in public (Berger, 2002). This goes a long way in enhancing the trust between the client and the doctor. If the patient develops confidence towards the therapist, then the treatment process is bound to be successful. In a situation where confidentiality is breached, the client may initiate legal action against the therapy provider (Berger, 2002). In general, confidentiality in the practice of professional psychology ensures that clients receive professional as well as humane handling that protects them from any form of abuse. Impact of legislation The government in the United States plays a central role when it comes to the practice of professional psychology. Some legislations passed from time to time by the federal government influence this filed directly (Nancy, 2007). Decisions which affect the financing and practice in the healthcare profession, particularly psychological services are made regularly. The state of healthcare policy in the United States has a lot of impacts on the training of psychologists. All professional psychologists in America are regulated by the American Psychological Association (APA) (Berger, 2002). The legislations provide the required academic achievements in order to be recognized as a professional psychologist. Clinical and counseling psychologists are the most common and are responsible for providing psychotherapeutic services and other psychological examinations. Government legislations, however, may vary from state to state but they are all designed to safeguard the clients and the credibility of the profession (Berger, 2002). The legislations in some states have allowed psychologists with appropriate additional qualifications to provide psychiatric medicine. Efforts by other states to pass the same legislation have been unsuccessful. APA has been very influential in pushing for appropriate legislations by the government. Emerging issues in the field of professional psychology have resulted in key legislations that are aimed at enhancing the quality of services offered to the clients as well as improving the welfare of the psychologists (Berger, 2002). Not sure if you can write a paper on Legal Aspects in Professional Psychology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Role of competence All professional psychologists are legally expected to provide excellent services for their respective clients. Professional psychologists should therefore demonstrate outstanding competence in their responsibilities. Competence can be defined as the ability to effectively perform specific tasks within a given field. Psychologists are trained to perform specialized tasks using the acquired skills (Berger, 2002). Psychologists are ethically expected to provide services that are within their areas of competence. They should take clients who have problems which they can competently offer solutions. Competence, therefore, ensures that psychologists utilize their acquired knowledge, skills, and appropriate behavior in handling their clients. Conclusion The essay has discussed the various concerns related to knowledgeable approval and the right to denial of treatment and concerns touching on evaluation and determination in the field of professional psychological. It has also given the details of upholding confidentiality in the therapeutic relationships between the client and the doctor. Furthermore, the essay has offered an evaluation of the impact of government legislations as well as the role of competence in professional psychology. The various legal aspects in professional psychology, therefore, play a major role in regulating the general provision of services by psychologists. References Berger, L. S. (2002). Understanding professional psychology: government regulation and competence. Trafford Plc. Nancy, M. (2007). Professional psychology: a psychologist’s comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill Plc.

?SWOSU Art analysis: Look! by Anne D’Alleva

?SWOSU Art analysis: Look! by Anne D’Alleva.

I have 3 questions regarding Look! by Anne D’Alleva. The requirements is that it needs to be 3 pages long in 1.5 Times New Roman font. I also need 1 citation page. 1. D’Alleva defines formal analysis but adds a warning for viewers attempting to describe works of art. What is the warning that the author offers for viewers?2. Describe how your thinking about looking at two-dimensional art (painting, graphic arts, photography), sculpture, or architecture has changed after reading this chapter. (pp. 31–42)3. After reading about installation art, performance and video art, digital art, and textile and decorative arts, how do these categories expand your understanding of art?
?SWOSU Art analysis: Look! by Anne D’Alleva

Communication Essay

Please read two articles I attached that define concepts the media has used in reference the attack on the US Capitol of January 6, 2021, first. 

Some of these concepts include sedition, insurrection, attempted coup, conspiracy, riot, and treason.  Some of these concepts are better for describing the specific crimes committed on January 6 at the Capitol, some concepts are better for describing the scale or significance of the events.

Using the two articles we read for class and please find one additional article to state an argument about what one term/title best defines the events at the US Capitol on January 6, 2021.  

In deciding what concept, you wish to argue for, consider the following questions in your brainstorming: Is it more important to communicate the scale/significance of the events to your audience or to be assured of legal consequences for perpetrators?  Are these the only two choices for emphasis, or is there some middle-ground concept that defines the event?  To answer these questions, it is necessary to decide who you’re arguing to and for what reason.

The articles you read from the link on this topic are both written for the general public, but one is written by a historian, and one is written by journalists focused on criminal justice reform.  The specialties of these authors are subtly apparent in the articles. 

Your choice of title/term should reflect the audience you imagine yourself writing to and your own beliefs and interests.

Suggested 3-paragraph outline:

Paragraph 1 – Explain what happened on January 6, 2021.  This paragraph should establish the topic of your response paper and recount the details that you think are most important to a general understanding of what happened.  The final sentence of this paragraph should clearly state your argument about how these events should be defined or titled.

Paragraph 2 – Define your concept and provide supporting evidence and supporting reasoning for your choice of term.  The task of this paragraph is to answer the question: why is the term you’ve chosen the correct term for understanding these events?  Make sure to cite sources in this paragraph.

Paragraph 3 – Address counterarguments or alternative concepts and return to your own overall argument.  What are other terms that are popular for describing these events?  Why are those insufficient?  Conclude this paragraph by returning to your own choice of concept to reinforce why you think this is the best title or term for describing these events.