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UDC Playing Games Critical Thinking Questions Discussion

UDC Playing Games Critical Thinking Questions Discussion.

This lesson will encourage you to look much deeper at who you are as ad individuals and us as a society. Further thinking about egocentrism and the elements of reasoning we deploy, this activity will help you explore some of your egocentric assumptions and some common situations in life that we take for granted.1.You are conducting a tour for aliens who are visiting earth and observing humans. You’re all in their spaceship when you happen to fly over a football stadium. One of the aliens is confused, and turns to you for help. Thinking critically, answer these questions as posed by your alien friend:What is a game, and why do humans play them?What are “teams” and why are they so important for humans to be part of?Why is it these games seem to get more attention than other matters on your planet, like disease and poverty?Why do humans get so emotional and even violent when watching games? What would happen if no human could ever play these games again?2. Next, find a friend or family member to pose this same scenario and questions to. Think critically about you both answered the same set of questions. How do your responses compare? How are they different? Do you think egocentrism present? What other impediments do you think may have contributed to the way that you (and your friend) may have answered these questions? 3.(1) What main concepts does the author use to relate to the main issue; (2) What’s the point of view of the author? and (3) What are the author’s assumptions. Remember to refrain from critiquing the article and instead, demonstrate your critical thinking skills!
UDC Playing Games Critical Thinking Questions Discussion

Discussion Of Management For Hip Replacement Surgery Patients Nursing Essay

According to the Scottish Arthroplasty Project’s annual report (2009), 6312 total hip replacement operations were carried out in 2007/08. (Scottish Arthroplasty Project, 2009). This essay will discuss and justify the management required for patients who undergo total hip replacement surgery, during the first 72 hours post operatively. It will include information on the current evidence base for post operative care, using guidelines and policies and will show how early post operative management will allow the patient to fulfil their activities of daily living. It will also show how the patient can return to normal by using the Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing care. Preventing post operative complications is the most important goal in the post operative stage. A major element of the nurse’s role in the post operative period is to diagnose, monitor and intervene in rapidly changing situations so complications do not arise. Hip replacement surgery is commonly carried out when patients suffer from chronic pain, immobility and deformity. These symptoms are mainly caused by osteo-arthritic changes in the joint, and affect all activities of daily living (Temple, 2004). The procedure is normally carried out under general anaesthetic (being ‘put to sleep’) or by spinal (epidural) anaesthetic. It is done by completely removing the old hip joint and replacing it with prosthetic parts (NHS, 2010). Osteoarthritis is a disease that affects joints in the body and is characterized by damage to the surface of the joint. When a joint develops osteoarthritis, the articular cartilage which is found on the ends of bones, gradually roughens and becomes thin. The bone underneath thickens and becomes more rough (University of Dundee, 2009). The bone at the edge of the joint grows outwards forming osteophytes or bony spurs. This new bony tissue could be the body’s attempt to repair the damage to the cartilage. Friction against the osteophytes generates particles of articular cartilage which are shed into the joint. These particles are then taken into the synovium and trigger an inflammatory response. Irritation due to the release of inflammatory enzymes causes extra fluid to be formed which leads to joint swelling. In severe osteoarthritis, the cartilage can become so thin that it no longer covers the thickened bone ends. The bone ends touch, rub against each other, and start to wear away. The loss of cartilage, the wearing of bone and the bony overgrowth at the edges can alter the shape of the joint, forcing the bones out of their normal alignment, causing deformity and pain (Arthritis Research UK, 2010). The cause of osteoarthritis is unknown but there are several risk factors which include gender, age, obesity and genetic influences (Waugh and Grant, 2006). Post operative care is defined as the care that is given between 24 hours and 30 days after surgery (Hutton and Cooper, 2002). Post operative care is essential to ensure the patient fully recovers from the surgery and is able to return to normal capacity as soon as possible, without complications. Kontoyannis (2008) suggests that the “post operative period is very important for monitoring the patient to prevent immediate and long term complications.” Kozier et al (2008) states that “nursing during the post operative phase is especially important for the patient’s recovery”. Post operative care can be divided into three main categories – assessment, monitoring and management. According to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) “regular assessment, selective monitoring and timely documentation are key to post operative care” (SIGN, 2004). The first post operative assessment should take place immediately when the patient comes back from operating theatre. As soon as the patient returns to the ward, the nurse makes a very quick assessment of the patient’s condition. Criteria for assessment include respiratory, circulatory, neurological, dressing, patient comfort and safety (Long et al 1993). This assessment means that a baseline can be determined, the nurse can then record any changes in the patient’s condition from when they left the operating theatre and any problems can be identified quickly. The nurse has the responsibility to inform the doctor of any information about the patient’s condition when the first post operative assessment is being carried out. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Conduct states that nurses must “share information with your colleagues” so that they can “protect and promote health and well-being of those in your care” (NMC, 2007). During the first post operative assessment, after the nurse has received a hand over from the theatre nurse, the patient will arrive back at the ward with an intravenous infusion. They might also have a PCA (patient controlled analgesia) and drain (Pudner, 2005). The nurse will monitor the patient’s vital signs, drain site and assess for pain. Monitoring allows the gathering of information so that trends may be determined. This means that any worsening or progression in the patient’s condition can be recognised. Monitoring is essential to determine if the patient is responding to the treatment. The normal monitoring regime for any post operative patient includes: temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation levels. These observations should be recorded and documented at 30 minute intervals, progressing to 4 hourly for the duration of the patients stay in hospital, unless the patient’s condition dictates otherwise. Respiratory assessment is paramount to the post operative care of a patient. The nurse must observe the rate of and depth of the respirations. Pain increases the rate and depth; therefore if the patient is short of breath, a pain assessment should be carried out (Heath, 2004). The nurse should also assess cardiovascular activity. They should note and seek further advice if the patient is hypertensive, tachycardic or bleeding. From these observations, it can be determined if the patient is suffering from shock associated with pain or excessive blood loss. Other monitoring requirements that post operative hip replacement patients receive would be pain assessment and observations on the operated leg, for example, colour, movement and sensation. This is to check for circulatory and nerve damage (Temple, 2004). This neurovascular assessment should be carried out and documented at 30 minute intervals, progressing to 4 hourly for at least 24 hours after surgery (Pudner, 2005). The level of consciousness can be assessed by asking the patient to respond to questions and commands. If the patient cannot communicate clearly or is finding it difficult to concord with commands, the doctor should be informed immediately. Low levels of consciousness might indicate that the patient is suffering from shock or they have not recovered from anaesthetic (Long et al, 1993). The assessment tool used for measuring consciousness is AVPU (Alert, Verbal, Painful, Unresponsive). This is used to determine whther the patient is alert and fully conscious or only responds to verbal, painful stimuli or is fully unresponsive (SIGN, 2004). The nurse should assess the operation site quickly, without causing pain and observe the dressing. In the immediate post operative period, the nurse is responsible for observing the wound site at frequent intervals. If it is expected that fluid may collect in the hip area, a drain will be inserted to let the fluid escape (Long et al, 1993). If there is a drain present, the type and quantity of fluid should be observed and documented. If drainage from the wound is excessive the operation site would need to be examined. Chrintz et al (1989) states that in wounds that heal by first intention, the dressing can ideally be removed after 24-48 hours and need not be replaced. Kozier et al (2008) also say that the dressing should be left for “at least 24 hours” but only if there is no signs of excessive bleeding or drainage. However, Pudner (2005) maintains that the dressing is “usually taken down after 24 hours to leave the primary dressing exposed”. Wilson (1995) proposes that “repeated exposure of the wound within 48 hours of surgery increases the risk of the patient developing a wound infection”. Whilst the nurse is involved in monitoring physiological changes, maintaining dignity and comfort of patients is also an integral aspect of caring for any patient. The NMC Code of Professional Conduct states that as a nurse “you must treat people as individuals and respect their dignity” (NMC, 2007). Patient comfort and safety is imperative for the recovery from the operation and healing of the wound. To prevent unnecessary pain, it is important that the patient is comfortable and that they are positioned appropriately, using pillows between the legs so as not to dislocate the new hip joint. Providing comfort to the patient eases their physiological and psychological distress and pain. Comfort strategies include; hydration and elimination, nutrition, effective analgesia, personal hygiene, listening and being there for the patient/family, effective communication and treating the patient as an individual. Patients and their carers feel empowered and cared for, which improves the nurse-patient relationship (Manley and Bellman, 2000). Assessing pain is essential for providing comfort for the patient. Pain assessment should be carried out whenever the vital signs are being monitored. It is essential that the nurse assesses the site, nature and severity of the patient’s pain in order to choose the most suitable treatment. To assess pain, there are several tools that can be used. The most common being a numerical rating scale. The patient can score their pain on a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being the worse pain they can imagine (Manley and Bellman, 2000). When assessing pain, it is important to listen to what the patient is saying. A study by Seers (1987) showed that nurses persistently record the patients pain score to be significantly lower than the patient’s own assessment. Opioid analgesics are the most commonly used analgesic for routine post operative pain relief. Examples of opioid analgesics include morphine, diamorphine and pethidine. The main side effects of opioid analgesics are respiratory depression, reduced gastrointestinal motility and nausea. The nurse needs to continually reassess respiratory rate, nausea and bowel movement when the patient is using opioids (Manley and Bellman, 2000). If the patient is experiencing nausea and/or vomiting, then an anti-emetic (anti sickness) drug such as metoclopramide can be prescribed. It is also very important to prevent potential infection. To prevent the potential for infection, it is important to follow hand hygiene policies and to use aseptic technique whenever there is a dressing change or when touching the skin around the operation site (Pudner, 2005). This breaks the chain of infection at the mode of transmission so therefore the infective agent should not be able to reach the site of entry and the patient should not acquire an infection. There is also the potential for pressure area sores to develop and this must be assessed as the patient’s mobility will be reduced. A tool such as the waterlow scoring system helps to identify patients who are at a risk of developing pressure sores and the nurse will be able to monitor and intervene as required. The nurse has to encourage the patient to mobilise so as to prevent the potential pressure sores developing (Pudner, 2005). When assessing the patient, the Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing care is commonly used. This model of care is based on what is perceived to be the 12 activities of daily living, which are related to basic human needs; maintaining a safe environment, communicating, breathing, eating and drinking, eliminating, personal hygiene, controlling body temperature, mobilising, working and playing, expressing sexuality, sleeping and dying. To maintain a safe environment for the post operative hip replacement patient it is important to prevent dislocation of the hip prosthesis. This is done by ensuring that the patient does not flex the hip at an angle of 90° or more, ensuring that the patient uses a high toilet seat whilst in hospital and has one for discharge, that they do not cross their legs and encouraging mobilisation to strengthen muscles around the joint. To prevent dislocation of the new hip joint, an abduction wedge or gutter splint should be used between the legs for the first 24 hours and at night until the patient is discharged to stop the patient crossing their legs (Pudner, 2005). Nurses need to assess the patient for fluid balance, especially if they are on an intravenous infusion. Intravenous infusions are normally prescribed for patients after oral fluids have been withheld due to surgery. Fluid balance records should be documented every hour for patients who have a urinary catheter and/or a drain in situ. When the patient’s catheter is removed, they are encouraged to pass urine. This is important because the surgery has been carried out on the lower limbs and it shows that the body has recovered from the anaesthetic and there has been no damage to the urinary system nerves during surgery. Anaesthetic may affect the bladder tone and consequently makes micturition difficult. Adequate sleep and rest aid recovery from surgery. Sleep disturbance and deprivation can be caused by pain, difficulty obtaining a comfortable position, siting of intravenous infusions or drains and being in a strange environment. Possible complications that could arise from total hip replacement surgery include; dislocation of the hip joint, excessive wound drainage, thromboembolism, infection, pressure ulcer development, hetertopic ossification (formation of bone in the periprosthetic space), deep vein thrombosis (due to decrease in mobility), necrosis (bone death caused by lack of blood supply) and loosening of the prosthesis (Smeltzer et al, 2004). The nurse should be aware of the possible complications that could arise from this type of surgery and should follow guidelines on how to deal with these should they occur. Hip replacement patients are at an increased risk of developing deep vein thrombosis due to the bed rest and blood pooling in the lower legs after surgery. Early rehabilitation of exercise and movement of the legs helps prevent deep vein thrombosis occurring and is recommended for all patients (Smeltzer et al, 2004). Patients who have suffered from immobility which was caused by osteoarthritic changes in their hip joint may have suffered from social exclusion. This is turn means that their self esteem is altered as they have not been able to socialise with their peers. The nurse can ask the patient if they would like social work to be involved in their discharge and social work can then help the patient return in their socialisation within the community. Health promotion is also a vital part of post operative management for patients. Patients need to be educated on what is best for their new hip joint in terms of exercise, diet and lifestyle choices before they are discharged from the hospital. Education about changing their lifestyle is important to prevent any other problems that may occur later on. Nurses can give patients smoking cessation advice and can help with exercise, by referring the patient to physiotherapy if required. Dietary advice can be given to the patient and if the need demands, referral to dietician may be appropriate. This includes dietary information and advice for patients who are overweight, as this can result in more severe osteoarthritic changes due to excess weight on the hip joint. Much nursing research in the past 20 years has stressed the importance of patient education as an element of health promotion. The involvement of patients in the management of their care is desirable to their recovery. Promoting health post operatively is not only about providing information. Health promotion must be perceived as an element of health care in which nurses seek to enable the patient to take control over their own lives and health through processes of education. Normally patients who undergo hip replacement surgery are discharged home after 3 – 5 days (NHS, 2010). The nurse has to ensure that the patient is discharged home with correct medication, including pain relief and previous medication and that the patient has received a discharge letter which they should give to their GP. To conclude, using the current evidence base from Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN, 2004), and use of current NHS policies and guidelines, post operative care is essential to healing from the operation and gives the patient the best possible chance from recovering fully. Continually monitoring the patient post operatively gives the nurse useful information about how the patient is progressing or deteriorating and can then act accordingly, following specific national guidelines. Following the information and standards set by bodies such as the Nursing and Midwifery Council and SIGN gives the nurse the evidence base for which they should be using when caring for patients who have undergone total hip replacement surgery. Well informed nurses use this best practice to give patients the best possible care and can prevent potential problems and complications if following them correctly.

Probation Violation Factors and Impact on Community Research Paper

custom essay Factors that contribute to the probation violation Most offenders have repeatedly cycled through the criminal justice system. Their names and faces are all too familiar to the police, probation officers, jail booking staff, judges, public defenders, and prosecutors. These individuals are extremely likely to be rearrested following release from incarceration, both because untreated offenders have a high rate of relapse to crime and because their replacement tends to the level of criminal activity among this population. Key factors that contribute to the risk of probation violation include; A chronic history of crime, low socioeconomic status and or unemployment, various stressors related to criminal justice supervision, inadequate skills for handling social pressures to commit a crime, and returning to inner-city crime areas that provide exposure to the high-risk situation (e.g., active criminals) associated with their previous criminal activity. The graduated sanctions component seeks to reduce delinquency by linking behavior and consequences. It does this through the detailed assessment of factors that contribute to delinquent behavior. It also utilizes interventions found in the neighborhood of the offender to monitor and address these factors. Compliance causes sanctions to be reduced and increases of interventions for non-compliance. When the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) began its first series of technical assistance projects addressing violation practices for probation and parole in the late 1980s, the urgency of the issue arose from several concerns. Many of these concerns remain unaddressed today, while other issues have remerged to make an interest in violation responses more critical than ever. Placing low-risk children in high-level supervision can result in more arrests and confinement time because they are likely to be charged with technical violations. In spite of this problem, youth with nonviolent and minor offense histories are often placed on high-intensity service plans that are not needed to ensure community safety. The share of prison admission due to probation/parole revocations rather than new sentences has been rising. In the early 1990s, about 1/3 of all prison admissions were for probation/parole violations with no new convictions, while by the late 1990s, about half were for probation/parole violations with no new convictions. The trends are fairly consistent across racial groups. When a probationer violates certain conditions of their probation sentence (e.g., misses appointments with their probation officers or treatment provider, fails to pay fees or fines, tests positive for illegal drugs through a urine test), they are considered to have technically violated their probation sentence. One important thing to consider when comparing rates of technical violations is that the more conditions included in a probationer’s sentence, such as treatment, financial conditions, community service, urinalysis, etc., the more chances there are for technical violations. By comparison, a probationer who has no conditions other than reporting to their probation is not at a high risk of having technical violations, all else being equal, since there are fewer conditions to violate-40 percent of all adult probationers have at least one technical violation during their period of supervision. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Racial differences The race of the offender is associated with recidivism rates. Overall black offenders are more likely to recidivate (32.8%) than are Hispanic offenders’ (24.3%). White offenders are likely to top recidivate (16.0%). Economic factors are also significant. The concept of economic irrelevance come by Jeremy Rifkin in his book “The End of Work” suggests the conditions of those segments of our population who have no possibility of contributing to society because their members have neither desirable skills nor significant purchasing power. Many of the youth of color in the juvenile justice system reflect this circumstance which results in structural decisions that do not include them in a productive future. While the number of jail and prison inmates have explored in the last two decades, the number of offenders sentenced to probation has also grown dramatically. Persons of color, especially African-Americans, are disproportionately represented in both groups, but they are less likely than white offenders to receive a community corrections sentence. At the same time, part of the explanation for this may lie in an analysis of offense, convictions, and criminal history. It may also be because the probation service and consequently the courts are less familiar and less comfortable with the ethnic communities from which these defendants come. As a result, court officials may not recognize positive neighborhood residents and resources in the defendant’s life that could make constructive contributions to his supervision and treatment in the community. Gender Statistics indicate that for women, there is a high correlation between drug abuse and incarceration and parole/probation violations, and yet our society provides no comprehensive continuum of care for these women. Lack of education or employment Researchers have concluded a lack of educational attainment and work experience has made reintegration into the community after prison and complying with parole or probation requirements difficult for many offenders. Without such skills, offenders have trouble attaining steady, gainful employment, and studies suggest these offenders will return to criminal activity either to earn a living or because they believe they have no other alternative lifestyle choice. Rearrest rates for those without a high-school diploma or job training have been shown to be much higher than for individuals with more experience or success in the job market. Probation and corrections agencies across the nation are attempting to pursue evidence-based best practices. Corrections workers and supervision officers are urged to understand the importance of assessment, to address criminogenic factors in offenders’ lives, to master motivational interviewing, and to stay up on the rapidly developing literature of criminology and corrections We will write a custom Research Paper on Probation Violation Factors and Impact on Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finding and maintaining a job is a critical dimension of successful prison reentry. Research has shown that employment is associated with lower rates of reoffending, and higher wages are associated with lower rates of criminal activity. However, former prisoners face tremendous challenges in finding and maintaining legitimate job opportunities, including low levels of education, limited work experience, and limited vocational skills. This is further compounded by the incarceration period, during which they forfeit the opportunity to gain marketable work experience and serve professional connections and social contacts that could lead to legal employment upon release. In addition, the general reluctance of employers to hire former prisoners serves as a barrier to job placement. Lack of housing Research had found that released prisoners who do not have stable housing arrangements are more likely to return to prison, suggesting that the obstacles to securing both temporary and permanent housing warrant the attention of policymakers, practitioners, and researchers. The process of obtaining housing is often complicated by a host of factors: the scarcity of affordable and available housing, legal barriers and regulations, prejudices that tenancy for this population, and strict Eligibility requirements for federally subsidized housing. Most prison systems are crowded with inmates housed in areas that were designed for the program and recreational use. Not only does overcrowding contribute to prison violence, but it also makes an effort to provide prisoners with vocational, medical, mental health, and other treatment services. Significant numbers of the inmate population are either idle or not receiving basic educational and vocational services that would serve to enhance their ability to succeed in securing meaningful employment upon release. History of substance abuse The use of alcohol and illicit substances has been widely linked to arrestees generally, as more than 80 percent of state prison inmates have indications of serious drug or alcohol involvement. This is not limited to arrestees who are charged with drug crimes or those who live in urban areas where drug abuse is thought to be more prevalent. Continued substance abuse by released inmates greatly reduces the likelihood that they will be able to obtain and maintain steady employment, have stable family relations, or comply with people’s supervision requirements. Research indicates that substance abuse is a particularly important factor in violent recidivism, including domestic abuse and that incarcerated women are more likely than incarcerated men to have severe substance abuse histories. Prisoners who view their communities as safe and good places to live are much less likely to return to prison and more likely to be employed than those who report their communities to be unsafe or characterized with low social capital. In addition, those who feel that drug selling is a problem in their neighborhood are more likely to engage in substance abuse after release than those living in neighborhoods where drug selling is not perceived to be a problem. Mental illness Mental illness as a risk factor for recidivism has received considerable attention in recent years. Often, failure to seek treatment or follow a prescribed treatment plan results in the exacerbation of the symptoms of mental illness. Since the capacity available to admit people’ experiencing mental health illness is limited, there is often no alternative but to hold them in jail. Many women commit illegal acts such as prostitution, shoplifting, and dealing drugs in order to support their drug habit. In addition, they are often brought to court on child abuse or neglect charges that are also often a result of drinking or drugging behavior. Community-based treatment for substance abuse, mental illness, or co-occurring disorders is often not available or accessible for people who are on probation, incarcerated, or recently released from prison. Seventy percent of people on probation or parole referred to community-based substance abuse treatment programs wait an average of one month before starting an outpatient treatment program, during which time they are especially likely to relapse, violate conditions of release and return to prison. Not sure if you can write a paper on Probation Violation Factors and Impact on Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since many behaviors are intertwined, such as co-occurring disorders of mental health and substance abuse problems, the practitioner needs to determine which factors should be addressed as part of the criminal justice system and which factors may be important for the person to address in the greater scheme of their overall health and well-being but do not necessarily need to be encompassed in the criminal justice system. Peer influence The other (and sometimes more influential) support mechanism that many rely upon (non-familiar) generally consists of peers and associates. The risk factor is that the offender associates with others in a like situation and this reinforces the criminal behavior. Over time the offender essentially loses contact with prosocial or non-criminal individuals. In other words, the support network that supports mainstream behaviors (prosocial). This is not just an issue of whether the offender is involved in a gang but rather whether the offender has any close associates that are not connected to criminal behavior. The question here is the degree to which the offender relies upon the peers that are involved in the criminal justice system and whether any of the associates are non-criminally involved. Antisocial behaviors Persistent irresponsibility, callous unconcern for others, disregard for rules, obligations, and social norms characterize antisocial personality behavior. Such people also blame others for their behavior. Probationers with antisocial personality behavior are likely to violate probation. Offenders have the dynamic characteristics of risk-taking and impulsive behavior. The general belief is that criminal behavior is not defined by low self-control. However, low self-control depending upon opportunities provides a context for criminal acts. It is shown by offenders who are easily influenced by environmental and situational factors to commit crimes. Age Probation violations decline relatively consistently as age increases. Generally, the younger the offender, the more likely the offender is to recidivate. Among all offenders under age 21, the recidivism rate is 35.5 percent, while offenders over age 50 have a recidivism rate of 9.5 percent. Lack of family support Inmates are deprived of regular contact with family and friends in the community, which has negative effects on both the community and inmates. Families often encounter difficulties with respect to housing, finances, and child-rearing, given their inability to help in such circumstances; inmates experience frustration and a loss of self-esteem. This, in turn, increases their volatility within the institution and depresses their motivation to use what opportunities are available for treatment and skills development. This vicious cycle almost certainly contributes to the relatively high rates of probation violation, especially within the first year of release. Criminal history Offenders who have been arrested and convicted severally before in a short span usually violate probation more. Offenders who commit larceny and burglary crimes have the highest possibility of violating probation. This trend is especially common in probationers who have drug abuse problems. This is because the drug-abusing probationer needs money to support his habit. There is conflicting evidence about whether or not repeat offenders “specialize” in one type of crime. That is, they commit the same type of crime over and over. Although some studies observed a tendency for recidivates to commit the same types of offenses as they had when first sentenced, others found offenders to be “opportunistic” in their criminal activity (i.e., taking advantage of circumstances and committing a variety of crimes). Research on persistent criminal behavior generally indicates crime is not a life-long activity for many offenders. Most offenders were found to have ended their criminal “careers” during early adulthood (about 26 to 30 years old), and those who continued committing the crime were not typically arrested for the last time until at least the age of 40. Studies have suggested the average period of time between first and final arrest was approximately five years, and property offenders have shorter than average periods of criminality and violent offenders’ longer periods. Research further indicates a relatively small group of repeat offenders are responsible for a disproportionately large number of serious crimes. It is complicated to interpret criminal history data because many crimes in the United States go unreported or unsolved and do not result in an arrest. This is because some first-time offenders repeat crimes that have not been documented. They could also have begun committing crimes when young. Impacts on community safety and crime Men and women enter US prisons with limited marketable work experience, low levels of education or vocational skills, and many health-related issues, ranging from mental health needs to substance abuse histories and high rates of communicable diseases. When they leave prison, these challenges remain and affect neighborhoods, families, and society at large. With limited assistance in their reintegration, former prisoners pose public safety risks to communities, and about half will return to prison for new crimes or parole violations within three years of release. This cycle of removal and return of a large number of adults, mostly men, is increasingly concentrated in communities often already deprived of resources and ill-equipped to meet the challenges this population presents. The impact of incarceration and reentry on children and families is significant and, in many cases, difficult to measure. When a parent is sent to prison, the family structure, financial responsibilities, emotional support system, and living arrangements are all potentially affected. Incarceration, as a result, can drastically disrupt spousal relationships; reunifying with the family and undertaking these roles and responsibilities upon return also pose a unique set of challenges. (Hairston, 1990) The American urban societies have released prisoners in high concentrations returning. This is compared to the communities’ small numbers. As a result, there is a huge impact on life in the communities, social capital, and family networks, and social capital. The probationers usually have economic and social disadvantages and bring a burden to the community when they return home. The high number of probationers returning may further cause these communities to be destabilized. Violation of probation has contributed significantly to the increase in jail and prison populations. When a violation is a consequence of committing a new and serious offense, incarceration is often mandatory. However, when the new offense is a nonviolent, low-level misdemeanor or when the violation is a consequence of the offender’s inadequate compliance with the conditions of probation, the decision to return the case to court and to seek an incarcerate sentence is often discretionary on the part of the probation officials. Probation violations are associated with criminal activity. However, increases in the intrusiveness or conditions, in the agent’s knowledge of misbehavior, or in how the agent responded to misbehavior are not associated with either criminal activity or violations of conditions. There is a near unanimity that the greatest threat to probation and parole today is a lack of clarity about purpose. The public wants public safety now in their neighborhoods. They don’t care about national crime rates. They want to know what’s going on as they walk out of their door in the community. And so, there is a need to provide public safety by holding accountable the offenders in their neighborhoods. Although there is excitement and optimism about embracing the community and about creating value for crime victims and other especially interested or vulnerable parts of the community, there is skepticism and even despair about the ability of probation and parole agencies to identify properly and to satisfy adequately such demanding and complex people. Probation and parole should be held accountable for advancing public safety broadly defined are challenged to limit the definition of this public safety purpose to the reduction of recidivism among offenders under supervision. Probation and parole had to address community conditions giving rise to public safety problems, not just reoffending by individuals currently under supervision. For offenders whose crimes are related to drug use, for example, long term avoidance of recidivism might require tolerance of some substance abuse recidivism during the short term so that responses to early relapses do not prevent attaching an offender to the labor market, to family, and to the community in ways that promise greater socialization in the long term. A system in which offenders are averse to punishment and criminal justice officials seek to maximize compliance (given limited enforcement resources) has two equilibrium or configurations in which the system is stable. When violation rates are high, the limited punishment resources are stretched too thin to be effective in reducing those rates. As a result, violation rates remain high (or may even increase). When violation rates are low, even limited resources suffice to keep those rates down. Probation officers often lack the authority to impose swift and certain sanctions. They asserted that there might not be a direct relationship between sanctions and changes in violation rates. This deficit is a result of both their inability to impose meaningful sanctions without going through a judge and to arrange circumstantial conditions, including vouchers for services and holding them to a single condition: avoid rearrest. Probation officers cannot themselves confine individuals following a violation; people on probation are guaranteed a full adversarial hearing before they can be confined. Human behavior is much more complex and much less rational. Even imperfect rationality may fail to describe the behavior of some individuals accurately. Drug addicts or individuals with severe mental illness, for example, may behave in unpredictable and irrational ways. This observation led several to argue that sobriety rather than credible sanctions may be the most significant factor in keeping crime rates down. Massive addiction problems lead to a criminal justice problem. Departments are feeling the pressure to create a policy to be less likely to report the technical violation in fear of budget reduction of an already under budget and under-funded department. This has great meaning for victims. Those violators will not have an incentive to comply with the court sanctions and the laws of the state. The punishment continues to be the last choice, and accountability is set aside for rehabilitation at the cost of the taxpayer and victims. One of the bigger issues is the relaxed policy of drug dealers and violent criminals being placed on probation and lack of will to punish for violations swiftly. Community safety and health are not promoted, and taxpayer dollars are not saved when nonviolent persons convicted of drug possession or drug use are not provided appropriate community-based treatment instead of incarceration.

The Future Of Global Distribution System Tourism Essay

The economic uncertainty, ever changing market dynamics, changing competitive landscape, emergence of new channels of distribution, and increasing costs has created new challenges for travel companies, especially in the methods used to distribute travel products and still achieve profitable growth. Travel companies now realise the importance of adopting different strategies for effectively using multiple channels of distribution in order to maximise sales and revenues. To achieve the stated goal, companies need to manage the technology disruptions well by using them to create competitive advantages. Today, all the major players of Information Technology service providers are tapping the potential of Global Distribution System to attract their customers. At the same time, the demand of Cloud services has seen a rise hoping for increase in level of efficiency. This paper discusses how GDSs and Cloud Computing, a disruptive force, has the potential to change the face of travel distribution systems and be leveraged for competitive advantage. Survey was conducted among individuals and travel agencies agents to analyse the aims and objectives of the research study. The outcome of the survey states that how the existing system can be developed to give better results. CHAPTER ONE Introduction: “There always comes a moment in time when a door opens and lets the future in.” -Graham Greene (The Age of Unreason) Introduction: This chapter introduces the concept of the future of Global Distribution System; cloud computing as an alternative distribution channel to reader and provides the necessary background to the research. The chapter gives the idea about the focus and boundaries of the research by exact aims and objectives. The further section gives a detailed overview of the structure of this document. Introduction to IT and Tourism: O’Connor P. cited (Sheldon, 1993) “Tourism is acknowledged to be very intensive-in fact; information has been described as a ‘lifeblood’ of the industry, as without it the sector could not function.” Tourist needs information before going on a tour. They need plan prior to and choose options according to their availability of time during the or before tour (O’Connor P. 1999). “Information technology (IT) – the amalgamation of computing, communications and electronics- has almost universal feature of the tourism industry (Bennett, 1993).” Internet is a part of every individual’s life since late 1990’s. The information provided on the internet has helped all in each and every field. It also helps commercial airline companies to have a better option in airline services avoiding travel agents. Being part of the service market, vacation has certainly been associated with upgrades in new technological innovation and recharged by business and structural upgrades. There has been a design to the balance of the visitor product by a way of customization, despite the pressure from visitor suppliers who still recommend provides of large vacation. “Internet has a potential platform of tourism business but it also provides a tool for communication among the tourism supplier, agents and the consumers in a cost-effective ways.”(scribd) “The advent of internet- based e-commerce has offered opportunities for small and medium size travel enterprises to expand their customer base and rationalise their business.”(OECD 2000) IT is reshaping the structure of both society and economy in general and also consumers increased demand for information. This is more important for tourism enterprises to give services effectively. At the end tourism industry need to understand and utilize IT strategically in order to serve their target markets, improve their efficiency, maximise profitability, enhance services and maintain long-term profitability (Bahalis, 1998) Introduction to Global Distribution System: “A global distribution system, or GDS, is a computer distribution system for displaying available services, effecting bookings, and ticketing by tourism procedures (suppliers) – airline or otherwise – on an international scale.”(future) Before the development of computerised systems, booking an airline ticket was a complex process. Airlines periodically published their schedules and fares in booklets, which were the distributed to travel agents (O’Connor P. 1999). The process of searching through multiple flight schedules was simplified by the publication of merged directories such as the official Airline Guide (OAG), which unite times, dates and prices from multiple airlines into one publication (Bennett, 1996). The evolution of telecommunications technologies over the past 10 years has left virtually no sector of the world economy untouched, including the commercial air industry. This is the major change and fast improvement in the consumer-oriented applications, such as the World Wide Web for accessing the basic information and booking airline tickets. Today people use various websites which provides a good interface to the Central Reservation system and Global Distribution System such as Orbitz, Travelocity, etc., along with the direct reservations site operated by individual airlines, allow travellers to access information on schedules, prizes and travel times. (airport) GDS were originally designed to distribute airline seats; their database structure was designed specifically to store information about that product (Emmer et al. 1993). A Global Distribution System (GDS) has evolved from CRS. “It is a computer reservation system that contains information about multiple airlines and is used by travel agents and other travel professionals. It also contains information about other types of travel products as hotel booking, car rental etc” Introduction to Cloud Computing: Today, the various software (set up) are simply available for users as a service, which can be accessed over web browser where user can be charged as per usage of these specific services. Cloud computing is used to utter a huge data centres of hardware and software. (Armburst 2009 Vi) Instead of storing the huge amount of data on PCs or huge servers, now days it is rather stored on a centralised system called Cloud. This concept is called Cloud Computing. Cloud computing service provider’s aims to offer Pay-as-you go services to enterprises with low cost, scalability, increased efficiency and high returns of investment. Many developed and developing countries are adopting this cloud computing technology, as it offer scalability, fast development and reliability and pay-as-you go financial model.( Dikaiakos et al. 2009 vi) The growing popularity and acceptance of cloud technology is eminent in the study conducted by Brocade. Using these special capabilities and characteristics tourism businesses are moving onto cloud. As per previous study conducted on cloud computing in the UK explains that 94% of existing users are delight by using cloud services from various providers (Marks 2001), at the same time US government also has increased its investment on cloud computing by 40% from annual income in respect of strong support for the development of Cloud Computing. (Hanning 2007) Focus of study: The research is to understand the competitive challenges and threats facing GDSs resulting from the emergence of cloud computing as an alternative distribution channel, as well as possible strategies they may adopt to remain competitive. A shift in distribution as a result of technology could bring into question the underlying economics of the GDSs. To what extent the emergence of the CC as an alternative distribution channel will mark the end for GDSs, or whether GDSs will be forced to evolve and offer additional services is the subject of this dissertation. The research includes primary as well as secondary data, in which primary data will be gathered by conducting an online survey from individuals and conducting interviews with employee working as travel agents of different tourism enterprises in India. The secondary data is gathered from the available data, previous research on topic, journals, books and periodicals which will be further analysed in chapter five (discussions of results). Aims: Make a clear understanding about current airline information and ticket reservation system in airline sector. To access the current impact of Global Distribution System (GDS) on the travel industry. To investigate the development of cloud computing in the tourism industry. To evaluate critically scope/impact GDS and cloud computing in relative to travel booking system /procedures. Recommendations for the future of the tourism industry in terms of past and current technologies in context to air line. Objectives: To identify term GDS and critically analyse different factors of distribution channels in support to implementation of GDS. To explore the nature of the current scenario of GDS and Cloud Computing in perspective of airline reservation system. To recommend feasible business and information strategies to achieve best performance in service and real- time processing information related to air ticket sales and distribution. To consider not only specific service provider but all stake holders in the air travel sector both in terms of cost and performance efficiency. Reason for selecting a topic: Tourism industry undergoing major change and facing new difficulties, the two dimensions of the change can be identified: New forms of tourism, characterized by the tendency to depart from mass tourism. The diffusion of information and communication technologies, with a pervasive effect on the creation, production and consumption of the tourist product. (SD ) GDSs, only administer reservations, they do not manage the stock of suppliers; this task falls on the supplier’s own reservation system. The cloud computing has added a commonly accessed, and broad channel of distribution, allowing airlines and other travel reservation systems. (Future) In addition to the selection of the topic being source of competitive advantage, reservation systems become a profitable business. GDS and cloud computing some cause of future intermediaries in the travel distribution process. Dissertation Structure The dissertation is comprised of the following 6 chapters: Chapter 1: Introduction Research topic is introduced in this chapter along with my personal inspiration behind carrying out this research. It highlights the issues and background for selection for this topic. Aims and objectives are assured so that the research meets its desired goals. Chapter 2: Literature Review The second chapter composed literature review about. This chapter come across literature about distribution channel, GDS system and cloud computing. Then further discussion about how they generate values to business. This chapter also tries to investigate the literatures about research reason and outline theories that would be help to analyse the result of research. Chapter 3: Research methodology This chapter focuses on the available research methodologies to carry out the research. It will discuss that how the objectives can meet its desired goals with the help of right approach and method. It will explain further that how the data will be gathered and analyzed. Ethical consideration and validity of the research will be stated at the end of this chapter. (This chapter studies the Research methodologies available to conduct Information systems research and finally make a choice of research design to conduct the study.) Chapter 4: Results This chapter will outline the findings of this research, performed via survey approach targeting individuals. This chapter focuses on the basic finding of each section of the questionnaire with the help of figures and tables, denoting the responses achieved. Chapter 5: Data Analysis/ Discussion of the Results This chapter will discuss findings and result of the survey questionnaire. The analysis will be made on the result achieved, which will be combining with the outcome of literature review. This chapter also will end with a valid conclusion and well defined summary. Chapter 6: Conclusion and Future Study: This chapter will discuss findings and result of the survey questionnaire. The discussion will be made on the results achieved, which will be synthesized with the outcome of literature review. This chapter will finish with a valid conclusion giving a brief summary about the discussion made and outcomes achieved. Summary: This chapter gives a brief overview of the study being carried out and outlines the research objectives and the structure of the dissertation.

Diane Downs

Diane Downs. Paper details The goal of this essay is to give you an opportunity to become familiar with one of the people on this list and to assess potential causes of psychopathy. A second goal is to critically assess criminal justice and social responses to someone who has been identified as a potential psychopath. You should answer the following questions in your essay:Diane Downs