This assignment deals with critical thinking and a current event and will be a bit different than the past two assignments. According to Aristotle, ethical decisions impact other and making ethical decisions is achieved by practice. Consider virtue ethics, formalism and utilitarianism, and evaluate the issue posed below from the three different points of view according to Aristotle.
The issue is the recent case of Officer Amber Guyger. You will be able to easily research the case as it was all over the news and internet. Be sure to use credible sources for your references. First, provide a summary of the entire case from start to finish. Then, apply the three points of view mentioned above to the case. So, from each point of view, what would the ethical considerations be and how does that compare to the facts of the case? Then, explain your point of view with supporting citations from text, news, etc.
Remember…”To properly evaluate the moral permissibility of a course of action using critical thinking skills…
Begin with an open mind (no preconceptions)
Isolate and evaluate the relevant facts on both sides
Identify the precise moral question to be answered
Apply ethical principles to the moral question based on an objective evaluation of the facts, only then drawing a conclusion.
The same requirements apply for this as with the other writing assignments.
Implication of motivational theories in an organization
Implication of motivational theories in an organization. Almost every conscious human behavior is motivated. The drives and needs which are internal leads to tensions, which in turn leads to action. The need for food leads to starvation, and so a person is motivated to eat. Manager shall maintain an environment where people work in groups with common goals. The driver could not find a job, you do not know what motivates people. Building a motivating factor for the organizers, the staff these roles and the process of leading people is based on knowledge and motivation. It is important to note that the level of motivation is varied both between same person and the individual at different times. In todays increasingly competitive, maintaining a highly motivated workforce is the most difficult task. Motivational art starts to learn the behavior of individual victims. This understanding will help to achieve individual and organizational goals. Motivation is a powerful tool in the hands of the leaders. It can be overcome, and to convince the stations. The following project report is an analysis of key motivational theories and its implication and practice inside an organization. That how an organization is able to achieve their required goals and objectives and also is able to make use of the resources available to achieve employee motivation. 2> What is motivation? There is a general tendency to believe that motivation is a personal attribute. Some have it others do not. In fact, and describes some of the lazy because they show no signs of outside stimuli. However, different people in basic motivational drives. It also depends on areas of interest. The concept of motive is circumstantial and how differences between individuals at different times. If you understand what motivates people, you have to control the most powerful way to deal with it. 2.1> Definitions of motivation: Research encyclopedia, suggests that the motivation is expressed in the Latin word “Motivus” meaning “to move”. Engaged in research on motivation General question “What makes human action, ” writes Franken (1994). When looking more academic settings are correct, however, offers a broad spectrum. Some suggestions are offered here: Some transactions lead to action by the interaction of biological, learned cognitive processes (Franken 1994:19) 1) What energizes human behavior? 2) What directs or channels such behavior 3) As this behavior is maintained or continued (Björklund 2001:4, Porter et al.2003:1). Process in which specific activities initiated and sustained (Pintrich and Schunk 2002:5). Each factor internal demand (potential) behavior (Nationalencyklopedin, 1989-1996) The process for selecting a person or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary work. (Vroom 1964 / 1995: 7). 2.2> Process of motivation. Motivational process steps are steps taken to be motivated. A process which then later produces amazing results. It’s amazing when you were properly motivated, what can inspire and encourage and show you the right of way at a later point. Like any other process, and little effort on your part it takes foresight and planning. However, over time your return on investment is important, and it’s important when you need an extra incentive to encourage the application. The steps include: 1.To determine what motivates you want or need. This is a very specific area of your life is a specific target. Motivational process is not the best motivation in general, but wonders when to get motivated for a particular task or achieve a specific goal will be. 2.Taking steps to reach your defined goals, little by little. These small things, you should read every morning as your goals. This is an important part of motivation is part of the process for conducting a jump-size pieces because it is cheap and convenient. The role of the hands, face in small manageable segments, does not seem so overwhelming and, therefore, easier to get motivated and stay motivated. 3. Remove your distraction so that you are motivated . This is the key to motivating process. How motivation does a lot good If you cannot stay motivated , so this is the part of the process where you remove your ability to destroy things to stay focused and stay motiuvated. Figure: professional-lifecoach.com 2010 2.3> Types of Motivation: There are several types of motivation that human influence. These different types of motivation different short-and long-term effects in humans. Besides, we all react differently to different types of motivation. That is why it is very useful to know about the different forms of motivation and learning to fully use them. This allows us the best kind of motivation to use a specific situation to change or a person that is dealt. A) Intrinsic motivation: It is the motivation that comes from within. It originates from the educational level and the personal feelings, which is achieved by doing this particular thing. For example, for music lovers, their motivation to carry out an instrument and attend classes, etc. is the intrinsic motivation. b) Extrinsic motivation: It is the motivation that comes from doing things or factors outside the individual. An example would be motivated to work in an office because you are looking for a promotion is one of the types of external motivation. Public recognition, money, fame, competition, or material achievements are examples of extrinsic motivation. Motivation can be divided further into seven categories: 1) Achievement motivation This drive to pursue and achieve goals. The man with the motivation to achieve goals and to promote learning success. Here, performance is important for its own shake, but not for rewards associated with it. This is similar to the approach Kaidan Japanese government. 2) Affiliation Motivation This disc belongs to the people on social basis. Persons with being motivated to do the work better if they are praised for their positive attitude and cooperation. 3) Competence Motivation This sequence, to do something, so that the individual is high quality. Power motivated people to seek employment skills, they are proud in using their problem solving skills and strive to be creative when faced with obstacles. They learn from their experiences. 4) Power motivations It brings people and change the situation of victims. Power motivated people to make an impact on their organizations to create and is willing to take risks to do it. 5) Attitude Motivation The ratio of motivation, how people think and feel. It is their trust and faith in himself, his attitude to life. Here’s how they think about the future and how they react to the past. 6) Incentive motivation When a person or group of broadcasting award activities. It is “you do it, and you get that” relations. This kind of awards and prizes, what makes people work a little harder. 7) Fear Grounds Fear of forced human motivation to exercise discretion. He was immediately and get the job done quickly. This is useful in the short term. 2.4> Motivating different people differently: Motivation does not have only one direction that is down direction. If labor are more conscious, more aware, more educated and more thoroughly the role of motivation, border management hierarchy. In addition to better motivate subordinates, encouragement and support of colleagues, as well as helpful advice at the right time, even after the above, resulting in a report on multiple levels. Furthermore, where labor is determined, only recognition makes people feel important and wanted. 3> Motivational theories: Proper Motivations is the key to organizational success. Motivation of workers is one of the main issues of companies today. Employees must wake up with a justification is still important, especially in transition to a more socially and culturally sensitive workforce. So, how does the company know what motivates your employees? How do they do a motivational plan that includes both traditional incentives (monetary) and non-traditional elements? What do these elements have? How do we keep drivers focused on the plan and give them the tools they need to plan for success? How does the organization plan to publish our work environment? It is clear that organizations need motivation to plan, motivate, provide appropriate incentives to our executives involved in the process and reduces the value of the organization. The following will help in further discussion. History has a lot of time and energy on learning motivation. On the basis of these studies have come up with a few working theories to explain a person who is motivated, why and how this motivation depends on both external and internal factors of the environment, where the individual is immersed. The text lists a number of theories of motivation. The ones mentioned are as follows: 1) The Hierarchy of Needs- this theory is based on Abraham Maslow’s needs system. 2) Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y. 3) Frederick Herzberg and his Motivator-Hygiene. Theory. 4) Victor Vroom and his Expectancy theory. 5) Adair and the fifty-fifty rule. 3.1> Abraham Maslow and his hierarchy of needs: Abraham Maslow is considered the father of humanistic psychology, and he went down in history because of his concept of ”hierarchy of needs” (Adair, 2006, et al). He classifies human needs in five different categories. Very often, in his theory to the form of a pyramid. From an educational perspective, it is very practical in their sketch. Nevertheless, Maslow never discussed them in this way. Maslow’s research has a strong influence on the ideas of Sigmund Freud. Alfred Adler A disciple of Freud, Maslow, influenced by his contributions to psychology, to a large extent (Adair, 2006). Maslow’s theory of motivation is today one of the most influential theories in psychology, but it also has an impact on other areas such as governance. His theory is the basis for many further theory of motivation. He gave a sort of “dominance hierarchy” in the field human needs, and by comments on the various steps that we could get more insight the concept of motivation (cited in Adair, 2006). The idea of â€‹â€‹his theory is that the more basic needs of more individuals and will use all possible ways to satisfy. The higher demand is weaker than basic needs, but needs that make a person different from other living organisms (Maslow, 1943). Maslow (1943) distinguish five different categories of needs: physiological, safety, social, respect and self-actualization needs. But he also has another must be determined from this categorization: aesthetic needs. Physiological requirements necessary for human survival. Maslow (1943) noted that people watching on the ground than any other happy. Physiological needs more proponents all needs, and Maslow (cited in Adair, 2006) argued that with two different points. He suggested that different needs can be relatively independent from one end needs to another. He also said that there is a localized physical basis for the claim. Physiological needs include the need for breathing, the need for water or food, the need for homeostasis, or need for sex (Maslow, 1943). “For us, chronologically and very hungry man, Utopia can be defined simply as a place where there is enough Food. Such a person may reasonably be said to live breath at rest “(Maslow, 1943) Once a person has on the physiological needs, different kinds of needs arise, people are not motivated them to cover. Maslow (1943) argues that the second order requirements relating to “security of the body.” Usually, people feel safer handling Known problem, not unknown. Maslow (cited in: Adair, 2006) suggests that religion and philosophy within the meaning in order to create safety and security. The third need identified Maslow (cited by Adair, 2006) refers to the need individual relationships and emotions to have. Originally, Maslow (1943) called them “love needs.” People have a sense of belonging and acceptance by society (cited by Adair 2006). After the “love needs”, Maslow (1943), listed in the fourth place the need for respect. Maslow (1943) argued that these needs include both self-esteem and respect for others. Maslow (quoted in: Adair, 2006), all sorts them into two groups of subsidiaries. The first group relates to the desire for power or personal achievements. While the second relates more to the status, recognition and reputation. The final requirement in the original theory of Maslow (1943), which require self-actualization. Even as a person with all possible needs, they will always feel dissatisfied and perseverance, when people feel finally at peace with themselves. Figure: Alan Chapman 2001-4, based on Maslow’s hierarchy of need. However, Maslow (cited in Adair, 2006) suggests that a different set of needs can be associated with this hierarchy. People are always attracted unknown, it seems attractiveness. People feel the need for further study. Maslow (cited in Adair, 2006) refers to this force as the aesthetic needs of their own maximum capacity “argument” of his. In addition Maslow (1943) called it the “master motive” not all the other reasons only a simple explanation him. 3.2> Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y: Maslow’s theory has great acceptance in the industry, thanks largely to the work of Douglas McGregor, who shot “hierarchy of needs” in the model, which is open to a more typical relationship management (Adair, 2006). McGregor polarized assumptions Maslow in two various statements about human behavior: Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor, 1960). Theory X represents the traditional management and leadership style in which management and direction is of the most important moments. McGregor (1960) argues that people have an inherent dislike of work and, if possible, they will avoid it. McGregor (1960) described in this statement that “management should struggle with the inherent human tendency to avoid work. Particular approach to management based on control enforcement and penalties needed to facilitate organizational goals. So people prefer to delegate, but without any liability. On the other hand, Theory Y is to integrate individual and organizational purposes. This proposal is the view that the physical and mental effort in work naturally. Therefore, relying on expert management relations, such as self-study and self-control. Figure: 2002 Alan Chapman McGregor (1960) argues that the achievement is a function of rewards associated with achieves them. In addition, people have a natural inclination to learn and accept and seek justice. In addition, he believes that creativity is a matter for the entire organization and must be distributed among the entire population. He also claims that the organization does not using all the intellectual capacity of human beings (McGregor, 1960). McGregor (1960) concluded that the approach to management based on the theory Y can be effectively motivating staff to collect. However, he conceded that the theory of X is greater than suitable for competition in the industry, at least in circumstances in which it was formulated: the modern era. 3.3> Frederick Herzberg and his motivation-hygiene theory: Frederick Herzberg was one of the most influential psychologists in business management (Adair, 2006). He fell down in history because of his theory of motivation-hygiene. Firstly, Herzberg (1987) gives a detailed explanation of what the motivation. He therefore, compares it to go. The influence of both may be similar, but the sources of fire and consequences are very different. Herzberg refers to the movement as external stimuli which make staff to respond. However, they also get used to them and their consequences, as a rule, become useless. This is due to external foreign awards. He distinguishes between the negative mental movement, the negative psychological movement and positive psychology shifts. Nevertheless, such practices do not cause, they may be labeled as rape or sexual abuse, depending on whether positive or negative. As a rule, managers believe that their motivation depends on the use of traffic practice. Herzberg (1987) found that some practices of traffic completely Abuse terms of motivation: reducing the time spent at work, higher wages, social assistance, training, or communication. For example, managers believe that reducing the number of Hours spent per week way of motivation influence: the more motivated employees are always search more time at work, not less. On the other hand, as Herzberg (1987) refers to the motivation, it refers to the internal Generate your own. He argues that the individual need any external stimulus, it is significantly enough with the inner passion to do something. Based on the definition of motivation, Herzberg (1987) developed a motivator-hygiene theory. Through basic research, he decided that the factors in the workplace with positive effect on job satisfaction (motivators) and others that lead to stress at work antonymic NOT job satisfaction rather than job satisfaction. Herzberg (1987) has identified occupational factors as the main cause of dissatisfaction. His influence on all efforts to create discontent in the workplace. However, the absence or abuse of them will lead to job dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, these kinds of factors related to biological needs and the construction prevents the pain from the environment. On the other hand theory, Herzberg (1987) discusses motivators or those factors that have a positive effect on job satisfaction. Therefore, when managers working for them, they could see the motivation of its staff increases. These factors are largely associated with sense of achievement and psychological growth of the employee. At this point, Herzberg (1987) coined the term enrichment. He postulates for enrichment as a way to influence the motivation-hygiene theory. Managers need to increase enrichment work to achieve efficient use of human resources. In doing so, managers will provide a means of psychological growth for its employees. However, the term enrichment should not be misunderstood with extension that will work only for structural enlargement. 3.4> Victor Vroom and his expectancy theory: Victor Vroom (1965) results indicate that the motivation of rational expectancy. It offers a theory on the assumption that people make choices to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Meanwhile, he acknowledged that staff will be motivated if they consider that: Figure: Duration of the theory (British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2009) -Effort will lead to better performance. -Increased productivity will lead to desired rewards, apparently as wages, promotions, and benefits as their own pleasure. -The distinction may be a special need, and probably enough to cost. On the basis of three assumptions mentioned above, Vroom distinguishes three relevant concept, hope, cooperation and valence. Expectation refers to the degree of employee beliefs about his or her efforts will lead to improved performance. Officer would be justified if he or she believes that the performance can be achieved. Then Vroom advance collaboration. This refers to the degree of belief of the worker or features of works will lead to a certain result as a reward. Employee will be justified only if he or she believes that waiting for awards, performance follows. In the last quarter, valence refers to the value of the worker sits on the remuneration that he or she will receive due actual performance. If the employee appreciates the award, he will be motivated to efforts to solve a specific problem targets. Vroom set (1965) that employee beliefs about hope, cooperation and valence of psychological interaction between the driving forces for creation. As a result, the employee acts in a way that brings pleasure and avoids pain. 3.5> Adair and a fifty-fifty rule: “Pareto Principle” can be understood in different ways. One interpretation shows that “80% of your really productive and creative work will be carried out in 20% of their time” (cited in: Adair, 2006). John Adair (2006) based on its fifty-fifty rule motivation to formulate. He established that fifty percent of motivational living inside a person, and the other fifty percent are OUT. Of course, he also said that interest should not be taken as a reliable relationship. But this rule helps us understand the role of environmental leadership and understanding in the field motivation. Fifty-fifty rule (Adair, 2006) spread the responsibility of motivation followers and leaders. Adair is not pregnant, as the motivation inside the mechanism, but it also put responsibility to managers and leaders in this matter. He refers to the leadership as “the art of working with Natural wood grains such humanity that comes to hand. Fifty-fifty rule leads us to back to earth, to reality. This can be regarded as an invitation to managers and leaders to take their task was playing his role in the motivation for criticizing the quality of its staff work. In addition, this line completely with the original definition of motivation. Analyzing etymology of the value of motivation, it comes from the Latin term “MOVEO”; we can deduce what could be called as “inner impulse or tendency” or “off situations or stimuli (Adair, 2006). All these theories above reasons described in general terms. Now I will further discuss some motivational theories to support my work. Theories can be consistent. If an employee is motivated Good job done, as a rule, he or she will be motivated to be creative at the same time. Thus, we believe that this motivation can help to improve my project report work to complete. 4> Implication of motivational theories at Tesco: Tesco was started in 1919 by, Jack Cohen, who was stall food salesman in London. TESCO has been formed with merger with T.E. Stockwell, from whom he bought the tea for sale stall. The first store opened in 1929. Since that time, Tesco expanded worldwide. Currently, more than 2200 stores, including supermarkets, Tesco Express to differentiate between the needs of customers. Being a conglomerate store, Tesco also offer alternative products and services insurance, banking and shopping online. A net profit around £ 3.4 billion has made Tesco to become the largest British retail and one of the leading retail locations around the world on three continents. Tesco growth has led to the world and its number of employment has grown more than 468,000. Tesco has opened the importance of trust and creating respect. It was found that the assessment staff who finds objective and interesting environment for their work, increase employee motivation. In Tesco motivated member staff work in partnership with others to achieve individual and team goals, which results in the employee focuses on customers, to treat people fairly and are determined and dedicated to receive feedback from others. 4.1> Implication of Abraham Maslow theory: Abraham Maslow claimed that people are motivated by five basic needs. He has a pyramid to demonstrate these requirements what he calls a “hierarchy of needs”: The Pyramid bottom shows basic needs, those that motivate people to work – food and shelter. Once those needs are met through paid to persons who safety and security through, for example, good working conditions. Social needs refer to the need to belong, to be part of the group. Self-esteem as a result of promotion. Right at the top Self fulfillment – The field of creativity, concerns and interests. Maslow suggested that achieving one prompts us to achieve the remaining. Figure: thetimes100.co.uk Basic and Physical Needs: Working place, continuous monthly pay, lockers to keep personal belongings may be included in this category. Security Needs: Tesco has introduced for employees formal contracts, pension schemes, and also an option to join a union which gives the employees a sense of belonging. It also ensures safety and health inside a working place. Social Needs: Tesco promotes the concept of team working at different levels; it assesses group work and individual work enabling the staff to work as a team. All of this encourages long service. Self-esteem: Tesco gives importance to self respect and also to the respect of others , the self respect assessments ,360 feedback systems and appraisal systems are able to help to recognize employee individual contribution and also able to celebrate achievement. Self-fulfillment: It also offers recognition of skills, various development plans talent promotion opportunity and also programme for career progression. Which are feed into talent meeting plans. The fast-track management programme is able to provide a route for the staff which are capable to reach high levels. 4.2> Implication of Frederick Herzberg theory: Frederick Herzberg (1959) developed a two-factor theory motivation. His research has shown that certain factors are true motivators or satisfiers. Hygiene factors relatively created complain if they are absent or inadequate. Discontent can be prevented by improving hygiene factors, but improvements not only to provide motivation. Hertzberg have shown that truly motivate business should create conditions that will make the employee fulfilled in the workplace. Figure: thetime100.co.uk Tesco to motivate their employees as paying attention to hygiene factors and the also satisfiers. For example, motivation and opportunities for their employees through appropriate and timely communication, by delegating responsibility and staff decision-making. He holds forums every year, in which employees can be part of the discussions on wage increases. This shows the recognition to the people work and rewards them. Tesco staff may even influence which foods go to its restaurant. Employees thus motivated by the choices that increase their use of restaurants. 4.3> Implication of Mayo theory: Internal or external factors can motivate people to change or development of their actions. For example, one factor desire for a new skill to learn. It would reward the person. Externally these factors include, for example, sales targets and incentives. More negative motivation could not pay could rise if the goals are achieved. In early 1930, the theorist Elton Mayo’s proposed motivation by his work and contributed such factors as: â€¢ More communication â€¢ Good team work â€¢ To show interest in others â€¢ With others in the decision making process â€¢ The welfare of others â€¢ Provide job interesting and disposable. In theory Mayo effect can be seen working in Tesco. Communication is a vital factor in employee motivation. It can be accessed through the one-on-one discussions with managers, company intranet or newsletters and through more formal structures such as the assessment. Line Team leaders meeting their daily work of employees that do during the day and spend Value Awards. These Awards may be granted to any member of staff to another way of saying “thank you” and celebration of achievements. Tesco also help to motivate a lot of preparation and opportunities for development. Everyone has access not only to training necessary for their job well, but also for leadership training the development of the company. Tesco offers a strategic career planning to help employees reach extraordinary. In 2009 it appointed 3,000 drivers – 80% from inside. As well as the annual Career discussion with each employee, the company also emphasizes developing the whole person and the system is 360 degree feedback. This helps people understand their behavior, strengths and weaknesses in both others see. The idea of â€‹â€‹the program is to bring people and to get the hearts and minds of other people in order to improve individual and to achieve its goal. Figure: thetimes100.co.uk All employees have Personal Development Plan they are building a 360-degree feedback and other tools. This allows Tesco managers to offer effective feedback staff to help provide opportunities for further personal development. This personal approach helps employees to achieve their full potential by promoting self-esteem and providing advancement through continuing education. It also allows people to responsibility for their development too. This two-sided relationship ensures that the employee seeks to values â€‹â€‹of the company that they work in partnership with and assistance to businesses for customers. 5> Conclusion and recommendation: Companies now employees for having greater motivation and share in the company they are working, as shown by Mayo. Maslow and Herzberg showed that employees motivated by several factors. Tesco offers opportunities for managers and employees to share and a greater interest in their own work. Since each employee is an individual having different aspirations and needs, the review process, Personal development plans may be recognition of their abilities and productivity, as well as the potential for development. These advantages also involve a career progression. In addition, Tesco also ensures that the enterprise can deliver a high level customer service through its skilled workers. Management should be familiar with these theories and to understand the difference between motivation and hygiene factors, assuming that once employee has all their basic needs met, it will be ambitious for growth and responsibility. Surveys will be conducted from time to time, as data collection and analysis assess employee and the customer’s opinion on it. This will help the positive decision in favor of the employee and business. Managements should ensure it that communication flows within the company either ways. This ensures that management are open to suggestions that companies and employees will benefit from workshops feel valued so to self-motivated Implication of motivational theories in an organization
Python Language: Reflection/experience on writing the script
professional essay writers Python Language: Reflection/experience on writing the script. I don’t understand this Computer Science question and need help to study.
I need someone who knows Python language. I already have written the script.
The professor wants us to write a reflection paper based on our mistakes we made while making the script and how did we overcome mistakes by debugging.
I also need some additional comments on my script for almost every line. I attached the script in word file. Add comments explaining how I used code and what for. I have added some comments, but I need more comments to get more points.
Instruction: Making mistakes when you learn to write code is common. It is part of learning. What is important is developing the skill of learning how to understand your errors and then fix them (debugging). For this part of your final project, you will respond to the following:
Reflecting on your experience with this activity, explain the importance of knowing how and when to use and modify variables, and using branches. Support your response with examples from the activity of the types of errors and your method for fixing them. you need to apply your experience and reflect on your troubleshooting and experiences to explain how and when to use and modify variables, and how and when to use branches.’
Python Language: Reflection/experience on writing the script
Colorado State University Global Campus Decision Making Process Detailed Essay
Colorado State University Global Campus Decision Making Process Detailed Essay.
For this milestone, develop a 2-page outline of your proposed topics and subtopics. Then, identify the decision-making processes used, or any additional factors that might have led to ineffective decision making. Be sure to critique any processes used. Next, describe and justify two to three recommendations for different approaches that could have been taken. Lastly, identify potential theories that may be relevant to your Portfolio Project topic .Be sure to review the Portfolio Project in Module 8 Module 8 For this option, your final Portfolio Project is a thoughtful analysis of an ineffective or poor leadership decision. You may use a well-known leadership decision, such as the 2011 decision to split Netflix, which resulted in serious financial losses for the organization. Your project must include the following:Research a leadership decision that was ineffective or did not have the desired results.Describe the problem that may have precipitated the decision, as well as the apparent processes used by the leaders involved in the decision-making effort. Use terms from this course.Critique the processes they implemented, applying what you learned from this course.Recommend a different approach that could have been taken, using theories and methodologies from this course.Present a strong case for how your recommendations could have altered the decision made, leading to more effective results for the organization.Use theory from this course to support your evaluation, critique, and recommendations.
Colorado State University Global Campus Decision Making Process Detailed Essay
Phylogenetic Analyses of S. Kinabaluensis
Phylogenetic Analyses of S. Kinabaluensis. Based on the results obtain from both phylogenetic analyses, the putative parents of S. kinabaluensis are related to two different lineages. In one case, clones #1, #7, #8, #9, and #10 appear to be related to a lineage that includes S. crenata and S. nitidus (Clade 1). In the other case, clones #4 and #6 are closely related to S. alabensis (Clade2) (Figure 12, Figure 13). From both the MP and ML, it shows that S. kinabaluensis is most closely related to S. alabensis where they are aligned together in both tree. Even though the consensus tree has an inclusive low level of resolution and bootstrap support (listed above branches) (Figure 12, Figure 13), the results are in agreement with previous analyses based on ETS and ITS sequence distinction (Shafreena, 2012) suggested that the S. alabensis as one of the potential parents since the polymorphic sites observed are additive between S. alabensis and the potential parents (Shafreena, 2012). However, there is not enough support for this relationship. More data are needed to positively confirm the result. From the phylogenetic analyses, both trees of MP and ML yielded similar results (56% MP, 60% ML). The results of lineage that related to the S. crenata and S. nitidus (Clade 1) are considered as not supported and unresolved due to the low bootstrap value. Therefore, the morphological differences between these two species with S. kinabaluensis were not further evaluated in this study. As for the other lineage, it shows that S. alabensis could be one of the potential parents of S. kinabaluensis although with low bootstrap support value (Clade 2). Therefore, the vegetative and reproductive parts of these two species were observed closely and compared to find out if there is any similarity to support the result of the phylogenetic analysis. As already noted, the distinguishing feature of S. kinabaluensis is that this plant is covered with white stellate hairs on the vegetative and reproductive parts. Based on morphological observation, vegetative parts of S. alabensis are glabrous. However, the reproductive parts especially the inflorescence, branches, peduncles and pedicels do have sparse hairs. Further morphological analysis based on the reproductive parts of both species could not be further observed due to the flowering and fruiting stage while conducting this study. The specimens examined for S. kinabaluensis only had fruits, and as for S. alabensis, the specimens examined were just past flowering and there is no fruit seen. However, the leaf margin which is toothed (only towards the apex) is shared between these two species. Based on the morphological observation and study by Shafreena (2012), the corymb-like inflorescence is also shared by these two species. Therefore, these morphological similarities somehow do support the phylogenetic analyses. A study by Mallet (2007) has mention that in a hybrid speciation, it means that hybridization has had a principal role in the origin of a new species. The derived species initially have exactly one genome from each parent, a 50% contribution from each, although, in older polyploids, recombination and gene conversion may ultimately lead to unequal contributions (Mallet, 2007). However, Arnold (1997) confines the opposite view as, in his opinion, hybrids are often more fit due, not only to the intermix of genotypes from the parents, but also due to the fact that hybridization often creates novel genotypes that may be more fit under certain environmental conditions, particularly disturbed or novel environmental conditions. In this study, the potential parents of S. kinabaluensis still in a question. Therefore, the features and characteristics of S. kinabaluensis could not be fully determined and examined thoroughly. The features and characteristics of S. kinabaluensis might be inherited by the other parents or maybe it is because of the evolution undergoes by the plant itself for its own adaptation to the surrounding. Other than that, the type and phase of elevation of S. kinabaluensis and S. alabensis are more or less to each other which are 1986-2254 m and 1500-1800 m above sea level, respectively. There is not much difference in distance of elevation between this two species and therefore, increase the probability of S. alabensis as one of the putative parents of S. kinabaluensis. However, it seems that the phase of elevation of S. kinabaluensis is higher compared to S. alabensis. Based on this elevation data, it can be correlates with the facts of hybrid speciation. A study by Chase et al. (2010) has stated that once a hybrid species is developed, they faced ecological challenges. When they do become established, there are several potential reasons why they succeed: a) they exhibit transgressive traits (novel mixtures of those exhibited by their parents) that assist their existence in habitats in which neither of their parents can grow, conferring the isolation needed to avoid their reabsorption into the gene pool of one of their parents; or b) their intermediacy in some morphological traits or ecological preferences allows them to utilize a novel niche, again delivering a degree of genetic isolation from both of their parents (Chase et al., 2010). Often such hybrids can only exploit the ecological transition zone between those of their parents, which places them near one or both parents and which may be so inadequate in area that they cannot form viable populations and this intermediates are unlikely to form viable species in their own right (Chase et al., 2010). In this case, the S. kinabaluensis populations grows on a higher elevation compared to S. alabensis, showing that this hybrid species forming a populations near to their parents but with slightly different ecological changes based on the lower temperature at higher elevation. Several lines of molecular evidence support that S. kinabaluensis is of hybrid origin. First, 14 and 16 polymorphic sites for each of two accessions were discovered in the ETS and ITS region (Shafreena, 2012). Based on observation of polymorphic sites of Schefflera species showed that there are 14 species that have between 1-3 polymorphic sites except for S. avenis that has 5 polymorphic sites (Shafreena, 2012). Thus, the presence of 14-16 polymorphic sites of S. kinabaluensis showed an unusual condition (Shafreena, 2012). Second, phylogenetic analyses showed that within-individual cloned ITS repeats were not monophyletic; instead they arose from two distinct lineages (SmallPhylogenetic Analyses of S. Kinabaluensis