I’m working on a writing report and need a sample draft to help me study.
The paper should be a critical analysis of the issues surrounding Caribbean religions, their ability to sustain their religious beliefs and rituals in the face of domination, and how the religions we have studied this semester exemplify forms of resistance. The religions we have examined have responded in a variety of ways to issues of race, class, gender, labor, power, and sexuality. Your paper should take a creative look at the way Caribbean religions have faced in the past and continue to face these issues.
A small section of the paper needs to be a firsthand account of why you selected the topic answering questions such as: Are there examples of this religion in your local community of Tampa Bay? Give an example. Why did you pick this topic? What type of effect did the religion or the topic have on you?
Above all your paper should be a creative examination. You may use poetry, music, art, narrative, (either your own or an analysis of someone else’s) or a personal account of interactions with the religions, etc. You may take any topic you choose as long as you are engaging at least one religion we have discussed in class this semester. Some examples of topics are: Caribbean religions and alternative medicine, music in Caribbean religions (which can range from the ritualistic use of drumming to an examination of song lyrics to delineate some of the Caribbean religious beliefs), gender within the Caribbean religions, the approach to sexuality within the Caribbean religions, forms of resistance within the Caribbean religions, the use of animal sacrifice in multiple Caribbean religions, an examination of ritual from two or more Caribbean religions, magic in Caribbean religions, the emphasis on belief within Caribbean religions, etc.
UCF Issues Surrounding Caribbean Religions Gender and Vodou Essay
Mental Health Counselor: Ethics and Professionalism Essay
The ACA Code of Ethics assists in client growth and development by encouraging healthy and secure relationship between counselors and clients. In line with group therapy, counselors must strive to understand the different cultural backgrounds of the clients and learn how to integrate clients having the same needs and goals that are compatible to those of a given group. In terms of relationships, the ethical codes encourage non-sexual professional relationships between counselors and clients (Ethics
Ideological differences of Cold War
python assignment help Ideological differences of Cold War. Question 1 What was the Cold War about? Present a thorough analysis that makes reference to the differences between countries in the ‘East’ and ‘West’ up to the demise of the Soviet Union. The Cold War was based upon the ideological differences of the countries of the ‘East’ and those of the ‘West’. The ‘East’ or Eastern Bloc referred to the countries of Eastern Europe; the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its satellites in the Caribbean, Latin America and Asia; and the ‘West’ referred to the United States of America (USA), Britain and France in particular who were rebuilding western Europe post world war II. Geographically speaking the references to east and west were more so based upon the notion that the English speaking part of the world had adopted democracy, in particular liberal democracy as the main or ideal political ideology and capitalism as the method of economic development. Almost like references to the ‘north/ south’ divide where there is no strict geographical adherence. In this essay I propose to show how the Cold War of capitalism versus communism played out as well as to explain the fall of communism and the subsequent demise of the Soviet Union. Liberal democracy and capitalism seem to go hand in hand at least that is the ideal put forward by the US and Britain who seem to be basking in the consumerism that followed the Industrial Revolution. Liberalism as an ideology developed quickly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Post World War I (WWI) liberal democracy was identified by the President Woodrow Wilson as the ideology that would maintain peace and stability as long as nation states observed each other’s sovereignty. At the core of liberalism were the freedoms and rights of the individual, respect for private property, representative government, collective will and the minimal role of the state. The rights of the individual in particular were most important. In framing its constitution the United States had taken this into consideration with its Bill of Rights which entitles citizens to life, liberty, justice, toleration and the right to economic prosperity. This paved the way for liberal economics, which encouraged free trade and the use of the ‘market’ to determine supply and demand; Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’. This economic policy or capitalism was based on five principles: private ownership, market economy, competition, profit and stable prices. These principles in keeping with the political regime were individualistic in nature. The idea was the private interests (entrepreneurship) would produce goods for mass consumption and the entry or exit of other players would fuel the economy. It is assumed that the consumer is rational, that is, he or she will make choices depending on taste and cost of the product. Production is consumer driven and based on profits. Communism as a political ideology and economic policy has its groundings in the theoretical precepts of Karl Marx (1818-1883). Marx had an economic interpretation of history and war in particular. He saw the basis of any conflict as class related rather than something such as race. The conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, or what he viewed as the exploitation of the masses by the elites was the basis for the production and exchange of goods and services. This was the human interaction which influenced the social processes and institutions. Marx believed that those who owned the factors of production: land, labour and capital controlled the social and cultural norms and as such dominated the society. Therefore the ‘superstructure’, laws and government were controlled by these people. Basically those who controlled the economic sphere controlled the political sphere as well. It is to this end that Marx posits that imperialism driven by capitalism has shaped modern history. This knowledge shaped Marx’s view that there was a need for social change, a revolution. He believed in the universal nature of class conflict and suggested that sheer universal identification of the working class everywhere would cause mass revolution and the overturn of elite government, bringing social and economic reforms. The basic tenant of communism was the communal ownership of the means of production; the polar opposite of a liberal democratic society. Andrew Heywood (Politics, 1997:33) defines communism simply as a “communal organisation of socail existence on the basis of collective ownership of property…a classless society in which wealth was owned in common, production was geared to human need and the state had ‘withered away’”. In its truest sense the Cold War was not an actual outright war which used military but more of a rivalry expressed through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, a nuclear arms race, espionage, proxy wars, propaganda, and technological competition. This ‘war’ was fought mostly in satellite areas. It was about military postering and the expansion of ideology on either side. There is much contestation on when the war started, some believe it was right before the end of WWI in 1918 when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution and others believe it started after WWII in 1945. Lenin and his Bolshevik party took power in October 1917 and he was the first head of the Soviet Union. His interpretation of Marx’s communism is rivalled by no other. His aim was the modernise Soviet Russia, bringing it from a backward agrarian state into an industrialised nation. He knew building a new state from the bottom up was going to be difficult so he orchestrated a means of keeping the working class disciplined and committed to the cause. His attempt at starting with the working class in the countryside was miscalculated. The working class wanted to be the middle class and the middle class wanted to be the upper class, there was no immediate consolidation of the working class and the middle class to overthrow the upper class. So Lenin would have to take measures into his own hands; the revolution had to come from the top then. The Bolshevik party had to seize power and maintain it in order to keep the proletariat in check and committed, it became less of soviet democracy and more like a dictatorship. The pressure that Marx said would force a revolution and development of the state was not coming from the masses but from the political elites. The vanguard party was in the process of fashioning a regime which eventually let to a civil war. The internal fighting did not help the fact that the Soviet Union had now found it self in a diplomatic wilderness because it had isolated itself from its ‘capitalist’ neighbours. The civil war started to create chinks in the soviet armour, the intense spending on the war meant less money being spent on the social welfare of the masses. According to Martin McCauley’s The Soviet Union 1917-1991 (1993:31), “(M)ore than anything else it was the lack of Bolshevik success in the economic sphere, under the conditions of civil war, which shaped and fashioned the Soviet regime. Shortages, cold, hunger and disease racked the communist body politic…” The Bolshevik party had forgotten about their people, the very people that they were supposed to be serving. The party had lost its way and the Russian economy was dwindling because of it. Money had become useless as the state was encouraging production with out pay, there was little incentive. Lenin’s dream of a mixed economy had died and had ushered in the new socialist economy but soon he became disillusioned again with what seemed to be the non-existence of a proletariat essentially there was no one to lead, the country was far from where he has thought it would be, it was in ruin. With the succession of Leon Trotsky the economy did not fare any better. Trotsky did not under stand the political principles as his rival for leadership Stalin did. Slowly and surely Stalin was undermining Trotsky’s, at first with minor disagreements and then replacing Trotsky supporters with his own friends especially in the key areas around the country. Even through all of this, Lenin was observing and had found that Joseph Stalin was a brilliantly skilful man but he had become too ambitious and opportunistic. Lenin saw this as huge fault and that is why he continued to support Trotsky as his successor because Trotsky was willing to see Lenin’s dream through to the end. Stalin however, eventually stepped into the shoes of Lenin by sabotaging Trotsky’s attempts to let the words and ideas of Lenin live in his memory. Lenin was the only Soviet leader who was even remotely close to what was Marxism and Marx’s ideal. Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism, while the world was in a period of “temporary stabilization of capitalism” preceding its eventual collapse. Socialism and capitalism came together to fight World War II against Nazi Germany, but the Soviet Union was growing suspicious of the west’s ambitions regarding the resettlement of the war torn European continent. The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible, permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations, such as the League of Nations (United Nations). In order to combat this situation the Soviet Union sought to insert itself into the domestic politics of nations on its borders and so Poland (incorporated into two different SSRs), Latvia (Latvian SSR), Estonia (Estonian SSR), Lithuania (Lithuanian SSR), part of eastern Finland (Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania (Moldavian SSR). After annexing several occupied countries as Soviet Socialist Republics at the end of World War II, other occupied states were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into puppet Soviet Satellite states, such as East Germany, the People’s Republic of Poland, the People’s Republic of Hungary, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the People’s Republic of Romania and the People’s Republic of Albania. The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies, but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition. Stalin began completely shut out the rest of the world. The only thing the people of the Soviet Union knew was the positive propaganda espoused by Stalin. Films, books, art of any kind were forbidden and creativity was stifled. In order to preserve what was left of the communist dream Stalin shut off the world all technology even household appliances were forbidden. Foreign products were contraband and the black market thrived. There was an ideological battle going on within the Soviet Union. Many were executed and exiled. Beginning in 1934, Stalin began murderous purges of the Party through a series of show trials. By January 1947 the Soviet Union had become more and more financially strained. Further more the division of Germany into east and west had created a political nightmare for those living on either side. In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war, and went on to occupy the large part of Korean territory. In early 1947, Britain, France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets. In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union. The Marshall Plan was to rebuild and democratise Europe and this was contingent on Germany’s recovery. The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into “Bizonia” (later “trizonia” with the addition of France’s zone). As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany, in early 1948, representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system. In addition, in accordance with the Marshall Plan, they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy, including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased. After the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev presented himself as a down-to-earth activist prepared to take up any challenge. Khrushchev arranged for the Kremlin grounds to be opened to the public, an act with “great public resonance”. Khrushchev sought reforms to agriculture; in fact he started to de-Stalinise the state. To the shock and dismay of his party members he was openly criticising Stalin whom he had seemed so faithful to. He openly discussed Stalin’s brutish behaviour and all his crimes. Essentially assassinating what little was left behind of Stalin. Nationalist movements in some countries and regions, notably Guatemala, Iran, the Philippines, and Indochina were often allied with communist groups—or at least were perceived in the West to be allied with communists. In this context, the US and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s; additionally, the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology. The US government utilized the CIA in order to remove a string of unfriendly Third World governments and to support allied ones. The US used the CIA to overthrow governments suspected by Washington of turning pro-Soviet Iran in 1953 and Guatemala in 1954. Between 1954 and 1961, the US sent economic aid and military advisers to stem the collapse of South Vietnam’s pro-Western regime. Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. In 1955, at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia, dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War. The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Meanwhile, Khrushchev broadened Moscow’s policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states. Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America. The Soviet Union formed an alliance with Fidel Castro-led Cuba after the Cuban Revolution in 1959. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade. The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before. It further demonstrated the concept of mutually assured destruction, that neither nuclear power was prepared to use nuclear weapons fearing total destruction via nuclear retaliation. The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations, although the Cold War’s first arms control agreement, the Antarctic Treaty, had come into force in 1961. In 1964, Khrushchev’s Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him, but allowed him a peaceful retirement. Accused of rudeness and incompetence, he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war. Khrushchev had become an international embarrassment when he authorised construction of the Berlin Wall, a public humiliation for Marxism-Leninism. From the beginning of the post-war period, Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and ’60s, with per capita Gross Domestic Products approaching those of the United States, while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated. A succession of leaders followed and failed to correct or reform the failing USSR’s bid for a social revolution. By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985; the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s. These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika, or restructuring. Perestroika relaxed the production quota system, allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. These measures were intended to redirect the country’s resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more profitable areas in the civilian sector. There were many contradictions within the party and the execution of the communist reality. 1. The first contradiction is that collectivization and heavy-handed bureaucracy kept productivity and efficiency in agriculture and industry low. 2. The second contradiction is that the Soviet Union was trying to encourage communism by providing significant monies in aid to countries in its socialist sphere of influence, especially Cuba, and engaging in revolutionary activities e.g.: Angola, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, etc…, but was experiencing severe economic difficulties. Overstretch. 3. Marx and Lenin postulated that people would unite base on class but underestimated thee power of nationalism. 4. The Vanguard Party was to be temporary but its top level bureaucrats “the nomenklatura” became an entrenched class. It was to represent the people but the needs of ordinary people were ignored. 5. The command economy meant that while the USSR was occupied with the space race and arms race, it also had an additional burden not carried by the US, that is, a large welfare system to maintain, as well as satellites to look after. Despite initial scepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union’s deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West. Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms, Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost, or openness, which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States, contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations. Gorbachev spent his first two years consolidating his power by purging the party of dissidents and continuing the policies of previous presidents. It is however, the reform era (1987-1989) in which perestroika took place. Gorbachev was not the first USSR leader to make amendments; Yuri Andropov had called for increased discipline and decentralization. But these were initially minimalist and so was Gorbachev at first. However, by 1987 it became apparent to him that more widespread changes needed to be made. In his book Perestroika, he noted that his immediate priorities were: to put the economy in order tighten up discipline rise the level of organization and responsibility Catch up in areas where they were behind. And by 1987, Gorbachev had formulated a theory and plan known as perestroika, Russian for restructuring. Gorbachev saw quality control as a means to achieve this. He created a new bureaucracy and introduced evaluators and controllers in factories to reject faulty products (Kenez 249). He sought to implement greater incentives for workers to produce. Kenez notes that these made him unpopular with the working class, diminishing his support. He also cut back on aid and reduced USSR involvement in proxy wars (e.g: Afghanistan), Cuba. He also called for the need for acceleration of scientific and technological progress and modernisation of industry. He gave power to factory workers to determine their own product mix and wage scales (Kenez). These changes undermined the existing centrally planned and centrally controlled economy. Not only this, manager would bid up wages because they knew the state wouldn’t allow the factories to go bankrupt and would bail them up and this further contributed to inflation. It should be noted that Gorbachev made it clear that he was conducting all the reforms in accordance with socialism. His initial domestic and foreign goal was to make the existing soviet system work better. He initially spoke of perfecting the economy, rather than reforming it and was sceptical about free market experiments. Perestroika can only come through democracy. Unless the interests of people and social groups were taken into account, it was impossible to accomplish any of these tasks. Glasnost, or “openness” it should be noted was one of the first reforms he implemented even before this whole reform package which later became known as “Perestroika”. Glasnost was initially a slight opening of expression to facilitate fuller discussion of economic issues (Ebenstein and Fogelman). Eventually it came to include a wide range of freedoms. But can democratic freedoms be implemented on a political structure held together by force ad expect the structure to maintain its integrity? So what exactly were these reforms and what were the consequences? Foreign radio broadcast beamed at the USSR were no longer jammed. This meant that citizens had access to alternative sources of information about this own country and weakened the position of the party whose power was based on its secrecy and control of info. Openness led to an outpouring of information to Soviet citizens and to the world concerning current Soviet political, economic and social problems, e.g: Chernobyl. The USSR’s dirty laundry was being aired. It showed that the seemingly powerful USSR had problems. Formerly banned works of writers were allowed Glasnost was seen as a threat by party members because it threatened the bureaucratic structure and positions of privilege and affluence they once enjoyed. This weakened Gorbachev’s support among party officials and hence his legitimacy. “By opening the door to public criticism of the regime’s failures and inequities and perestroika, by decentralizing the economy, threaten the monopoly of party power.” Along with criticism of Stalin, etc.…Gorbachev also found himself being openly criticized. This weakened his aura of power and this was decisive because what does this mean for a system predicated on a leader who rules with an iron fist? If the leader is weakened, so is the system. Anti-alcohol campaign was to “improve the health of the family and enhance its role in society” and stopped serving alcohol at state functions, raised the price of vodka, limited distributions, among other things. The anti-alcohol campaign reduced alcohol consumption to an extent but was largely unpopular. People were hospitalized for drinking poison. Production of home brews increased. More importantly, vodka was one of the mainstays of the USSR economy and revenues dropped (Kenez). To sum it all up, perestroika by itself did not lead to the fall of the USSR, neither did Reagan. The collapse of the USSR was as a result of a combination of factors. Including growing contradictions within the USSR which Perestroika unwittingly helped to exacerbate. Gorbachev sought to bring about democratic practices on a system which had been founded upon and maintained through force. The revelation about the increasing political and socio-economic problems of a military overstretched and overburdened USSR helped to show up the chinks in the USSR armor. A relentless West and a more conciliatory USSR and Gorbachev’s weakening position within his own country were the final nails in the coffin, which allowed a coup to occur and Yeltsin to declare independence for Russia and ultimately the fall of the USSR. Bibliography Ebenstein, A. et al (2000) Today’s ISMs : Socialism, Capitalism, Fascism, Communism and Libertarianism. New Jersey: Prentice Hall McCauley, M. (1993) The Soviet Union 1917-1991. New York: Longman Pipes, R. (1994) Russia Under The Bolshevik Regime. New York: Vintage Books Kenez, P. (1999) A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. New York: Cambridge University Press Ideological differences of Cold War
Economy of United Arab Emirates Research Paper
Table of Contents Introduction Socio-Economic Background Oil and Gas in the UAE Non-Oil Sectors Current and future of UAE Conclusion References Introduction United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federal state located in the Middle East region. It is precisely found in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf and it borders Oman and Saudi Arabia (USA International Publications, 2007). Moreover, the federal neighbors Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran. UAE became a federal in 1971, and the states that make up UAE federal state include Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Furairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain (USA International Publications, 2007). Today, UAE has its capital in Abu Dhabi, which also acts as the political, economic, and social administrative center of the federal state. The official language of the federal is Arabic, while Islam is the official religion. The form of government is a constitutional monarchy, where the current president is Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan, while the prime minister is known as Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (USA International Publications, 2007). UAE’s per capita GDP is estimated to be at par with those of leading West European nations, while the growth of economy has largely been associated with oil revenue and increasing service sector economy. Socio-Economic Background Before the formation of the federal states and the discovery of oil within the UAE federal, the country’s economy depended largely on subsistence agriculture, nomadic animal husbandry, extraction of pearls and the trade in pearls, fishing, and seafaring (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). During this period, the country was ‘unaware’ of oil resources and therefore, what was witnessed was limited exploitation of natural resources in the country, which later resulted into emergence and continued exercise of simple subsistence economy (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Economic development for the country is traced to the formulation of The UAE First Development Decade, which was formulated in 1970, prior to the formation of the federal states on 2 December 1971 (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was the moment the federal established roadmap for the development of its formal economic, social, and political institutions and coincided with massive increase in extraction and production of oil resources. The economic growth of the country was to be boosted in 1973 when the world witnessed massive increase in oil prices, a situation that led to increased oil export by the federal state (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Since its formation, UAE has enjoyed relative political stability, where political structures in the country appear to resonate well among the different ethnic groups in the country. Moreover, the country’s political class has constantly tried to enhance equitable distribution of oil resources and this has led to development and high performance of social and economic infrastructure, high salaries for workers, and high standard of social services such as health and education (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). This has raised living standards in the country and effectively reducing the likelihood of internal political and social unrest. Moreover, the government of the federal since its formation has continuously promoted aspects of human rights, and this, in essence, has led to promotion and maintenance of political and social stability (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Since its formation, UAE Federal State has been trying to promote and develop key economic sectors in the country. However, the dominant economic sector, from which the federal continues to generate high revenues, is oil, gas and mineral economy (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). The country is perceived to contain vast reserves of oil, both offshore and onshore. At the moment, UAE is believed to be drilling and producing about 2 million barrels of oil daily, although with enhanced technology, the country can produced up to 3 million barrels of oil a day (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). According to 2000 estimates, it was established that UAE has in possession around 98.8 billion barrels of oil which makes the country as the third largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Iraq (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). We will write a custom Research Paper on Economy of United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, UAE’s oil reserves are estimated to constitute 10% of overall global oil reserves as per 2000 estimates (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Given its daily production of oil, UAE’s oil reserves have been estimated to have a lifespan of around 123 years before they can be depleted. Natural gases constitute another resource that UAE economy depends on. For example, in 2000, it was estimated that UAE has an approximately 6 trillion cubic meters of proven gas (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). At the same time, it was established that the country possess about 4% of total gas reserves. As a result, UAE is ranked at position four in the entire world as far as gas production and reserves are concerned. Daily production of gas in the country is estimated to be about 2940 million cubic feet, where if the current daily gas production is maintained, the reserves of gas the country holds will last for around 60 years (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Other natural minerals that are vital to the economy of the country can be subdivided into three categories: rocks, sand and soils, and metals. Rocks and sand have been exploited where they are widely used in the construction industry. Although still poorly performing, agriculture constitutes another sector to the economy, which contributes about 4% to the GDO (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Agriculture development in the country has largely been limited with scarcity of land, harsh environmental conditions, and limited water resources (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). However, the government for the last 30 years has been increasing efforts to develop agriculture sector through numerous incentives and support programmes. Service sector is also growing as one avenue contributing to the growth of UAE economy. Today, the country GDP has been boosted by service sector economy elements like: commerce; hospitality industry, comprising restaurants and hotels; transport sector; storage sector; communications; finance and insurance; real estates and related government services (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). At the moment, it is estimated that the service sector contribute about 40% to the GDP of the country. Not sure if you can write a paper on Economy of United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oil and Gas in the UAE In 1981, there was the establishment of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which brought together six countries of Middle East involved in the production of hydrocarbons resources (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). The six countries that make up the GCC block include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). The countries came together with the aim of helping each other grow and progress economically. In order to achieve these economic goals, the GCC Block aimed at coordinating country members’ financial, monetary, and banking policies that was aimed at establishing a common monetary union (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). The countries came together largely given their commonality in aspects of politics, cultural, language, economic background, and religious aspects. Involved countries entered into agreement that aimed at cooperating in matters of economy. One of the major achievements of the GCC Block has been realized through introduction of single currency in the GCC member states based on the commonality aspects member countries share. The major objective for this initiative is to see member countries build on a considerable degree of monetary convergence in about ten years to come that is characterized by high degree of exchange rate stability, general low inflation rates, and co-moving interest rates (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). At the same time, GCC Countries as part of their cooperation set plans to integrate their stock markets, where already some attempts have been made towards this goal. Initially, two plans were available for implementation and they included merging all the stock markets into a regional bourse and also connecting them and establishing common unified rules and regulations. Member countries were to operate within the regulations in their individual stock exchange and this in turn was to make it possible for the citizens of the member countries to trade in stocks under similar rules (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). The role of this regional block to member countries can be perceived within the purviews the countries have made as far as economic integration is concerned. The preoccupations among member countries have been premised on the need to achieve economic and financial integration. Numerous efforts have been made by member countries and such efforts include lifting formal impediments that earlier restricted free movement of national goods, labor, and capital across the countries. Subsequently, the countries have been able to develop similar policy preferences in key areas of concern. For example, the countries have been successful in maintaining price and nominal exchange rate stability, together with an open trade regime and liberal capital flows. Moreover, the countries of GCC have been able to initiate in place an open-border foreign labor policy that aims to ensure there is sufficient supply of labor across the countries. It should be remembered that, activities carried out by GCC countries has not just concentrated at seeing growth in hydrocarbons sector but has also accelerated efforts at initiating structural and institutional reforms aimed at encouraging diversification, enhancing non-oil growth, and also developing human capital (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). As a result of these efforts to promote common economic goals among the GCC Countries, the member countries have been able to increase their GDP per capita by about 32% especially from 2002-2007 (Saif, 2009). Oil producing countries across the world have for a long time operated under the umbrella of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which in its entity is a permanent, intergovernmental organization (OPEC, N.d). It was established in 1960 at conference held in Baghdad where the pioneer countries of the organization included: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela (OPEC, N.d). Later on, these countries were joined by other oil producing countries such as Libya, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and Gabon (OPEC, N.d). Each of these countries joined at its own specific year with the earliest being Libya in 1962 while the latest to join being Angola in 2007 (OPEC, N.d). Furthermore, countries like Indonesia and Gabon have since suspended their membership in the organization. OPEC mission is integrated in its broad objective, which is aimed at; co-coordinating and unifying petroleum policies among the member countries with sole goal of enabling the members secure fair and stable prices for their petroleum products (OPEC, N.d). Moreover, the organization works to enhance members achieve an efficient, economic, and regular supply of petroleum to the consuming nations through the established policies to enhance efficient oil production. The policies adopted are largely aimed at ensuring the countries receive fair return on capital they have invested in the industry (OPEC, N.d). OPEC operations and mandate in the wider environment of ‘petro-politics’ and ‘petro-economies’ has been to see oil producing countries receive benefit is for their hydrocarbons resources. In this way, OPEC has been at the forefront in advocating and leading the pace in setting oil prices at international level aimed at benefiting member countries. Moreover, the organization is actively involved in regulating oil production among member countries through quotas and this is precisely aimed at ensuring members reap maximum benefits from their oil resources. OPEC activities in the wider perspective have been viewed to constitute those of cartel tendencies, where the organization has actively participated in activities such as initiating pricing system for crude oil in the global market, introducing group production ceiling, initiating reference basket pricing, enhancing dialogue and cooperation between OPEC and non-OPEC countries, and ensuring oil market stability is realized (OPEC, N.d). UAE being one of the members of OPEC has operated under the regulation of OPEC whereby the organization sets quotas for the member countries as far as oil production is concerned. Oil quotas operate as limits within which member states have to produce oil and not exceed the level or amount accepted. Every year, OPEC reviews the oil quotas for each member state and as a regulation, each member is supposed to adhere to the set regulations. The OPEC quotas aim at regulating oil production among member states with strength of ensuring fair competition prevail and that, members are able to receive benefits for the oil they produce. Nevertheless, in recent times, there have been concerns especially in UAE with regard to OPEC quotas where UAE believe that OPEC quota for the country has failed to reflect the size of its resources (Ayalon, 1992). Moreover, the country believes that, concessions to other producers within the cartel were being made at its expense. Advantages of OPEC quotas have been largely reflected in the manner member countries like UAE have been able to realize genuine revenue generated through oil production and international price stabilization but disadvantages on the other hand have effectively been manifested through limit countries have been made to operate within (Ayalon, 1992). Non-Oil Sectors Economic diversification in the UAE started in 1970s, specifically after the discovery that Dubai had no enough oil resources. The government therefore set in motion to diversify the economy of the federation from over-dependence on oil. Today, UAE diversified economy is booming to an extent that average annual non-oil growth rates in the country witnessed progress from initial 3.6% between 1981 and 1990 to 7.3% between 1991 to 2000 (USA International Publications, 2007). Much of this growth has been stimulated by a surge in trade and manufacturing as well as the evolution of the UAE finance and insurance sectors (USA International Publications, 2007). For instance, UAE government continue to promote liberalized trade regime which is further coupled by the country’s favorable geographical location and the country has in turn evolved into a powerful financial center among the GCC Countries (USA International Publications, 2007). At the same time, the backbone of the financial system is the banking sector, which is the second largest in the GCC in terms of total assets. Apart from the financial sector, the tourism sector in the country is booming and it plays a significant economic role in the country, especially in Dubai. Investment from the government in the last number of years has seen growth and progress of tourism sector in the country and specifically in Dubai. Investment in the sector has been directed at developing infrastructure and enhancing advertisement and marketing of the sector, and today Dubai is one of growing centers in the world visited by large number of visitors every year. The developments in this sector and the related sectors have continued to play positive role to the country’s GDP whereby, the overall share of non-oil GDP rose from 35% in 1980 to over 70% in 2002 (USA International Publications, 2007). Manufacturing industries have also emerged largely sprouting from the hydrocarbon sector. For example, in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, there has been massive establishment of manufacturing industries, which specialize in the production of fertilizers and cement. Furthermore, gas products have been promoted through establishment of various industries. Market for these products has been both at local and international market where demand has forced the concerned industries to increase and enhance their production capacity. Other areas of specialization with regard to manufacturing industry has been in the limestone and marble mining and processing which again plays critical role to the country’s economy. Agriculture has also become another area UAE has constantly injected resources and these efforts have bore fruits. For instance, the agricultural although affected largely by poor climatic conditions in the country continue to experience remarkable results where production has continued to increase. Furthermore, immediately the country gained independence and the first ten years saw an increase of about 200% in food production in the country where also land under cultivation increased by about 500% (). The federal government commitment to the promotion of the national agriculture of the country can be evident through increased annual budget allotment, which is estimated to be about $ 100 million every year (Peck, 1986). Further, every Emirate has been increasing its budgetary allocation to the agriculture sector a situation that has seen greater expansion and growth of agriculture. Transport has become the key area the federal state of UAE has tried to open up its economy to local and outsider players. The country’s conviction is that presence of vibrant trade and commerce activities are the key to economic development and growth of the country. In order to maintain contact and continued interaction with outside and local markets, the country continues to invest heavily in transport sector, which in turn has accelerated the country’s economic base. For example, UAE has been involved in developing key transportation infrastructure projects that include Port Khalifa and industrial zone at Taweelah. In addition, there has been initiation of a mega-project (Union Railway project) which has an estimate cost of $ 8 billion (Anonymous, 2011). The Abu Dhabi International Airport is another key project the country has heavily invested in where the cost of this project amounts to about $ 6.7 billion. More transport infrastructure that the country has heavily invested includes the expansion of the Dubai metro and construction of the Abu Dhabi metro and light rail (Anonymous, 2011). The essence of all these transport projects is to see development of UAE economy especially through increased bilateral and multilateral trade relations. The country envision growth of economy specifically through presence of new systems construction that are largely related to multi-modal freight and intelligent supply chain management which in totality possess the ability to increase trade opportunities. Current and future of UAE UAE economy as it appears for now seems to be largely diversified and oil economy no longer remains the sole backbone of the country’s economy. Nevertheless, the oil revenues remain the key resources to stimulate economies of other sectors. Together with the oil economy, service economy in UAE has been thriving at a promising rate a situation that has led to growth of UAE economy (Oxford Business Group, 2008). As more effort remains centered on improving and accelerating the non-oil sector, it can be seen that economic development of the federal is likely to continue on an upward trend. For example, in 2003 and the subsequent four year-periods, the economy of the country oscillated around 10% and Abu Dhabi was the key contributing emirate (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Oil remains the single-most contributor to the GDP of the country, accounting for about 35% of the GDP (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Following the oil sector is the manufacturing sector, which account for about 13% to the GDP of the country. Trade and repair is at position three where it is perceived to account for about 11% of the GDP to the economy and thereafter, real estate sector contribute about 8% to the country’s GDP (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Predicted economic growth and progress for the country remain live despite impacts of financial crises that took place recently. The advantage the country has can be exhibited in its strong economic fundamentals, which appear to be solid and steadfast despite the financial challenges. Because of these, in 2008, it was predicted that UAE real GDP growth would accelerate by about 6.5% with potentials of reaching 7% over the next five years despite the impacts of global economic slowdown (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Inflation remains worry- factor in the federation and in the larger GCC Countries block. This aspect has become serious to extend that there was delayed GCC monetary union. The inflation in the region can be explained by the windfall gains from high oil prices, which gave GCC Countries more cash than many of their domestic markets could handle. As a result, inflation has gradually become the bugbear that follows the successes of every economy in the region. In 2007, UAE surpassed the psychological inflation barrier of 10%, which further translated to an increase of 11.1% rise in the price of goods and services (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Furthermore, in 2008, report by Samba Financial Group indicated that, inflation in the UAE went into double figures that reached 11.1% while it was 11.3% in Dubai and 11.7% in Abu Dhabi, which meant that consumer price index growth could be to something closer to 20% (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Predicted economic growth Source: Oxford Business Group, 2008 Conclusion UAE since it got its independence has become an economic hub and its influence within the GCC region countries continue to increase. Today, UAE is one of the leading countries in the world as far as matters of GDP and per capita growth are concerned. Moreover, the country has one of the satisfied citizenry populations in the world and this can be associated to increased equitable distribution of resources in the country. Oil and gas resources are the key aspects upon which the economy of the country is founded and for a long time, revenues from the hydrocarbons remain the backbone of GDP for the country. Nevertheless, some emirates like Dubai have been found to be less blessed with these vast natural resources and the country has in return increased efforts to diversify its economy. As a result, today the country has diversified its economy to numerous sectors such as construction and real estate, transport, financing, agriculture, tourism, and the entire service sector. The fruits from these diversifications are numerous, with results being reflected in the continued growth of the country’s GDP. Furthermore, it has to be noted that, growth and economic progress in the country has come about due to political stability and transparency in the distribution of resources, which in turn has enabled the government to initiate more economic strategic plans and policies. Therefore, as much as oil and gas resources remain key to economy of UAE, it should be remembered that non-oil sector at the same time is promising and remain quite viable hence numerous investments should be directed at these sectors. References Al-Abed, I.,
art history 115 Hudson County Community College Egyptian Art Discussion
art history 115 Hudson County Community College Egyptian Art Discussion.
I’m working on a art question and need a sample draft to help me study.
1-Egyptian art consists of royal commissions and funerary objects. Their art gives off the permanence and the timelessness with the depictions of their kings. There is a big hierarchical factor in their artwork. In today’s culture, we like innovation, creativity, thing’s outside of the normal. As said in the text, “Continuity of form and subject is a characteristic of ancient Egyptian art” which I believe is very much true, mostly all of the artwork has to do with their kings, the pyramids, pharaohs, etc. In today’s time I would say that the simplicity of just admiring one figure or one “god” is lost. What is gained is creativity because today’s art has many factors and possibly many different meanings to the public eye.2- Ancient Egyptian art styles focused on the informing and glorifying whoever they are trying to depict. Egyptian art was strictly focused on the empowering of theirs god, pharaohs, and priests, which could only be represented through hieratic art; the larger the monument the the better they feel that they were able to embody the power of these gods through their artwork. Egyptian art was practical for the purpose of having sculptures, monuments, and hieroglyphs to honor and tell the story of their gods; its wasn’t made for human consumption or critical thinking through abstract ideas. Their idea of art was different, to them it served a purpose, and that purpose was to give them a better after life, or to make the Nile flood again; their art was practical for religious ceremonies, todays art is fundamentally different. We create art for the person, for human consumption, nothing to signify the greatness of our afterlife (maybe we depict the greatness or value of our life, but never how wealthy we are in the afterlife). I believe that by having our understanding permanence and timelessness we understand that traditional, conservative thinking can greatly limit inspiration or ingenuity. We want art that we haven’t experienced yet, because we view art as an experience and not the embodiment of someone’s spiritual capabilities. We are constantly progressing and are easily bored if presented with old information when we have the access to infinite information and stimulation; this is why we don’t want permanence because we want things to be different. Egyptians choose not to progress artistically which limited their developed of culture and technology because change was not valued, which is why they Egyptian empire fell, unable to compete with progressive ideologies.
art history 115 Hudson County Community College Egyptian Art Discussion