History and Evolution Though the history of interest in organizational psychology dates back to the ancient attempted to understand skill acquisition and personnel selection Oex & Britt, 2008). Organizational psychology evolved from the work of non-psychologists such as Fredrick Taylor’s principles of scientific management and efficiency (otherwise known s the philosophy of management) Oex & Britt, 2008). Within Taylors work three underlying principles emerge: separation of those that perform tasks from those that design tasks; favorable incentives produce harder workers; workplace issues should be subjected to empirical study Oex & Britt, 2008). The evolution of organizational psychology was spurred by numerous factors beginning with the Hawthorne experiments Oex & Britt, 2008). Though the experiment was designed to determine the effect of environmental factors on productivity, researchers discovered that any change in the workplace can effect on employees.
Other developments from this study included the effect of social factors and leadership tactics on employee behavior. Furthering the evolution of organizational psychology the dawn of World War II ushered the age of women in the workplace. Issues of diversity become a prevalent concern. Following the war integrating military forces with private sector employment raised new concerns. Global issues have caused massive shifts in demographics advancing the organizational psychology movement. Later, as unionization became prevalent, attention was drawn upon on concepts of articipation of employees in the decision-making process and work-life balance. Emphasizing factors that stifle creativity and happiness of the organization such as personality, attitude, political issues, societal concerns, satisfaction, family issues, and the effect of stress shapes the focus of organizational psychology. Organizational psychology continues to grow and change Oex & Britt, 2008). Related Discipline The field of organizational behavior draws from a combination of different disciplines to focuses on the organizations effect on individual behavior.
Significant issues within industrial organizational psychology include employee motivation, leadership style, product design, organizational diversity, organizational performance, and employee assessment as influenced by the organizational structures, social norms, management tactics, and role expectations. Industrial-organizational psychologists endeavor to improve individual performance and well-being while simultaneously benefiting the organization in an effort to predict behavior. Organizational behavior focusses behavior of the individuals who work in organizations, and on the rganization, and the relationship between the individual and the organization. While industrial psychology addresses more tangible issues such as staffing, benefits, pay and training Oex & Britt, 2008). Industrial organizational psychology is an applied field through theoretical research is an essential within industrial organizational psychology concerned with the management of human resources Oex and Britt, 2008). Industrial organizational psychology has roots in experimental psychology, incorporating numerous facets including personnel psychology, human-computer interaction, and human factors.
Industrial organizational psychology as has two components. Industrial psychology aligns individuals to specific Job roles by assessing employee characteristics and then matches these individuals to Jobs in which they are likely to perform well. Industrial organizational psychology is concerned with training employee, developing Job performance standards, and increasing workplace productivity. Industrial-organizational psychologists develop training programs, assist with employee selections, develop appropriate ergonomics, manage performance, employee satisfaction, and organizational development Oex &
Britt, 2008). In order to meet workplace needs, industrial psychologists assist with employee selection assessments, implementing screening tests to determine which applicants are qualified for a particular position. Industrial-organizational psychologists determine the skills that are required to perform specific tasks. They then evaluate employee and develop training programs that enable the employee to accomplish the task. Furthering productivity, industrial-organizational psychologists develop techniques to access performance. Industrial-organizational psychologists are concerned with ergonomics.
Industrial-organizational psychologists are involved with the design of equipment and procedures that minimize injury while maximizing performance. Improving employee satisfaction is an integral to maximizing the productivity. Industrial-organizational psychologists work with employee’s to overcome organizational concerns. Industrial-organizational psychologists improve organizations through improving the organizational structure resulting in redesigning products and increasing profits. Research and Statistics Organizational psychology is a science. Within Organizational psychology scientific nowledge is applied to enhance organizations, capturing the scientific approach incorporating it with practical applications Oex & Britt, 2008). Through the scientist- practitioner approach working model, practical concerns motivate research. Research does not always cover application, and practice remains ahead of research (Lowman, 2010). Incorporating the two creates a relevant working model vital to enhancing group effectiveness. The scientist-practitioner approach applies relevant theory is honed toward organizational needs. Inductive and deductive reasoning drawing pon scientific research and theory merged with organizational the current dynamics creates a collaborative relationship with functional effects. The scientific practitioner approach affords organizational psychologists relevant, timely, scientifically grounded results. Organizational psychologists rely on surveys, archived data, experimentation, quasi-experimentations for data collection and analysis. Organizational psychologists tend to use survey research more than any other method as it is inexpensive and can be used with a large number of people in a short time frame Oex & Britt, 2008).
Archival data is heavily utilized as it is readily available. Survey research allows simple statistical analysis though concerns with survey research methods include designing effective surveys, participant comprehension and participant honesty Oex & Britt, 2008). Experiments assist organizational psychologists by clarifying cause and allow experimenters to focus on specific variables Oex & Britt, 2008). Quasi-experiments provide a realistic setting to data collection Oex & Britt, 2008). Once the data has been collected, a method for analyzing the data must be selected.
Explain behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism as applied to learning. Suggested template. Summarizes at least two sub-theories/ideologies within each framework.
Explain behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism as applied to learning. Suggested template. Summarizes at least two sub-theories/ideologies within each framework..
Explain behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism as applied to learning. Suggested template.
Summarizes at least two sub-theories/ideologies within each framework.
associative learning, classical conditioning, operant Conditioning, conditioning, extinction, and ratio/interval schedules
schema theory, memory development, elaboration theory (i.e. Bloom’s taxonomy), cognitive load theory, and social learning/cognitive theory.
From constructivism (conceptions of knowledge are derived from the process of constructing individual interpretations of one’s experiences)
cognitive constructivism, dialectical (social) constructivism, zone of proximal development, and discovery learning
motivational theories of learning (i.e. self-determination theory, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs), experiential learning, and Steiner pedagogy or Waldorf education.
List and briefly explain a minimum of two theoretically supported strategies, that we have learned about during the past weeks, that you think would most help you to increase your own learning success.
List and briefly explain a minimum of two theoretically supported strategies, that we have learned about during the past weeks, that you think would most help someone in your personal or professional circle.
Apply basic methods of psychological research skills to this content by synthesizing supporting evidence from at least three scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library that defend the strategies you have chosen.
The Applying Learning Theory to Life paper
Must be seven to eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of [paper, project, etc.]
Course name and number
Must use headings and sub-headings. See example. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Must use appropriate research methods (e.g. use of the Ashford library) and skeptical inquiry (http://www.criticalthinking.org/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).to support the content inclusions.
Must begin with an introductory paragraph that introduces what you will be outlining in your paper.
Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms the learning perspectives/principles and strategies you chose.
Must use at least three scholarly sources, all of which must come from the Ashford University Library.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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