Get help from the best in academic writing.

UCB Inflation And Biden Administration Analytical Review

UCB Inflation And Biden Administration Analytical Review.

I’m working on a writing Essay and need support to help me understand better.

In March 2021, the Biden Administration signed a fiscal stimulus package to help in the economic recovery. While our models in general argue that higher spending leads to higher prices; in reality the exact quantitative impact of fiscal stimulus on inflation is debated.For this activity you are asked to read and discuss the following article where such debate is discussed: Inflation and the Biden Stimulus.Specifically:undefinedDiscuss the different views presented in the article with respect to INFLATION and the STIMULUS.
UCB Inflation And Biden Administration Analytical Review

Two peer replies. I’m working on a Mathematics question and need guidance to help me study.

Instructions: Responses should be a minimum of 80 words and may include direct questions. In your peer posts, consider the summary statistics of your classmates’ data sets. After the supercar was added to the data set, which summary statistic do you think more accurately reflects the typical vehicle price – the mean or median? Compare the standard deviation before the supercar was added and after it was added. Does this indicate greater variability in the original or modified data set? Based on this information, do you feel the standard deviation can help you identify the presence of an outlier? Why or why not? In your responses, refer to the specific data from your classmates’ posts.

Peer 1 (Perez):
Class,
The list below displays the descriptive data for the mean, median, and standard deviation for the 10 cars that were listed. The information gives you the mean, median, and the standard deviation. I look at this information and I take it that the average cost should be close to that amount, the median is close to the same amount while the standard deviation displays the numbers closer than the other standard deviation that included a $4,800,000 car.
Mean: $30,254.60
Median: $30,031.5
Standard Deviation: $16,014.86
I do not know much about exotic cars but this one came up as one of the most expensive this year. I added an additional car Koenigsegg CCXR Trevita that cost $4,800,000 to the list. The car was one of the most expensive cars on the list. The mean and standard deviation were the summary statistics that were affected the most. The mean had increased by $433,613.22 and the standard deviation increased by $1,422,197.74. The exotic car throws all the numbers off which is an example of an outlier. The outlier cost is way more than all the other vehicles and throws the chart off. The standard deviation were much closer together until this most expensive car was added which sometimes could be an error in some cases.
Mean: $463,867.82
Median: $30,068
Standard Deviation: $1,438,212.60

Peer 2 (Rashad):
Good evening, I hope everyone that is reading this is reading it in the best of health.
Mean: 51044.4
Median: 54806
Standard Deviation: 22995.94201
This Mean, Median and Standard Deviation above is for the 10 vehicles that we had to do for week 1. The difference between mean and median is -3,761.6. This information tells me that the median is more than the mean. The two most expensive vehicles are the 2020 Lexus GS-F ($80,477) and 2020 Lincoln Navigator ($79,543).
Mean: 210040.3636
Median: 60087
Standard Deviation: 527781.0275
The list above is Car Price 2 I added an 11th vehicle (Bugatti Veyron $1.8 million dollars) to the list and there was big difference. I did not guess it would have made that must of a difference. The difference between mean and median was 149,953.36. The two most expensive vehicles are the 2020 Lexus GS-F ($80,477) and 2020 Bugatti Veyron ($1.8 million).
Two peer replies

Symbolic Interactionism Sociology.

For this assignment, you will use what you’ve learned about symbolic interactionism to develop your own analysis.Your assignment is to select a television program that you know contains social inequality or social class themes. In 3 pages make sure to provide the following:Provide a brief introduction that includes the program’s title, describes the type of program, and explains which social theme you are addressingDescribe and explain scenes that apply to the social theme.Identify all observed body language, facial expressions, gestures, posture stances, modes of dress, nonverbal cues, symbols, and any other observed nonverbal forms of communication in the scenes.Explain your interpretation of the meanings of the identified nonverbal communications and symbolism.Summarize how these interpretations are important to the sociological understanding of your chosen social inequality or social class theme.Suggest how your interpretation of the respective meanings might be generalized to society as a whole.
Symbolic Interactionism Sociology

1 Introduction The main theme within this academic report is to comprehend the leadership practices, process and behaviours that are currently demonstrated within Calsonic Kansei. The report will also look at how these practices, processes, and behaviours link to Leadership theories in existence at the time of this report. The research carried out by the author has looked at industry specific analysis, management theories, and internal documentation. Calsonic Kansei (please refer to appendix 1 for the company website), are an automotive parts manufacturer that operate in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Calsonic is currently owned by Global Investment firm KKR. Calsonic’s major customers are Nissan and Renault. Calsonic sells electronics, exhaust systems, engine cooling, interior, climate control and compressor parts. The automotive industry is presently a challenging business sector. In reviewing the sector, Nieuenhuis and Wells (2015) suggested that the in the future the sector would be “driven by regulation, which usually sees the issues surrounding sustainable automobility as primarily, or even solely, technological” (p. 219). In recent times this has been evident with reduction in UK sales of diesel cars 31.3% between 2017 and 2018 (SMMT Car Registrations, 2018). Following the recent scandals surrounding the fuel emissions of the significant car industry retailers (Volkswagen, Nissan, Renault) the Government are increasing taxes on cars that do not meet the Real Driving Emissions 2 Standard (www.gov.uk). As with many industries within the UK the automotive industry will be heavily impacted by the laws and regulation changes that will happen post-Brexit. Calsonic within the UK heavily relies on automotive parts brought in from Asia. As an example, if legislation changed to adopt the World Tariff Organisations tariff system this could lead to a significant increase in costs and potentially lead to Calsonic losing customers due to the increased cost. 2 Calsonic Kansei Leadership Practice During this section of the report it will be discussed how the leadership team behaves and works within the organisation. The behaviours and processes that leaders undertake on a regular basis will be explored. This will be using the observations made of the organisation within their plant in the North East of England. Within CKNE (Calsonic Kansei North East) it could be argued that there are presently two different leadership practices taking place. The differences in leadership are split amongst two broad sections of the organisations departmental structure. The first section to review is the production department. As the production department must run to strict deadlines to meet customer delivery the leadership is ordered and structured precisely. The customer sends in a precise requirement of parts needed and the vehicle that it is attached to. Following this indication from the customer a production plan is made to achieve the strict deadline. Any line stoppages with the customer attract hefty fines due to the number of suppliers that fit parts on the customer’s line. The department is setup with a hierarchal structure (please see appendix 2 for details). Employees are instructed exactly what is required of them, which machine they need to be at, what parts are to be made, and what expected production KPI’s (Key performance indicators) they are required to achieve. Making of the parts and how to use the machines is dictated to staff via standard operating procedures. This means very little risk can be undertaken during the production process, as this could have an impact on delivery to the customer. Due to costs targets within the business to stay competitive no time can be wasted as a result. Staff must work to strict deadlines and can often feel a lack of empowerment within their roles as their work is instructed to them. Within the production process over several years there has been situations where leaders of the production process have had to become physically involved to ensure targets/deadlines are met. In the second section – administration – a different style of leadership takes place. The focus of leadership is split out into different areas. Focus is placed on not only the tasks/objectives of the department, but the considerations of what the team requires, and employee needs are taken into consideration. Whilst the administration departments have key deadlines/objectives to reach more time is allowed where discussion and debate can take place. Regular tasks need to be carried out in this area, however ad-hoc tasks are more prevalent, which require leaders to discuss potential solutions to tasks with their subordinates. Delegation can occur also within these functions more regularly that within production, however the leader retains the overall right to make the final decision. Debate can lead to conflict or differences of opinion between colleagues. Leaders are seen to have to resolve conflict between colleagues in the same department and that of other departments. 3 Leadership Theories within Calsonic Kansei Leadership within Calsonic Kansei is show in different ways throughout the organisation. It could be argued that this could be split between the production and admin areas, where there are several theories in existence. Production departmental leaders differ in their approach to that of the admin function. Therefore, in this section leadership theories in existence will be discussed within production and then within administration. Within the production area there are two main leadership theories in existence. Firstly, the behaviours and practices are linked to Burns’ Transactional Leadership theory (1978). Bass (1985) defined transactional leadership as behaviour that is based on reward and punishment. This only works if the employee follows the instructions. If unsuccessful this could lead to consequences for the employee. Within the production area the leaders determine the production plan by part number to meet customer demands. Production staff are then measured on regular KPI’s to ensure they are achieving their targets. Secondly, the leadership style could be linked to that of the Leadership Continuum of Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973). Tannenbaum and Schmidt identified four main styles of Leadership, which included the style of ‘Tells’. Tells is defined by Mullins and Christy (2016) state that tells is where “the manager identifies a problem, makes a decision, and announces this to the subordinates expecting them to implement it without an opportunity for participation” (p. 318). Tells is appropriate within the production environment as there is very little time for discussion to take place as they need to ensure deadlines are achieved and targets are met to meet customer demand. Within the administration area the key leadership theory in existence is that of Action Centred Leadership by John Adair (1979). There are three key themes highlighted in the action-centred leadership model (see appendix 3 for a pictorial representation). The themes are Task, Team, and Individual. Adair (1979) suggests that a leader’s performance will depend on how they meet these three areas. Task relates to the needs of defining the task, duties, and responsibilities. Team considers the team morale, training, and communication required to finalise the task. Finally, individual relates to conflict resolution, individual performance review, and attends to the individual’s problems. Leaders within the admin areas are expected to balance these three key areas daily. Whilst ensuring goals, deadlines, and targets are achieved they take into consideration the thoughts and opinions of their teams. As more often ad-hoc tasks are more prevalent this requires leaders to gain more opinion / conversation from their subordinates. In admin functions, subordinates will have more knowledge/skills in relation to specific tasks then the leader. They will be the idea generators that resolve the problems that occur. Specialists are employed within each chosen field with the leader overseeing their team of specialists. Whilst the leader might not have full detailed understanding of a task in hand this means the leader has to rely on their subordinates. As discussed in Best of John Adair on Management and Leadership (2008) “At whatever level of leadership task, team and individual needs must be constantly thought about” (p.138). 4 Conflicting Leadership Theories with Calsonic Kansei Whilst there are certain leadership theories in place within Calsonic Kansei at present there are alternative theories that would not be fitting of the practice at Calsonic. During this section I will discuss three different theories that could not be used within the organisation. Firstly, within the path-goal theory model as created by House (1971), there are four types of leadership. One of the leadership styles identified was that of Participative Leadership. This involves consulting with team members and understanding their opinions/ideas in completing a task. The manager/leader still retains the final decision. This type of theory may not work well within an automotive company like Calsonic Kansei, especially within the production section. There is a large workforce within the production environment and not all members of staff can be consulted in the decision-making precision. Furthermore, due to the fast paced, just in time, and right first-time concepts of automotive decisions need to be made swiftly. Additionally, with the size of the work force vital information could be accidentally shared with competitors because of sharing information with a larger team. This could lead to Calsonic losing its competitive edge. Secondly, the Theory Z model as created by William G Ouchi (1981) had distinguishing features of leadership. The features included mutual trust, close bond between organisation and employees, employee participation, an integrated organisation, Coordination, an informal control system, and HR development. This was a theory designed on both Japanese and American culture. It suggests that organisations are large human systems in which they succeed depending on the use of its employees. Within the Calsonic Kansei environment this theory would be difficult to enforce. Theory Z suggests an informal control system; this is fundamentally different to CK at present where a formal structure is in place throughout the organisation. If there was no structure in existence this could cause delays in decision making and mean staff would not take responsibility for their actions. Theory Z suggests a common thinking process throughout the organisation. As Calsonic Kansei operates across different cultures and locations this would be extremely difficult to achieve. Operating this theory would not work under the current organisation structure and significant changes would be needed to make this work. Finally, Daniel Goleman (2017) found six different leadership styles following a study of over 3,000 executives. One of the leadership styles was that of pacesetting. The pacesetting style is described as a leader who sets high performance standards. If employees do not meet this standard they are asked to perform better, or risk being replaced. Within Calsonic Kansei, turnover within the various functions is quite low. Employees appear to want to stay with Calsonic Kansei. The pacesetting leadership could lead to high turnover which could make meeting deadlines/targets difficult, which also giving the impression that Calsonic isn’t a company that prospective employees might want to work for. Furthermore, this encourages the leader to jump in at any point where a problem exists. Within Calsonic there are a lot of different processes in place at any one time. A leader might not be able to spread themselves to cover every eventuality. It also suggests that the leader may not give feedback to employees on their performance. Within Calsonic staff are motivated by participation, the feeling of ‘involvement’ and the receiving of feedback. 5 Conclusion Calsonic Kansei operate different leadership practices across production and admin. Whilst production staff must follow a strategy that is instructed and detailed, the administration staff can focus more on people as well as the task in hand. Whilst both sections differ in their approaches this had led the company to become successful over recent years, 29th in the world of OEM parts suppliers(Autonews 2018). Following a successful take over by KKR from the previous ownership and with the announcement recently of the merger with Magnetti Marelli the company continues to go from strength to strength. Employee turnover is very low, and employees want to stay on within the organisation. Calsonic Kansei continues to be a good prospective employer for people to join. It could be considered that the right adoption of leadership styles is being undertaken in separating production and admin, however it highlights the need for the organisation to be dynamic in its approach to leadership. Future leaders of the business need to be made aware of the different leadership styles and theories that are in existence. Leaders also need to understand when and how to deliver the different theories and styles. All existing staff from Section Leader and above (see appendix 2), should understand what additional tools they have available at their disposal. Calsonic do not actively train staff in leadership styles and it could be hypothesised that this would be of great benefit to the organisation. 6 References Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (2015) The Global Automotive Industry. 1st edn. Chichester: John Wiley

Physics homework help

Physics homework help. Attached are the rubric, directions and consent letter*For this assignment, you will write a reflection on what you learned about management in the course. As part of the assignment, you will conduct an interview with a manager of a local business to get a first-hand perspective on the challenges of management and the techniques others have found successful for effective leadership, motivation, and communication.Select a manager of a local business to interview and contact the person to set up an appointment. You may conduct your interview in person or via phone.Prepare a list of five to seven questions for your interview. Your questions should focus on how the manager executes the four functions of management functions as well as the challenges related to motivating and communicating with employees and clients in the business environment. In particular, try to discover how the demands of technology-mediated communication, such as communicating via social media channels, impact manager-employee relationships.Remember that managers have many commitments so try to schedule your interview well in advance of the assignment?s due date. You should present the attached consent letter to the person you intend to interview.After you complete the interview, write a 1,000-1,250-word reflection on what you learned in the interview and this course. Address the following in your response:What are the most valuable things you learned about the four functions of management, in a practical sense, as well as motivation and communication techniques?Identify some of the significant challenges you believe you might face as a manager.Discuss your own personal strengths and weaknesses as a manager. What do you think you need to work on to improve your own capabilities?How might you apply what you learned in your interview and this course to be a more effective manager?In an appendix at the end of the essay, provide an interview summary that includes the following information:The name of the person you interviewed and number of years the person has been a manager.The name of the company at which the person is currently employed.How long the person has been a manager at the current company and what their managerial level is.Date of the interview and whether it took place in person or via phone or other type of medium.Contact information for the person you interviewed.The list of your interview questions and responses provided.Signed consent letter.Cite two academic references in your essay. Academic references include the textbook, the additional readings in the course, or any article from the GCU Library. You may use information found online but online encyclopedias (e.g., Wikipedia) and blogs do not count as academic references.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the GCU Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.Physics homework help

Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Substance Abuse Case Study

online homework help Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Substance Abuse Case Study.

38 y/o male HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: A 38 y/o male was sent to psychiatry directly from his internist’s office.That morning the pt. and his wife presented to the doctor’s office without an appointment, and the pt. expressed feelings of being overwhelmingly depressed.He had developed a plan to commit suicide, which included taking a bottle of Tylenol and drinking “as much vodka as it takes”. The internist performed a thorough evaluation, drew labs and called 911 to have the patient brought to the ER. When you encounter the pt., he is visibly upset and clinging to his wife. The couple explains that they separated a month ago, because the patient “just couldn’t be a husband anymore”. Over the past 6 weeks he has become isolative, complained of decreased energy, concentration, appetite, and sleep.He had lost his job as a house painter 6 months earlier.The patient no longer enjoyed the caretaking of the couple’s 2 children, ages 4 and 6—a drastic change from the role he had previously enjoyed as a father. You ask the patient when he first began feeling down.He states clearly, “When my mother died, one and a half years ago.”He said that he had been feelingguilty over the circumstances of her death and wishing he had been closer to her in the years preceding her death.The wife notes with concern: “That was just anbout the time you started drinking so heavily, as well.”As you question further, you determine that the pt. has been drinking daily since his mother’s death.He estimates that he is drinking 6 beers a day.He admits that drinking is a problem, and he actually tried to stop drinking two weeks before this visit.The patient said:“My wife kicked me out of the house, I missed my kids, I didn’t have a job…I knew something was wrong.”He noted that in the days after stopping drinking, he experienced some shakiness and symptoms “like there were bugs under my skin.”He added that having a beer made these symptoms subside.Last night he had become very upset after calling his wife to check on the children and finding they were not at home.He sat in his hotel room and thought, “I can’t go on living like this.”He called his wife at 6 am the next day and said he thought he might kill himself.She immediately brought him to the internist’s office. PAST PSYCHIATRIC HISTORY: The pt. has never been psychiatrically hospitalized, nor has he seen a psychiatric provider before.He recalls having been depressed only once earlier in his life, during his 20’s, but he did not seek treatment at that time.Although the pt. is currently suicidal, he denies any past suicidal thinking and has never made previous suicide attempts. PAST MEDICAL HISTORY: HTN, Hypercholesterolemia. MEDICATIONS:Metoprolol, 50 mg bid. FAMILY HX: The pts’s father has a hx of alcohol dependence, and his mother had HTN and coronary artery disease before dying of an MI.Pt. denies any Hx of psychiatric illness in his family. SUBSTANCE ABUSE HX: The pt has been drinking 6 beers/day for the past year and a half; before that he was not drinking on a daily basis.He has a remote history of similar drinking in his 20’s during his first divorce, but he was able to quit “cold turkey” and has never been to any detox. facility.He experienced symptoms of with drawl when he quit but has no history of withdrawal seizures.He denies use of marijuana, heroin, cocaine, or other substances.He smokes ½ pk per day of cigarettes. SOCIAL HISTORY: The pt describes a chaotic childhood, since his father was ‘ “unpredictable” because of his drinking.He finished high school and then went to vocational school.He became a house painter and worked sporadically.He was married in his early 20’s and has a 17 y/o daughter who is being raised by her mother.He married his current wife 8 yrs. Ago; the marriage was functioning well until the recent became a problem. MENTAL STATUS EXAM: The pt. is a white male who appears exhausted and mildly disheveled in a sweatshirt, baseball cap, and jeans.He frequently becomes teary throughout the evaluation and has poor eye contact, although he is cooperative with the interview.His stature is slumped, even seated in the chair, and he often leans forward and hides his face in his hands.His speech is notable for increased latency and paucity of words.His affect is dysphoric, congruent with the context of the discussion, and does not brighten throughout the interview.His thought process is linear and logical, and thought content is preoccupied with his mother’s death.The pt. has no overt delusions, he denies ideas of reference and paranoid ideation.He also denies hallucinations.He is experiencing suicidal ideation with intent and plan but denied homicidal ideations. His insight and judgment are fair at this moment in that he knows he needs treatment.Cognitive exam is grossly intact. LABS: Alcohol level= 130; AST = 68 IU/L; ALT = 45 IU/L; GGT= 35U/L; other liver function tests are WNL. Hemoglobin =13.4; hematocrit = 41; MCV =95; triglicerides = 200 mg/dl. Include: Any differential diagnosesYour diagnosis and reasoningAny additional questions you would have asked Medication recommendations along with your rationale. Note possible side effects or issues to address if attempting to obtain consent.Any labs and why they may be indicatedScreener scales or diagnostic tools that may be beneficialAdditional resources to give (Therapy modalities, support groups, activities, etc.)
Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Substance Abuse Case Study

Facebook Case Study Analysis

Facebook Case Study Analysis.

The paper will be written using rules of the 6th Edition of APA format (1 inch margins, double-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font, pages numbered). This includes the correct referencing of your secondary research. Working from the APA formatted Word template available on Blackboard is recommended. Include a title page with the name and section of our course, your title, instructor’s name, your name, and the date of submission. Use language and a writing style appropriate for a business audience (e.g., no contractions, professional tone). Use subheadings to separate the sections of your paper. Papers must be no longer than 8 pages in length. This 8 page limit does not include references or appendices. A 5% penalty applies for each ½ page over the 8 page limit (e.g., a 10.5 page paper will receive a 25% penalty).
Facebook Case Study Analysis

Heavy Metal Accumulation Within Urban Regions of China

Word Count: 1944 Introduction The adverse health effects associated with heavy metal accumulation within the body are well documented with problems leading to cardiovascular, nervous system, blood and bone diseases. Heavy metals can be easily transferred to human bodies directly through inhalation, ingestion, and absorption from the skin. The predominant pathway of ingestion is through the soil-crop system due to the accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural areas. This is quite prevalent in rural areas of China as waste water is recycled to tend crops which provide the food for the urban population. Alongside wastewater irrigation, solid waste disposal and sludge applications; vehicular exhaust and industrial activities are the major sources of soil contamination with heavy metals, resulting in an increased metal uptake by the food crops grown on such contaminated soils (Khan et al. 2008). In the urban environment itself, a wide range of toxic substances can be released during recycling and disposal in industrial processes which cause environmental damage and threaten public health. Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and chromium are an important class of hazardous chemicals that can be released from out-dated industrial practices. Therefore a relationship exists with a high population density within China’s urban centres and heavy metal accumulation within the urban environments (soils, atmosphere and drinking water). Industry and economic activities are more concentrated in urban areas, and cities have become the geographic focus of resource consumption and chemical emissions, which cause many environmental problems (Luo et al. 2012). Heavy industries such as metal smelting, manufacturing, energy production, construction and the coal/fuel combustion techniques associated with the mentioned industries are usually localised within the urban centres of China. This is due to their close proximity to the large percentage of the urbanised population who commute to their workplaces, and also double up as consumers (and polluters). Because of this, industries release harmful pollutants as by-products into the atmosphere, or can infiltrate the drinking water, and/or affect soils within close proximity. Heavy metals in urban soils may come from various human activities such as vehicle exhaust, waste disposal, as well as coal and fuel combustion (Chen et al. 2005). A recent emergence is that of electronic waste recycling which is infamous for releasing heavy metals. Biophysical and Socioeconomic Background The cause for the environmental degradation which effects are now widely seen in China are by no means an issue that has sprung up overnight. Domestically, the modernisation drive of the Chinese government over the past 30 years has been the main contributor for the environmental degradation, in that the priority of urbanisation, industrialisation, and a stronger economy with the intent of increasing the standard of living for its citizens (reflected by higher consumption) has placed environmental concerns as inconsequential. Because of this, environmental policies over the past 30 years have been considerably lax or non-existent due to conflicting with economic targets. This deregulation by the environmental sector of the government has granted China unprecedented growth and surpass economic goals, but at great consequence to the environment with widespread pollution in all the major cities. Only recently has the Chinese government realised the magnitude of their actions on the environment which have been revealed through recent studies. The first national soil pollution survey conducted between 2005 and 2013 by the Chinese government’s Environmental Protection Ministry showed that 16.1% of China’s soil and 19.4% of its arable land was contaminated with cadmium, nickel and arsenic (BBC, 2014). China’s rapid and extended period of industrial development with subsequent high pollutant emissions has left many regions with deteriorated land quality and soil pollution. Compared to the surveys conducted between 1986 and 1990, levels of inorganic materials were markedly higher. This has dire consequences for the food security of the Chinese people and both the global community, as China currently relies heavily on grain imports to satisfy the needs of its citizens. The Chinese government set the minimum arable land for food production just over 300 million acres, of which this recent study has shown their available arable land does not meet this minimum – meaning that China lacks agricultural self-sufficiency (Pei, 2014). Reversal of the degradation is costly and generally avoided, thus the Chinese government is opting to invest in foreign land and agriculture. Many of the recent surveys and research conducted by the government has had loose affiliation with scientific bodies and subsequently distorted evidence with the intent to strengthen political and economic motives, while masking the true nature of the situation. As a result, initial conservative estimations made by the government are insufficient and by no means an accurate representation of the environmental issues facing China. Internationally, the demand for cheaper Chinese labour and consumables has only perpetuated and reinforced the economic drive and manufacturing capabilities of China over the past 30 years – with the environment suffering due to inadequate regulation, economic priorities and a lack of perception for wider issues such as environmental. Specifically, with the expansion of the global market and increased demand for electrical and electronic products (and their short lifespan), electronic waste has become one of the most rapidly growing problems pertaining to waste in the world. A great quantity of electronic waste originating from developed countries has been transferred to developing countries such as China, India, and some African countries where electronic waste is processed using less advanced technology. A wide range of toxic substances can be released during the recycling and disposal and cause environmental damage and threaten public health, especially those of heavy metals (Zheng et al. 2013). Management Approaches in the Past It was in 1973 where the Chinese government held its first national conference on environmental protection. For the following 20 years, emphasis was placed on pollution control and prevention as the major cities faced industrial and pesticide pollution. Again in 1983 environmental protection was announced as one of the two basic state policies (the other being family planning, or notoriously known as the ‘one child policy’). However proper action to environmental impact has only occurred relatively recently (the mid to late 1990’s) marked by the issuing of the national strategy of sustainable development: ‘Ten strategic Policies for Environment and Development’ and in 1994 the publishing of ‘Agenda 21’. Subsequently, China has implemented a strategy of two fundamental transformations – the transition from a planned economic system to a socialistic market economic system (Wang 2010). Policies within the 1990’s focused mainly on point source control of pollution from industries, and heavily around catchment systems (due to the problem of contaminated water) in contrast to remediation of areas affected by pollution. As is still problematic today, government bodies responsible for the implementation are hindered by weak institutional capacities and generally lack experience in the new field of environmental management (Wang 2010) leading to confusion between local and central governments in relation to the arbitration of policies. Guidelines of environmental protection have been established through many separate rules and regulations authorised by different government entities at different phases adding to this disarray. Local governments also lacked the financial capacity to compensate residents in natural reserves causing conflict within the communities. Centralisation of this organisation appears to be an ongoing process. Similarly, it is all well and good announcing what is going to be done (albeit vaguely) but whether or not action is taken is another matter. Adding to this significance is that the Chinese government is both the regulator and polluter in many instances, and must realise this. Management Approaches at Present and for the Future Presently, the government has specific planned efforts to protect species and ecosystems and have greatly increased over the past decade, but effectiveness has not kept pace with degradation. Major problems exist such as low levels of staff training, inadequate funding and rampant commercial development. The central government’s large-scale payment for ecosystem services campaigns are remarkable in terms of funding and longevity but program effectiveness remains unclear due to a general lack of science based assessment and conflicting outcomes with positive results that meet program goals (Grumbine