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UMGC Compensation Management and Salary Wages Essay

UMGC Compensation Management and Salary Wages Essay.

Instructions
Research
Visit a website that lists job postings for major U.S. cities, such as LinkedIn (www.linkedin.com) Indeed (www.indeed.com/) CareerBuilder.com (www.careerbuilder.com/) You also can search the classifieds or jobs sections of online versions of
print newspapers. Look through the job postings on whatever site you choose and find a
total of nine postings that meet the following criteria:
Three positions where wages are paid in terms of an annual salary
Three positions where wages are paid in terms of an hourly rate Three positions where wages are paid in another form besides
salary or hourly Save the link information for each posting so you can refer to it later and
add it to your Works Cited page. Writing Your Essay Use the nine job postings you found to write an essay in which you
answer the following questions: 1. Review the three positions where wages are paid in terms of an
annual salary. Why do these positions pay a salary instead of an
hourly wage? 2. Review the three positions where wages are paid in terms of an
hourly rate. Why do these positions pay an hourly rate instead of a
salary? 3. Which law regulates the determination of the form of
compensation? What are the legal requirements for a position that
pays a salary? Why do you think this law was established?
4. Review the three positions where wages are paid in another form
besides salary or hourly. What are the other forms of
compensation? Why do you think these specific methods have
been chosen? How are these methods of compensation more or
less effective than hourly or salary wages?
Your completed project will consist of an essay written in APA format
with an introduction, a body, a conclusion, and a Works Cited page.
You can use the Research and Writing Center (pflibrary.pennfoster.edu/
c.php?g=633288) in the online library as a guide if you need reminders
about how to write your paper and cite sources in APA format.
Ensure your essay is typed and double-spaced in a simple, standard
print font, size 12. Use a standard document format with one-inch
margins.
UMGC Compensation Management and Salary Wages Essay

The Corporation Critical Essay. “The Corporation” is an award winning Canadian documentary that explores the structures and autonomies of modern-day corporations. The film is the brainchild of Canadian law professor Joel Bakan. When the film was being produced, Bakan accompanied it with a book named “The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power”. “The Corporation” elicited mixed reactions from the stakeholders of globalization when it was released in 2003. There are those who felt that the film was an instrument of environmental destruction, imperialism, and inequality. All stakeholders of globalization have strong feelings towards the film’s claims. This paper seeks to prove that “The Corporation” offers valid criticisms on capitalism and corporations. The film starts by giving a synopsis of what constitutes a corporation in America. According to the film, there was a legal revolution that occurred during the 19th century. This revolution was responsible for giving corporations a personality. Today, companies enjoy the same legal rights and privileges that are enjoyed by citizens. Therefore, because corporations enjoy individual rights, they have the ability to flourish just like human beings. Given that corporations have person-like privileges, the film sets out to investigate what ‘kind of a people’ corporations are. According to the film, the corporation fits into the profile of a psychopath. This deduction is based on numerous interviews that were conducted on employees, chief executive officers, and captains of industry. It is observed that a corporation has traits that resemble those of a psychopath. First, the corporation only serves its own interests the main one being to make money on behalf of its shareholders. In addition, just like a psychopath, the corporation puts other corporations at risk in order to put itself on a vantage position. This means that corporations are willing to harm employees, the environment, and their own customers in the process of achieving their goals. The corporation’s main tool is manipulation. Other psychotic actions that are synonymous with the corporation include lack of remorse even after wrongdoing. In addition, the corporation usually considers itself as the best entity among its competitors and lacks empathy. Corporations only have superficial relationships that are often initiated by public-relation officers and marketers. The film successfully portrays corporations as having similarities to clinically insane persons. Most agents of globalization blame captains of industry for the sins that are performed by corporations although the actual problem lies with the corporations’ structures. The film is able to give captains of industry a human-face that is different from that of corporations. Managers and chief executive officers only align their actions with the needs of their corporations and capitalism in general. Acceptable and standard corporate strategies are responsible for making good corporate leaders do bad things. The actions of several captains of industry are not in line with their personal characters but they are just manifestations of corporate needs. For instance, in the film an advertising executive is shown rationalizing her decision to exploit the children’s habit of nagging their parents. The executive concludes that she is playing her role in the society by engineering that particular advertising campaign. There are other instances of corporate deceit that are propagated on behalf of the corporations in this film. For instance, a tobacco boss goes home with a clear conscience after a day’s work. While the claims that are made by the corporate heads seem befitting, they are inaccurate. While the corporation is able to distance itself from the evils of its employees, the employees cannot successfully do the opposite. The corporation also comes off as a divisive element between the government and the public. In times of conflict, the government always sides with the corporations at the expense of the general public. The much valued public-private partnership only survives at the expense of citizens. The external environment of the corporation is always harmed at the expense of the corporation’s internal environment. The policy makers (in this case the governments), usually value the corporations’ tax remittances over the wellbeing of the citizens and the environment. There are several instances where corporations have gotten away with poisoning the environment and mass exploitation of a country’s citizens. Oil spills and use of slave labor are examples of the external harms that are usually perpetrated by corporations. Corporations will not hesitate to profit from national and international tragedies. This cements the film’s claims that corporations are psychotic in nature. The only alternative to corporations and their structure is social bureaucracy. This is where bureaucracy is modeled to favor socialism as opposed to capitalism. The similarities between corporations and states make it hard for governments to rise against the evils of corporations. Modern states work hand-in-hand with corporations to foster their internal environments at the expense of the external environments that house the citizens. “The Corporation” offers some useful insights into the ills of capitalism. The film investigates the situation in several countries and how corporations manipulate political situations. Even though there are few alternatives to corporations, the answer lies in restructuring the present corporate structures. The Corporation Critical Essay

NURS 6003 WU W 9 Academic Success and Professional Development Curriculum Vitae

NURS 6003 WU W 9 Academic Success and Professional Development Curriculum Vitae.

Assignment: Academic Success and Professional Development PlanPart 5: Professional DevelopmentIn this Module’s Discussion, you were introduced to the concept of an academic portfolio to begin building your own brand. However, portfolios have value that goes beyond brand building. An academic and professional portfolio can also help you to build your own vision and mission and establish your development goals. In this regard, a portfolio becomes yet another tool in your toolbox as you build your success.In this Assignment you will continue developing your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan by developing the fifth component–a portfolio for your academic and professional efforts.To Prepare:Consider your goals for academic accomplishments while a student of the MSN program.The Assignment:Using the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template document that you began to work on in Module 1 and have continued expanding throughout this course, you will develop a curriculum vitae (CV) in Part 5 based on your current education and professional background.Write a statement identifying your professional development goals.Write a statement proposing how you might align one or more of your professional development goals with the university’s emphasis on social change.Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.By Day 7 of Week 9Submit Part 5.
NURS 6003 WU W 9 Academic Success and Professional Development Curriculum Vitae

Childhood Obesity The Law Ethics Children And Young People Essay

i need help writing an essay Childhood Obesity The Law Ethics Children And Young People Essay. The following is an in-depth look at childhood obesity and its effect on ones self-esteem, and the responsibility of society in controlling this issue. The law, ethics and public policy that currently exists on childhood obesity and how it effects self-esteem is great. There are so many things popular right now from healthy vending machines, to teaching children how to eat healthy. There are sociological, economic, and cultural factors that “directly impact the obesity epidemic, complicating the attribution of fault for a child’s obesity. The years of the obesity epidemic have been a period of considerable change in the ethnic and cultural mix of many developed countries…” [1] The law has found something popular and interesting about childhood obesity right now. Vending machines are being removed and replaced with “healthier” options, soda is no longer served in some schools, and it’s a bit trendy right now to be “healthy”. This is especially true when one considers the current First Lady and her initiatives to end childhood obesity. First Lady Michelle Obama started a health initiative when she planted her vegetable garden. The First lady has also tried to change public school meals so that they are more nutritious and healthy. In addition, Mrs. Obama can be seen during her numerous appearances on mass media outlets discussing this platform. The ethics of it comes from not just parental responsibility, but those in the community – we are all responsible for the well being of children, and doing what we can to help. “Considering the historic roots of childhood obesity in the United States and exploring the internal and external causes of obesity, we isolate those fundamental causes of childhood obesity that are within parental control. By identifying which of these causes are within parental control, we hope to provide clarity necessary to develop an effective legal standard that can serve as a guideline for legislatures to adopt and courts to enforce.” [2] Finally, public policy is very interested in childhood obesity and the impending self esteem because there are so many resources available. The “public policy” that is interested is related to healthcare, education, family, and the environmental factors present in society. [3] I was born in 1987, and there are more resources available today than when I was growing up. I grew up an overweight child for several years, and myself esteem took a toll from it. Even at Ave Maria School of Law, we have “healthy” vending machines. Gone are the days I can get a sugar crash at 3 pm, I now can pick from a granola bar and coconut water for my afternoon snack. This paper argues that the obesity epidemic in America is unnecessary. With research and awareness this obesity epidemic can become something of the past. The cost of childhood obesity and issues of overweight children has social and economic costs. In the Indiana Health Law Review, Sally Hubbard states that “youth overweight and obesity-related expenses will affect current and future generations of American citizens. These expenses, however, will not be confined to the treatment of children. Indeed, studies show that obese children are likely to become obese adults. The social costs of this transformation-loss of future wages and a reduction in our natural resource base-combined with the social opprobrium and the increased healthcare expenses associated with obesity, necessitate and reflect the urgency of a deeper exploration of states’ roles in addressing public health crises through public schools. This position is supported by a recent position statement issued by the American Heart Association… Public schools “could become the central element in a community system that ensures that students participate in enough physical activity to develop healthy lifestyles.” [4] II. BACKGROUND OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN AMERICA Each state and local school district plays a role in regulating school vending machines, lunches and physical education laws. In 1983, a shift took place from the federal government controlling school nutrition to now the local government controlling it. The case of National Soft Drink Ass’n v. Block [5] aided in this transition of control. The National Soft Drink Association (American Beverage Association) filed a lawsuit against the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of Agriculture put a ban on the sale of sodas in schools that were federally funded by the Child Nutrition Act [6] of 1966. The Court in Block held that the Secretary of Agriculture went beyond the scope of his authority when he declared “time and place regulations” that barred the sale of certain foods in schools until after the last meal had been served during that day. Consequently, The Child Nutrition Act of 1966 was altered to reflect the decision by the court; that sugary soda drinks, and other foods with no nutritional value were allowed in public schools during the day. Because of this, the federal efforts were weakened and states had to create their own laws on what was permitted in their public schools. [7] Approximately 21-24% of American children and adolescents are overweight, and another 16-18% is obese; the prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. [8] Obesity increases the risk for a number of health factors, such as hypertension, adverse lipid concentrations, and insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, liver and renal disease, and reproductive dysfunction. Childhood obesity also will increase the risk of adult-onset obesity and heart disease. Obesity in the United States has become more prevalent in the final decades of the 20th century than ever before. Notably, there is a slowing of the rate of increase or leveling off. This could be due to the initiatives and health concerns of the lawmakers and general populace. “More than one-third of adults and almost 17% of America’s youth were obese in 2009-2010. There was no change in the prevalence of obesity among adults or children from 2007-2008 to 2009-2010. Obesity prevalence did not differ between men and women. Adults aged 60 and over were more likely to be obese than younger adults.” [9] Obesity in children is not just a public policy concern, and health issue, it is a rather complex disorder. Throughout the developed world, childhood obesity has increased so significantly that it is considered a “major health concern.” [10] The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey shows that the prevalence of obesity is growing higher and higher in all age groups, in both sexes, and in various ethnic and racial groups among pediatric patients. [11] “Many factors, including genetics, environment, metabolism, lifestyle, and eating habits, are believed to play a role in the development of obesity. However, more than 90% of cases are idiopathic; less than 10% are associated with hormonal or genetic causes.” Id. III. CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN AMERICA TODAY The legal system must recognize parental accountability for childhood obesity. The solution to this issue is not tort law; suing fast-food restaurants or soda companies will not solve the problem. In the Duke Law Journal, it was proposed that large companies that sell unhealthy foods and beverages should be assigned the responsibility of helping to reduce the obesity rates in certain groups of children. [12] “Others believe that government should order specific changes in the behavior of food companies and school officials – and yet, there is little reason for confidence that these “command and control” strategies will make a difference.” [13] Parental influence determines the type of food chosen for the children. “Surprisingly, children are more likely to be obese if they live in a household where prepared food items high in fat and sodium are frequently served.” [14] A study took place between 1977 and 1998. In this study, parents kept increasing the portions they served to their children. In comparison to what children ate in 1970, today’s children are consuming 350 more calories. Perhaps it is this trend which is increasing the risk of childhood obesity. [15] Some believe that the government should not intervene with the parental responsibility of how to feed their children. However, society needs to spur parents in the right direction when it comes to health and wellness of the children. [16] Children who are obese as children are more likely to be obese adults. U.S. school age children consume an excess of 400 billion calories a year. Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans (44%) than among Mexican Americans (39%) and Non-Hispanic Whites (33%). [17] Over the last two decades, obesity in children two (2) – nineteen (19) has doubled. [18] These are alarming statistics; what changes have taken place in our country over the last two decades that childhood obesity has doubled? Many parents and governmental officials blame vending machines in school for why children are obese. “…School-age children are eating 400 billion excess calories a year – the equivalent of 2 billion candy bars – from junk food sold in such machines as well as in snack bars and cafeterias that should be off-limits.” [19] On average, a snack from the vending machine is upwards of 130 calories a day. The calories add up, and turn into pounds. Schools in The South have been the most aggressive at fighting this issue. Some say it is because they have the biggest problem with childhood obesity, and obesity in general. [20] In a recent study, researchers analyzed data on 6,300 students, living in 40 states. Their heights and weights were measured in spring 2004, when they were in 5th grade and again in 2007, during the spring of eighth grade. [21] Research was also conducted on several databases of state laws on school nutrition during the same time. “The laws were aimed at restricting the food and drinks sold in public school vending machines and school stores, outside of mealtime. Laws were considered strong if they included specific nutrition requirements, such as limits on sugar and fats and were rated weak if the requirements were vague and merely urged sales of “healthy” food without specifics.” [22] Dr. Daniel Taber says that for laws to be consistent, they are to be enforced consistently at all grade levels. Dr. Taber is a health policy researcher at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The laws referred to above are laws of each specific state. In some states, there are laws that are stricter on what sorts of foods are available in a vending machine at a school, or in the school lunch programs. Each state has their own laws, despite the new, federal initiatives. “In late 2003, 27 of the states studied had no relevant laws affecting middle-schoolers, seven had weak laws and six had strong laws. Several states and school districts enacted tougher laws affecting middle-schoolers and younger kids…as national concern rose over obesity rates… In states with no relevant laws, almost 37 percent of fifth-graders were overweight and 21 percent were obese…those numbers barely budged by eighth grade.” [23] Children in the study gained less weight from the fifth grade until eighth grade if they lived in states with strong, consistent laws that governed which snacks are available in schools, compared to the children in the same age category who lived in areas with no laws on the issue. [24] The government has an interest in children being fit, not just because its important to be healthy, but these students may join the military some day. [25] Retired Air Force Lieutenant General Norman Seip said “The folks that are going to enter the military in 2025 are in school right now. So it’s up to us to ensure that when those children reach the age of between 17 and 24 that they are ready or eligible to join the military.” The fact that the military is concerned with childhood obesity shows how far the epidemic has gone, and how far its reach is. Eileen Lainez, a Defense Department spokeswoman said “Only 25 percent of young U.S. adults qualify to enlist in the military. [26] Among the remaining 75 percent, more than a third have weight-related problems. [27] ” On average, recruits that are too heavy to join are about thirty (30) pounds overweight. [28] IV. THE FIRST LADY’S INITIATIVE Michelle Obama has made it her mission to reduce childhood obesity and encourage healthy lifestyles. In 2010, Mrs. Obama developed a bipartisan group of lawmakers and Cabinet members to firm up plans for a national campaign to reduce childhood obesity. [29] This was at the beginning of her husband’s first term as President. This shows her strong intent to be involved, rather than point fingers and expose an already exposed problem. [30] Mrs. Obama sought to involve not just lawmakers and Cabinet members, but “families, schools, businesses, nonprofits and government…” [31] Part of Mrs. Obama’s initiative was to revise federal childhood nutrition programs [32] and opportunities on a local level so that 30 million kids can enjoy the benefits of the impact she wishes to leave. On February 28, 2013, Jonathan LaPook of CBS News sat down with the First Lady and discussed her continued plans to maintain her initiative. [33] Her new prescription for the issue is to “Get Moving!” She is trying to promote the idea of exercise and learning so that not only will children move, but they will learn while doing it. One major struggle that Mrs. Obama mentioned was that she is having a hard time with big companies who want to keep pushing junk food on “our kids.” [34] Mrs. Obama reiterates that this a “generational goal” and that no matter what, we must press on. LaPook notes that Mrs. Obama has done the “pushing” every step of the way, and that the industry has given lots of push back when it comes to marketing to children. Mrs. Obama remarks “One of the things that we have to remind parents is that we are the ones that set the demand. So if we are asking our food producers and our restaurant chains and the companies that sell us food and market to us, if we are changing that demand curve, they are going to follow us. It is really the logic of the market. If we demand it, they will make it is because they are trying to, they want us to buy their stuff.” [35] V. AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO COMBAT OBESITY Communities and neighborhoods are not what they used to be. They are very different from the traditional European model. [36] At one point in time, communities sought to keep residential and industrial areas separate so that the health of residents was paramount to everything else. [37] Today, zoning requirements are different from a Supreme Court case from 1926. Ambler Realty v. Village of Euclid recognized the health issues taken into account for zoning. Currently, it is believed that the mixed zoning and mixed use of land might help reduce obesity. [38] This “urban sprawl” increases probability of childhood obesity because it proves fewer opportunities for physical activity, and there are less active people around to be active. [39] Those in the neighborhood can, and will influence the physical activity of children. Even a small change, like walking or biking to schools “has the potential to affect the increase in weight gain we have seen in our community.” [40] Girls On The Run is an organization that works with communities across the United States and Canada. They have a network of over 200 “councils” which are committed to the mission of Girls On The Run. The mission seeks to inspire girls to be joyful, healthy and confident using a fun, experience-based curriculum, which creatively integrates running into the process. The basis of the program is that young girls are taught team building and self reliance skills, along with life skills and dynamic, conversation based lessons via games. Throughout the process, the girls train physically and emotionally to run a 5K marathon. Girls on the Run is a program for girls that are ages 8-13. This is a crucial age for girls, especially in terms of establishing confidence with lifetime appreciation of health, fitness and emotional stability. Girls On The Run is in direct alignment with an article that Laure DeMattiaaChildhood Obesity The Law Ethics Children And Young People Essay

Models in problem formulation and identification Essay

There are several approaches to problem formulation and identification. Most of these models employ the use of various techniques. A person can choose one model over the other depending on the nature of the problem to be identified, and solution to be formulated. Problem identification and formulation is rather a creative process. Therefore, this essay shall focus on creativity models used in problem formulation and identification. These models rely on problem definition as the key to its solution. The simplex model use creativity to provide a practical method for a collaborative win-win problem solving model. The underlying technique in this process is the deliberate use of creativity in defining a problem. The model approaches a problem situation with a joint creative problem definition to provide a room for win-win results. The model has four stages. The first stage involves the generation of the problem and fact finding, and then conceptualizes of potential definition, and idea of the problem. The next stage involves optimization of ideas, and the preferred action plan. Finally, the parties gain acceptance and implement the solution (Bateman

The Service Quality Of Kuala Lumpur Public Transports Tourism Essay

The Service Quality Of Kuala Lumpur Public Transports Tourism Essay. The definition of service quality means customer perception on how well does a service can meets or exceeds the expectation. As for the words “public transport” itself, it is being describes as a vehicle that caters the passenger to reach a destination and every usage of this particular public transportation will be charge with a minimum or a special fares to each passenger at the same times. In transport, there are a special word being known as mobility it is usually defined as the ability to move anything for example like people, goods and other living thing or non living thing from one place to another place and it is measured by the number of trips made by a person each day (Vasconcellos, 2001) whereas ‘personal mobility’ refers to the use of personal transport; it can be a car or a motorcycle or others. The term of “public” is widely used; this term is not considered as secret or private, the term itself open to or concerning the people as a whole, sharing their very own common interest with everybody. Based on Md Aftabuzzaman, Graham Currie, Majid Sarvi, the main urban public transport problem is the road traffic congestion and this is one of the reason why people do not switch to using public transport (Cervero 1991; Downs 1992). By having public transport system, efficient public transport (PT) can be regard as one of the potential solutions that can solve the problem of urban road traffic congestion (Hyman and Mayhew 2002,; Pucher et al. 2007; Vuchic 1999. The main public transport such as buses, taxis, trains was provided by the government towards the public’s use. For convenient of people who are staying in urban and rural areas ( White 2002), governments have provided a better service quality to people to make sure the service they provided are able to satisfy the consumer needs and expectation as well as to increase the level of service quality of public transport. In public transport, service quality can be focus in term of tangibles, reliability and responsiveness (Parasuraman et. al., 1985) and it has becomes a significant issues which is to have a better and comfortable environment. Mostly customers do not satisfy with the physical facilities in public transport. Cleanliness, comfortableness, frequencies, responsiveness of the driver and conductor of public transports are the major issues customer always complaints and disappointed on it. Besides that, buses mostly not provided convenience facilities such as wheelchair, which is needed for disable person. However, Malaysia Prime Minister himself dissatisfied with the current issues and problems after being experienced on using the LRT service. Problems for Light Rail Transit (LRT) and Keretanapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) are the time arrival always delays and not to forget, service likes punctuality, frequencies of train arrives on time and insufficient of space to carry passengers are also the main issues that caused congestion occurs (Utusan 2008). Even though the public transportation is modernized and has been updated in urban areas but with the lacking of service quality and well-implemented by the government, it will lead a negative perception tot the customers and they won’t satisfy of using public transport service that they provided which are insufficient and inefficiency ( Karen Thompson, Peter Schofield 2002). Despite the routing scheduled stating the bus would arrive on every 15 minutes but users has been waiting the half an hour and yet the bus still not arrives. This is one of the punctuality problems faced by the public buses in Malaysia (The Star 2008). Another incident occurred in urban area Kuala Lumpur, which are included LRT train and Rapid KL. The train and bus clashing with each other in 200 meter from Bukit Jalil Station (The Star 2008). This shows that the safety measurement of public transports become worst and action should be taken into consideration. Transit service quality and reliability is essential for transit passengers and it did shown that both factors do affect passenger satisfaction substantially (Tyrinopoulos, 2008). Furthermore, transit service reliability regard as one of the significant factor for commuters to decide on which types of public transportation they prefer to use the most (Benjamin, 1998). Due to inefficiency of system, buses did not arrive on time, departure delays, lacking of passenger seats, thus, these factors would cause passenger overloads. Commuters would more preferable to drive their own vehicles instead of using public transport to access to work, recreation, school during the peak service periods. It must be given extra attention on inefficiency system of buses in order to improving the reliability towards of passengers and commuters. However, service extension wouldn’t be necessary if the passenger loading was equally distributed and buses were regularly spaced enough. According to Margareta Friman and Markus Felleson, new services of public transport are being developed and old services are being improved or upgraded in order to meet the potential and present customer’s requirement. To encourage more people to use the public transport, services should be designed and performed in a way to meet the levels of service required by customers (Beirão and Sarsfield Cabral 2007). In addition, there are few factors of how customers perceive public transport. Factors such as frequency, reliability, travel time and fare level (Hensher et al. 2003, Tyrinopoulos and Aifadopoulou 2008), comfort and cleanliness (Eboli and Mazzulla 2007, Swanson et al. 1997), network coverage or distance to stop (Eriksson et al. 2009, Tyrinopoulos and Antoniou 2008), and safety issues (Smith and Clarke 2000, Fellesson and Friman 2008) are the main factors for users do not use the public transport and also customer express their points of view about services as well as to providing judgment of public transport according to the service quality. According to Tew Shi Yi, to enhance the percentage level of using public transportation, they managed to come up with a plan which is to offer an effective, accurate and user-friendly system for users especially for the citizens of Kuala Lumpur and it indeed bring the significant benefits to the public. Laura Eboli and Gabriella Mazzulla, one of the factors influencing the travel user choices to use the public transport is the transit service quality. Those customers who manage to use the transit service, they will probably use transit services again. In contrast, users may not use the transit services next time if they are not capable to use it well. However, improving the service quality is important for attracting new users. According to Che Rosmani Che Hassan, Mahar Diana Hamid, Norazlin Dzulkifly, Noor Zalina Mahmood, bus is one of the main alternatives of mass transportation as it is not only has better coverage areas such as Light Rail Transit (LRT) and commuter train but also cheaper for public to use it. Also, they found out that existing bus interchanges often inadequate to meet the growing needs of customers. There are thousands of people use the bus interchanges around Kuala Lumpur to reach their destination in a day. Such interchanges are Hentian Puduraya, Hentian Duta, Klang Bus Stand and more. Based on research made by the student from the University Malaya, the survey results happens to be true that, the reason why do most of the Malaysian used private cars instead of Public Transportation were mainly, they lack of knowledge about the availability of the public transportation around their area. Not familiar on how to use the public transportation. Although there are several types of public transport but yet people rather to drive their own car and stuck in the traffic jam for few hours than using with public transport that might somehow causes problems when it is less unpredicted. However, government has comes up with a plan which is to introduce a new set of traffic management policy measures to promote the use of public transport. To encourage the residents to use the public transport, several facilities has been provided by the government in public transport station such as extra parking spaces are added nearby the public transport station so that people can park their car and ride easily, bus shuttle from bus stop to the train station or add more bus or train frequencies in either neighborhood or the city area. Ng Choy Peng and Dadang Mohamed MA’SEOM, private vehicles have led to severe congestion and pollution. Kuala Lumpur first started to operate the light rail transit (LRT) in 1996 following by the STAR LRT and PUTRA LRT. These are the two LRT systems that operate in Kuala Lumpur after LRT. It has been found that most of the LRT stations in Kuala Lumpur areas provide inadequate parking space and this is one of the reason public do not switch to using public transport. However, to promote the use of public transport, the local authorities recommended improving the existing bus services like bus lane needs to develop even better and so on. As for the construction of the commuter train, it must be well-developed and to make sure light railway transit (LRT) is able to cater the need of residents from suburban area to urban area. Last but not least, it is also shown that the public transportation nowadays face a very big negative impact from all the consumer and passenger that travels around with the public transport, this proven a result that the public transportation has show a lot inefficiency services that provided by each company, poor connection from certain destination to a destination itself. 1.2 Research Problem The problem regarding to this proposal is the customer perception service quality towards public transport in Kuala Lumpur. This research is to find our factors that influencing customers not to use with the public transport. Researcher found out that private cars has become the main choice of traveler’s mode of transport is because they dissatisfied with the service quality such as reliability, cleanliness and comfortableness, facilities, travel fare and time of the public transport. There might have been frequent complaints from the commuters and passengers that the public transport did not provide a good service such as departure always delays, insufficient passenger’s seats and others. Most of them lack of knowledge about the availability of the public transportation around their area. Consumer does not know the exact traveling time and duration from the origin to the destination itself and not familiar on how to use the public transportation. So therefore most of them would not take the risk into taking public transportation as their mode of transport. Besides that, they are easily confused on what type of transport to use to reach their destination; slightly it is due to there are too many choices of public transportation to choose from in Kuala Lumpur. Furthermore, the consumer does not want to waste time waiting for the transportation with no exact arriving time everyday when they own a private car where they do not worries anything about the availability of the car, the traveling duration, and it is far more accessible from time to time. 1.3 Research Question What are the factors that affect public not to using public transport in Kuala Lumpur? How does the service and requirements can be improved? What is the extension level of the service attributes must be improved in the future? What is the overall satisfaction level of users to public transport? What is the item of service quality that leads to customer satisfaction? 1.4 Research Objectives The main purpose of the objective for this proposal is to measure the user’s global satisfaction with public transport as well as to examine the customer perception of using Kuala Lumpur public transport according to certain factors. The main point of this research is to find out what is the level of expectation perception of Kuala Lumpur customers about service of public transport delivered and what kind of services that affect most of the people do not use public transport. It is very important to find out how does the service and requirements can meet the customer’s satisfaction, any improvement for government to maintain the public transport, factors government would take into consideration in deciding to use public transport more or drive less in order to encourage and promote people, especially the citizens of Kuala Lumpur to use public transport services more often. Government should update the latest information such as possible routes coverage, departure and arrival time of the public transport and travel fare to the user. Suggested route will be giving out to the users to ensure users using public transport in a shortest time and cheapest way with a limited budget to reach the destination itself. Objectives of this research are: To determine the reason for public to choose to travel with private car but not using public transport in Kuala Lumpur. To identify the types of service and requirements to meet the customer’s satisfaction. To identify the extent gap of between the customer’s perception and expectation. To identify the best solution to improve the service quality of the public transportation, like more seats and comfortable seats. Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework Basically, the above diagram is the research shows how readers are to determine the factors that encourage car users’ switch from driving car to using public transportation in Kuala Lumpur more often. Factors that can encourage the car users to switch and use the public transportation are to upgrade and expand the service quality of that particular transportation. For example, KTMB need to put in a lot of effort into upgrading their services, especially during the peak time (working hours) so that the consumer can access to it with hassle free. Customer satisfactions are also an important aspect in the customer perception, in order to make the customer satisfied into using the transportation are to make sure that comfort are there, the warm service are they and accessibility are surrounding the public transport itself. Furthermore are the Reliability of Public Transport, in order to make the public transportation a reliable one, the management of the transportation company, must always upgrading their services and expand their services, so that the consumer can feel reliable towards the particular transportation. Diagram above is the model of conceptual framework, which is illustrating the relationship between service and quality development, customer satisfaction, responsiveness, route accessibilities of public transport, reliability of public transport (arriving on time), and the maintenance from time to time to public transport. 1.6 Significant of study This research helps to indentify existing problem of what factors encourage car user’s switch to use public transport which may lead to the satisfaction of car users. Through this research, the government has to put its effort to make an improvement on the public transport system such as development of an integrated and efficient public transport system. Action should be taken into consideration to upgrade the public transport to car users in order to meet the requirements and provide an efficiency services which will give customer a wide perspective of satisfaction especially focuses on the expansion of Light Rail Transit (LRT) and commuter train services. By doing this, it will not only helpful and useful at this time and future planning as well. The result of this research will improve the car user’s satisfaction. In the meantime, this planning will encourage more people to use public transport. Furthermore, it does helps to indentify additional changes that can be done to avoid further impacts to the current site emphasized in this study. Scope and Limitations The scope of study is the public perception towards Kuala Lumpur public transport. Due to the time constraint, the researcher might not able to gather sources of the information from journals, online journals, further details, and newspapers. Beside of this, the researcher also facing some difficulties on the research paper because of the short time provided on the research process. Obviously, it is caused by the lack of resource that provided in KDU library and the researcher also facing some difficulties on getting the further details information about public transport in Kuala Lumpur with a limitation of resources. It also caused by the data that provided in KDU library is not the latest and the data didn’t up to date regularly. Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature 2.1. Factors influencing the customer perception service quality towards Public Transport in Kuala Lumpur This review indicates that efficient public transport (PT) considered as one of the potential solutions to the problem of urban road traffic congestion (Hyman and Mayhew 2002,;Pucher et al. 2007; Vuchic 1999).The factors that influencing the customer perception towards public transportation are mainly because of the times due to the seemingly break down and the delay of train all the time, the customer do not want to take the risk taking public transportation without taking the public transportation, it will helps reduced the time of travelling and can avoid the malfunction of the public transportation all the time The second factor that influence their perception are crowded and comfort, due to the public transportation are always crowded, there are some of the customer that afraid to take the public transportation, reason are because they have to be inside the public transport hot and stuffy, sometimes will occurred cases like sexual harassment towards the woman that travel using the public transportation. Not only that, when it is too crowded some of the customer unable to enjoy the seats due to lack of seats and also when there are too many people sometimes it will cause drowsiness when not enough air ventilate in the bus, train or taxi itself. The third factor that influence the customer into taking the public transportation are the desirable routes are not covered by the public transportation, it is only covers some part of the city, suburban areas and town but not to most of the places, it is hard for those customer to travel using public transportation when some of the destination that offers by the public transport itself need transfers and also need walking. The last factors that influence the customer perception are the infrequent public transportation. There are public transport that travels follow the time that set by the system, example like KTM there are a board stating that what time exactly will the train itself will arrive, but the train always reach late and never follow. So as the Monorail and also the Star LRT which provides the wrong information of time all the time? As for Putra LRT, is the only rail that shows the correct timing due to the, system will update its timing once the trains reach certain destination? Based on Apogee Research (1996), there are three main tools central to the assessment of public transport such as travel demand models, transport cost analysis techniques, transport sketch planning and impact spreadsheets and each of the tools will have their own benefits and disbenefits. 2.2. Service Quality Surprisingly, few studies have so far analyzed this relationship. The concept of service quality involved outcomes, satisfaction of the users, and other intangibles of public transport expectations. In addition, facilities and more tangible aspect of public transports physical elements are also one of the concept of service quality (FodnessThe Service Quality Of Kuala Lumpur Public Transports Tourism Essay

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