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UMN New York Times and Chalkbeat Strive For Expansion And Survival Essay

UMN New York Times and Chalkbeat Strive For Expansion And Survival Essay.

Blog essay #2: In the second essay, you will evaluate two news media organizations as cases of digital media innovation, thinking about the projects these organizations are working on that involve digital innovation, the type of organization and who gets to be part of the project, and to whom these projects are aimed at. You will also critically evaluate the digital affordances of one innovation project at each organization. Organizations include the New York Times, a legacy media organization (see for example digital innovation report (Links to an external site.)), and Chalkbeat, a mission-driven nonprofit education news organization that makes efforts to improve schools for all children, especially those who have historically lacked access to quality education (see for example five year plan (Links to an external site.)). You are welcome to pick another one such as (but not exclusively), The Washington Post. This will require you to search for companies on sites including the Columbia Journalism Review, Nieman Lab, Pew Journalism, and Poynter) to gather information.A good blog post will have the following elements: A strong lead sentence and first paragraph that tells the reader what you are going to talk about (or what question you might be pondering). In journalism language, this is called the lede. You can use a concept, define it, and then illustrate it by discussing a case study, by building an argument.Description of the issue. Use short examples or sources along with your opinion here.Build an argument, based on the evidence that you provided.TOTAL 3 sources: At least two outside sources and one source from inside the course to help you build your argument. These sources can include academic articles published in major journals, scholarly books, or even well sourced journalistic articles. Failure to include outside sources will affect your grade.Should be 500 words each (up to 750 maximum).Include one secondary media text that relates to your blog post (e.g. embedded tweet, picture, ad, film, video, YouTube clip, newspaper or magazine article). This does not have to be something you have to create yourself (though it can be). It can be something like a video that relates to your issue, infographic, or something similar.Discuss a topic previously covered in class A note on citations: You should not cite sources like a typical research paper with in-text citations (i.e. Belair-Gagnon, 2020). Instead, you should cite your sources in a more informal way and provide a link when possible (For example: In an article in the New York Times, Belair-Gagnon wrote that…). Also, you should have references cited at the bottom of the post. You can use any citation style you choose (i.e., Chicago, Harvard, etc.)
UMN New York Times and Chalkbeat Strive For Expansion And Survival Essay

it is Essay for admission. I’m stuck on a English question and need an explanation.

I need essay one page about reapplies for admission in the Catholic University of America. I was student in this university but I took this semester off because I have some bad circumstances with my family. The problem is that I dropped my classes but I did not do the leave of absence, I forgot to do it. So, now I am trying to get the admission because I really want to complete my education in CUA. I want you to explain my reasons in one page. if you did not understand any thing ask me.
it is Essay for admission

Colorado State University Global Campus Theory Building and Theory Testing Essay.

OPTION #1: Theory Building and Theory Testing: A Theory at The Individual LevelWe are all theorists. That is, we build theories every day. However, a theory that is not tested is a stereotype. Practitioners and researchers of organizational behavior create and apply theories at one of three levels of analysis. That is, practitioners and researchers create and apply theories at the individual level, at the group level and at the organizational level.Using Appendix A’s Exhibit A1A: A Model Depicting the Scientific Method, and drawing on your personal observations, create a theory that can be used to explain and predict behaviors at the individual level. Fully explain the theory’s constructs, propositions, and boundaries.Using Appendix A’s Exhibit A2A: A Model of the Empirical Research Process, create a means to test the theory. State the study’s research question(s), hypothesis/hypotheses, research design, and variables used. Tell how the hypothesis/hypotheses would be tested.Exhibit A1A and A2A link:…Requirements: Your submission should be 4-6-pages in length (not including title or reference pages) and be formatted according the CSU Global Writing Center’s APA resources (Links to an external site.). Be sure to discuss and reference concepts taken from the course reading material and relevant research. You must include a minimum of four credible, academic or professional references including the text or other course materials if used as a resource. The CSU Global Library (Links to an external site.) is a good place to find these references.
Colorado State University Global Campus Theory Building and Theory Testing Essay

Brazil As An Emerging Market Economy Business Essay

Globalisation has become the order of the day and as multinational companies are scouting for new avenues in the bid to achieve competitive advantage over rivals and have at the same time economic viability of operations, nations too are vying with each other for a significant share of the global economic pie to cater to the development of themselves and take care of the socio-economic conditions prevalent amongst the population. Whilst the dominance of the developed nations persisted for a significant period of time, with political conditions such as the cold-war, division of Germany, and the like, abetting it, the changed political atmosphere worldwide threw up many opportunities and challenges requiring an introspection of policies of the nations and a need for reinventing and refurbishing of existing laws and governing policies to make the nation more dynamic and competitive. This assignment is sequentially structured to analyse the nature of emerging markets, the role of multinational organisations in emerging markets, Brazil as an emerging economy, the need for cultural familiarisation for working in such an environment. This study also takes into consideration the cultural analysis of Brazil done by the renowned Geert Hofstede in an attempt to familiarise managers with aspects they should expect, and practice whilst in Brazil. These are followed by a PESTLE analysis of Brazil and finally end with a summative conclusion. Critical Analysis and Discussion Whilst no one-liner definition exists of emerging market economies (EME), the characteristic features tend to determine what they really are. Rapid economic growth, increased and sustained foreign investment, coupled with significant international political influence are the main markers of this type of economy. These economies are not on par with those of advanced nations due to the difference in the level of development .Very often bad policies namely those that interfere with the efficient performance of economic factors, and fragile institutional structures that place an additional burden of transactional costs for domestic and foreign investors, tend to inhibit potential investors. The expansion of organisations spanning different countries is centuries old, the expansion of multinational companies and their relevant importance in world trade achieved rapid pace post 1980 era. The propensity of integration with the global economy, together with the decline in the importance of the economic role of the nation led to the tremendous expansion of MNCs, particularly in the developing nations of the world. The significance of the functions of transnational companies in the shaping of the global economy has manifested, in significant proportions in the 20th century, such that “any of the top 100 or so global firms exceed the GDP of many nations” [18] and as it stands today, multinational companies are responsible for most of the employment and output and t in the world. [19] They have a reciprocal relationship with the globalization process; whilst globalization has contributed to high FDI flows to nations, countries eager to acquire a share of these FDI flows have undertaken significant policy shifts towards liberalisation. [20]Additionally, multinational companies have made it possible for the creation of “the global village” by facilitating international amalgamation of markets.[21] Need for cultural familiarisation Globalisation is inherently embedded with cross cultural features, and it is widely perceived that operational practices that are congruent with the prevalent cultural contexts significantly contribute to achievement of business objectives. Research in this area reveals that businesses selling directly to clients as opposed to those selling to other business organisations tend to exhibit lower sensitivity to cultural differences. Service industries exhibit more sensitivity to cultural differences than businesses focused on trading physical products. Whilst IT service providers tend to be highly sensitive to linguistic differences, industrial machinery manufacturers (that sell to other companies for utilization in their factories) are inclined to be comparatively insensitive to cultural remoteness. Organisations can operate in the joint venture mode where there would be less expense in terms of time and money for cultural familiarisations. Building up a strong corporate culture and focussing on expansion in locations where there exists a similarity of culture are ways in which organisations can focus on cost cutting features. Brazil as an Emerging Market Economy In 1989, Fernando Collor de Mello, on becoming the country’s first democratically elected president after virtually 30 years, adopted liberal international trade practices as lowering barriers for importers and privatising many state owned business organisations. Itamar Franco announced the “Real Plan” where Brazil exhibited the necessary economic discipline required to attract foreign capital that subsequently propelled Brazil’s growth. Due to the reforms of President Cardoso, Brazilian banks, controlled by the one regulator-the central Bank, stood significantly isolated from the effects of the global financial crisis triggered by the U.S. securities market. Brazil posted a low unemployment rate together with a diminished dependence on trade with developed nations. As a result the demand for Brazilian goods remained high with in the country. The increase in trade ti4es with other emerging economies and developed nations helped sustain and stabilise the demand for Brazilian goods. This turnaround for Brazil was achieved because of the strict adherence to the policy of the government with regards to: a) Infrastructure: The Growth Acceleration Plan together with other policies, helped develop the infrastructure such as good roads, sufficient sea ports and introduction of the latest technology required for accelerating economic growth. b) Reduction of Poverty and Inequality: was achieved through the “Bolsa Familia”program which helped reduce poverty and increased participation in the economic activities by the population. c) Improved perception of Global Trade: New foreign investment and international trade policies helped Brazil augment its economic status significantly. The overall import system was modernised and import tariffs were lowered, making it easy and cheap for other nations and multinationals to trade their products in Brazil d) Institutional Reform: Concerted efforts were made to improve governmental institutions in order to make them more efficient and conducive for Brazilian as well as for foreign investors. Judicial expeditiousness was constitutionally guaranteed and the Federal Supreme Court was endowed with precedential value whereby an issue once decided need not have to be decided over and over again. Hofstede’s Analysis of Brazil Hofstede propounded the five cultural dimensions that are Power Distance Index, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long Term Orientation. An understanding would help in minimising of misunderstandings that essentially stem from cultural differences and increase effective communication. This is essential for those aspiring for managerial positions in order to be successful and popular in the team. Power Distance Index (PDI). This relates to the centralisation of power in a organisation. It reveals how people recognise power differences and the way they acknowledge the distance from power and that of decision making. A low PDI relates to consultative processes in operations whilst a high PDI is indicative of corruption and bribery. Brazil has a High score of 69 on 100. Recommendation: A manager is expected to be authoritative and have a assertive communication style. Indulgence in consultative processes may be seen as a sign of weakness. One is expected to emphasise the status held through the display of expensive objects, branded personal items and making oneself heard and felt around the place. It is expected that the manager brings in a positive and encouraging atmosphere by being tough and with clearly defined barriers yet at the same time being able to collectively achieve target with the full support of the team. Devolution of knowledge processes has to be undertaken carefully as the authority of the manager has to be maintained while encouraging decision making processes. Individualism Index: Brazil has a low score of 38 out of 100 which reveals that individuals will exhibit strong group cohesion are more likely to be interested in the well being of the team. A high score on this aspect reveals mobility amidst social classes lacking interpersonal connection and minimal sharing of responsibility. Recommendation: A manager is expected to boost collective team spirit through efforts as chit-chatting, making jokes and the like. Individual actions like emails and phone calls should be avoided. There should be concentration on team targets, individual strengths and weaknesses are best not highlighted. Traditions should be respected and change brought in gradually. Masculinity Index: Masculine cultures lay a lot of stress on assertiveness, ambition and materialism. They are high on competition and strongly emphasise gender roles. Feminine cultures on the other hand prefer equality in treatment and value quality of life. They consider sharing and personal development very important. Brazil has a score of 49 on a 100 scale. Recommendation: Humility is not tolerated. Managers are expected to be proud and assertive of the knowledge and expertise they possess. Face time as it is known is high appreciated and the more time spent in office equals being available for the team and consequently for decision making. On the happy side the job also includes socialising after work hours with the team for a drink. Due to the fact that gender differences exist, very few female managers are credited with absolute decision making powers. Uncertainty Avoidance Index: Reveals the degree of anxiety that members of the society experience in unknown or uncertain situations. Brazil ranks high on this aspect with a score of 76 out of 100.As there is avoidance of ambiguous situations, the members of this type of society prefer governance by rules and orders. Recommendations: Consistency in the issuance of instructions is very important as is the delegation of tasks rather than authority. A manager is expected to be abreast of all current laws and regulations and be advised by a competent advisor as labour-market regulations are tremendously rigid and tend to favour employees in most situations. Long Term Orientation Index: Brazil is the only non Asian society to have such a high score of 65 on a 100 scale which reveals the magnitude of the pragmatic and future oriented perspective a society exhibits. Recommendation: Managers would do well to accept change, and ardently respect the “jeitinho” which is descriptive of the way discovered by the Brazilian to move out of a tricky situation. It is thus apparent that cultural differences are for a better part of time sources of conflict rather than synergies and so understanding these differences minimise misunderstanding. It is undoubtedly a very satisfying and enriching experience to survive and be appreciated in a foreign culture which is worth the hard work of understanding the cultural implications prior to embarking on an assignment. Pestle Analysis of Brazil Political There are three distinct entities that comprise the political setup in Brazil. They are The States, The Municipalities and The Federal District. The Federation has the five principles firmly entrenched which are sovereignty, dignity of human beings, citizenship, freedom of enterprise and the values of social labour, and political pluralism. The Executive, Legislature and Judiciary are all formally established by the Constitution. The legislative and executive are organized independently in the three branches of government, the judiciary is organized at the Federal and State sphere. There are increasing legislations for increased involvement of the nation in international trade and economic activities. Brazil has been the leader of the G-20 Group of Nations and due to its dynamic rise as an emerging market economy is given the first place in the BRIC consortium. Brazil also has reinforced its commitment to non proliferation by ratifying the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it is a signatory to a full-scale nuclear safeguard agreement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Brazil has acceded to the Treaty of Tlatelolco and has joined the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Economic In Latin America, Brazil has the largest national economy, it is the world’s tenth largest economy when considered at market exchange rates, and is the ninth largest when measured by the purchasing power parity (PPP),according to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. As revealed by World Bank data, Brazil ranks 64th as due to its GDP per capita being $10,200. It has huge and developed mining, agricultural, , service and manufacturing sectors, coup[led with a large labour pool. The primary markets for Brazilian exports are The U.S., Western Europe, and Japan .They are also the sources for foreign lending and investment. China is a also emerging as a growing market for Brazilian exports. Social The core cultural aspect is a Portuguese derivative due to the strong colonial ties with Portugal. The official language is Portuguese and is used for all communication including for all business and administrative purposes. Brazilians are warm, free spirited and fun-loving, very outgoing and gregarious. They are very hard working and take great pride in their countries natural resources and diversity of culture. The dress code is fashionable and usually according to the latest styles. Technology Brazil is a recognised leader in science and technology with regard to South America and especially in fields as agricultural research, remote sensing, bio fuels, and deep-sea oil production. Over 73% of research funding is government sponsored through various sources. The IT market being the largest in South America was forecast to be in the region of 30bn.US$ in 2012. Legal There exists a well established legal system with powers devolved to states and the municipalities. The federal Constitution is supreme and all decisions are taken in consonance with the articles enshrined in it. The Three Branches of Government are separate and independent yet are harmonious with each other. The Judiciary is organised at the State and Federal Level. The municipalities have to resort to the State or Federal level as the case may be. Environment As Brazil possesses virtually one third of the world’s rainforest which is inclusive of the Amazon rainforest, deforestation is a major issue. Most of the deforestation that occurs is attributed to land clearing which is for speculative interests, misguided government projects and commercialisation of forest resources together with inappropriate World Bank projects. However a large part of deforestation also occurs for planting of grass for cattle feed .Road construction for access to mining and other sites lead to tremendous exploitation of the poor farmer. What managers need to know *For effective business deals it is important to build strong rapport between business partners which gives a sense of genuineness of intentions. *Interruptions in the course of dialogue are common and are not to be interpreted as rude behaviour. *Beginning of meetings is generally centered on light conversational topics like weather or soccer. * Pre-nominal form Senhor (for men) or Senhora (for women) together with the last name and are generally used in the first time an address is and followed by informality and use of the first name. *Impromptu calls are not well taken and it would be prudent to make an appointment at least two weeks in advance. *Three-piece suits have an “Executive” connotation while conservative attire is the norm for women in business. *Business success hinges on the commitment of long term resources in time and money aimed at establishing strong business ties in Brazil. *Sao Paulo and Rio do not follow the norm of casualness when it refers to business matter and meetings generally start on time. *Bad topics for conversation are those centred on Argentina, poverty, politics, religion and Rain Forest. Conclusion: From the analysis, it is proper to conclude that with globalisation and the need for competitive advantage, a lot of expansion has occurred in various regions around the world have diverse cultural contexts. It is therefore necessary for those aspiring to work positions in countries other than their own in the work context, to familiarise themselves with the cultural features and thus be in an advantageous position and be appreciated in a foreign land. [18] Arthurs,H. (2006) ‘Who’s Afraid of Globalization? Reflections on the Future of Labour Law’, in J.Craig

S3 gallops Essay

essay writer Mrs. K is a 60-year-old white female who presented to the ER with complaints of her heart “beating out of my chest.” She is complaining that she is having increased episodes of shortness of breath over the last month and in fact has to sleep on 4 pillows. She also notes that the typical swelling she’s had in her ankles for years has started to get worse over the past two months, making it especially difficult to get her shoes on toward the end of the day. In the past week, she’s been experiencing fatigue and decreased urine output. Her past history is positive for an acute anterior wall myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass surgery. She was a 2 pack a day smoker, but quit 8 years ago. On physical examination, auscultation of the heart revealed a rumbling S3 gallop and inspiratory crackles. She has 3 edema of the lower extremities. 1. Discuss the pathophysiology of an S3 heart sound and include causes for an S3 gallop?

The Key Concepts Of Six Sigma Business Essay

Six Sigma is a methodology that provides businesses with the tools to improve the capability of their business processes. This increase in performance and decrease in process variation leads to defect reduction and vast improvement in profits, employee morale and quality of product. (isixsigma, 2010) Six Sigma was originally developed by Motorola that today enjoys wide-spread application in many sectors of industry. It is a systematic method for process improvement that often uses the five steps defined by the acronym: DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control). (Schroeder, 2008) Six Sigma seeks to identify and remove the causes of defects and errors in manufacturing and business processes, using a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization (“Black Belts” etc.) who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction or profit increase). Cigna Corp., a 28,000-employee provider of employee healthcare and related insurance benefits used Six Sigma to adapt to dramatic changes in the healthcare industry where a 49% decrease in total inpatient case costs was achieved. The following is the report according to Cigna’s success story; CORE PHILOSOPHY AND KEY CONCEPTS OF SIX SIGMA Customers do not usually judge a product or service by averages like performance but by what they actually get out of each product. Overall customer satisfaction rests heavily on the consistency with which the products and services are delivered. This is a result of the combination of reduced process variation and improved process capability. The following are the core philosophies and key concepts of Six Sigma in any organization: Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e. reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success. The more variability in a process the larger the probability for a defect somewhere. At the heart of this concept is elimination of variation of process for defect removal. Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled (DMAIC), so as to improve the existing company methodology or to create a new and improved defect- free methodology for production in the organisation. Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management to bottom level management in the organisation, every employee and worker is responsible for the success of the organisation or company at large. (Berger, 2003) DMAIC refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company’s Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC is an acronym for five interconnected phases which are Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. Each step in the cyclical DMAIC Process is required to ensure the best possible results. The process steps: The DMAIC Methodology (ASQ , 2010) (Figure 1) Define In the Define stage, the project team identifies the purpose and scope of the project and confirms that a DMAIC project is in fact appropriate. The company should know who their customers are, what they need in terms of products and services and what are their expectations, the company should know the customers critical to quality issues and their core business processes involved. The tools that can be used are project boundary, where the company should define the project boundaries and the start/stop process. Another tool is process mapping which defines the processes to be improved in the company. Measure During Measure, the focus is on gathering data to describe the current situation through a data collection plan. It is critical to identify the appropriate process measures and gather sufficient baseline data, so that once improvements are made the impact can be verified empirically. Here a detailed process map is created, including documentation of variations in how the process is carried out from as many sources as possible. With this information the project team can begin to see some of the factors that may be affecting process performance by comparing the customer survey results. Analyze The purpose of the Analyze step is to determine the root causes of the process problems and inefficiencies and opportunities for improvement. A variety of methods are used to identify potential root causes, narrow down the possibilities, and confirm the relationship between the suspected causes and the performance of the process, such methods may be The cause and effect chart or use of Pareto charts. The organization should determine if the process should be improved or redesigned. Statistical analysis is a key component of this step, and is used to demonstrate these relationships. According to Cigna the analysis reveals some interesting facts, including: · Re-admission metrics were misleading – in fact, understated – because they did not include subsequent admissions and treatments of problems other than those related to the original diagnosis and treatment. · Identification or engagement of patients at high risk was inadequate. · Follow-up discharge plans and use of outpatient treatment were inadequate. · Follow-up communication was not effective (too much and too confusing). Improve Then comes the Improve step, which involves designing creative solutions to fix and prevent problems from ever happening again, especially the root causes. Techniques involve brainstorming, FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis), and piloting the improvement plan before rolling it out in full. The same data that was obtained during Measure to establish the baseline is again gathered after improvements are in place. Data analysis and charting techniques are used to confirm that performance has in fact improved sufficiently to meet the project’s goal. According to Cigna improvement included five components: 1. Redefine a more comprehensive, customer focused re-admission metric. 2. Improve discharge and follow-up planning. 3. Provide automatic ICM enrolment to providers and patients. 4. Consolidate patient communications, and improve delivery. 5. Implement protocols, templates and training for all care coordinators, including employee assistance programmes and nonclinical services, while emphasizing the importance of a comprehensive, holistic approach to care. Control Finally in the Control phase, steps are taken to ensure that the gains obtained during Improve are maintained, preventing going back to the old ways that the company used to run things. Common tasks include setting up ongoing data tracking and a plan for identifying when the process performance starts to slip and taking appropriate action. At the end of this phase, the project manager transfers ownership back to the process owner, and the team communicates the project results to all stakeholders. According to Cigna a full-year study was designed using 286 patients enrolled in the ICM programme compared with 517 patients with similar problems in a control group. (Bright hub articles, 2010), (isix sigma, 2010) Probable Implementation Roles One of the key innovations of Six Sigma is the professionalizing of quality management functions. Prior to Six Sigma, quality management in practice was largely relegated to the production floor and to statisticians in a separate quality department. Six Sigma borrows martial arts ranking terminology to define a hierarchy (and career path) that cuts across all business functions and a promotion path straight into the executive suite. Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation. • Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top management. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation. They also empower the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements. The executive leaders must show determination and confidence in the process, they must back it up with all integrity and must practise and model patience to their employees and organisation at large. A CEO needs no qualifications to establish and support and promote the design for Six Sigma initiatives. He or she is at least minimally qualified by virtue of being the top person in the organization and ultimately responsible for all financial results of the organisation. The more knowledge that the CEO has on Six Sigma the better for the organisation at large. • Champions are responsible for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner. They are selected by Executive Leaders from upper management. Champions serve as mentors, leaders and coaches supporting the project teams and ensuring the resources necessary. The champion promotes Six Sigma methodology throughout the company and especially in specific functional groups. The qualifications of a champion depend on the organization and the Six Sigma infrastructure. • Master Black Belts, identified by champions, act as in-house coaches on Six Sigma providing technical leadership of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS). They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They have the highest level of technical and organisational proficiency. They assist champions, coordinate the various projects and guide Black Belts and Green Belts when necessary. Apart from statistical tasks, their time is spent on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments. The master black belt must be able to work with statistical and non-statistical tools, to train, and to facilitate and coordinate activities. They must be able to facilitate problem-solving effectively without actually taking over a project. • Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. They are responsible for leading DFSS projects and teams full time. They are the key agents, fully dedicated and thoroughly trained in Six Sigma techniques and tools and they devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution, whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma. • Green Belts are the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities. They receive more simplified training than black belts and work on DFSS only part time; they can spend from 10% to 50% only of their time on DFSS. They operate under the guidance of Black Belts and support them in achieving the overall objectives. They generally help black belts collect data and develop experiments, they may lead small projects, or they may form DFSS teams, facilitate their work, and manage projects from start to finish. • Yellow Belts are employees who have been trained in Six Sigma techniques as part of a corporate-wide initiative, but have not completed a Six Sigma project and are not expected to actively engage in quality improvement activities. (iie, 2010), (Brue, 2003) The Probable Six Sigma organisation in Cigna Six Sigma organizations is a structure or chart which shows the different managerial positions of workers in a Six Sigma organisation from top level management (Executive managers or head of organisations) to bottom level management (Green belt or yellow belt workers depending with the organisation). The following is the probable organisational structure according to Cigna; (six sigma alchemy, 2010) Conclusion In conclusion, from the experience of Cigna we can see the effectiveness and efficiency of Six Sigma in an organisation. That is by following the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology, Cigna has been able to gain process and organisational improvement in a way that is systematic, sustainable, confirmed with data, and in alignment with customer and stakeholder quality expectations. We can see that through the use of Six Sigma the health insurance provider company Cigna managed to obtain the following impressive results. · A 53% decrease in re-admissions. · Savings of about $3,000 per patient and the previously mentioned 49% decrease in total in-patient care costs. · A 14.9% improvement in the rate of patients taking medications as prescribed. Along with the impressive cost savings in outpatient care, Cigna saw even more significant savings for patients in the ICM inpatient care programme: · The total number of admissions in the ICM group decreased 53% vs. increasing 11% in the control group. · The total cost for inpatient care decreased by 49% in the ICM group vs. an increase of 225% in the control group.

week 3 assignment 2

week 3 assignment 2.

Significant Contributions to Public Health – Part IFor your final project, you will be researching an individual and their contribution to community and public health. Because of the size of this project, you will be doing the first part of this project in Week 3 then adding the final portion in Week 5. You have the option of writing a paper or putting together a presentation. Details are below the outline. Overall, you will be researching an historical figure in the public health world, their contribution to public health, and how their work helped shape the public health system. Furthermore, you will be analyzing how their contribution from the past continues to contribute to today’s public health system and how it might guide future work within the industry.Follow this outline to help formulate your paper or presentation:ACTION: Select one of the historical figures and their associated public health topicMargaret Higgins Sanger/Reproductive healthRachel Carson/Environmental healthFranklin D. Roosevelt/Health care administrationJohn Snow/Communicable and infectious diseaseLuther T. Terry/SmokingW. E. B. DuBois/Social determinants of healthLarry Kramer/Health activismAn individual of your own choice: YOU MUST OBTAIN INSTRUCTOR APPROVAL IN ADVANCEACTION: Research the individual’s backgroundGRADED ELEMENT: Describe your selected person’s biographical background (i.e. experience).HELP: This can include resume elements such as birthdate, location, education, and brief statement of their contribution to public health. (Reminder: biographical information can be easily plagiarized. Please do not copy from your biographical websites. Paraphrase and/or quote and cite everything according to APA.)ACTION: Research the barriers and issue of the timeGRADED ELEMENT: Analyze the climate of the time period in terms of political, socioeconomic, environmental and technological context in which this person workedHELP: Think about whether this person was up against resistance or was their work welcomed. [For example, if you were writing on Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery, you would note that slavery was prevalent and accepted at the time and the change was welcomed by some and rejected by others]GRADED ELEMENT: Examine the personal beliefs of your person that prompted this work.HELP: You are basically addressing the question: “Why did this person get involved with the issue at the time?” [In continuing the Lincoln example above, you would note that black people were considered property, not people; yet Lincoln believed everyone had equal rights regardless of skin color].ACTION: Think about how this person overcame the barriers and issuesGRADED ELEMENT: Examine how this individual overcame and/or confronted any adversities to succeed in his/her taskHELP: Questions to consider: What did the person specifically do? Did they have any allies? How did their actions succeed/fail?ACTION: Think about the importance of the contribution to community/public health at the timeGRADED ELEMENT: Describe the final outcome of this individual’s contribution to community and/or public healthHELP: Think about this question: What occurred as a result of this person’s action?GRADED ELEMENT: Explain what his/her contribution did for overall community and/or public health at the timeHELP: Think about this question: What was the purpose for the community and/or nation? [In the Lincoln example, the explanation would involve a national recognition of human rights of all people, regardless of skin color]GRADED ELEMENT: Explain why this contribution was so important at that particular point in history
HELP: Think about this question: What made this important for our nation? [In the Lincoln example, you would answer the question: Why was it so important that Lincoln freed the slaves?]You have a choice of which format you wish to present your findings:Format 1: Written PaperMust be at least 4 pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudents nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust use at least four scholarly sources (one of those may be the course text).Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.ORFormat 2: Presentation (w/audio or w/speaker’s notes)Must be at least 12 minutes in length (not including title and reference slides) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate title slide with the following:Title of presentationStudents nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust use at least four scholarly sources (one of those may be the course text).Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
week 3 assignment 2

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