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UC Data Analyzing & Visualizing Data Infographics Cognitive Processing Discussion

UC Data Analyzing & Visualizing Data Infographics Cognitive Processing Discussion.

FORENSIC DESIGN ASSESSMENTSThis task relates to a sequence of assessments that will be repeated across Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Select any example of a visualisation or infographic, maybe your own work or that of others. The task is to undertake a deep, detailed ‘forensic’ like assessment of the design choices made across each of the five layers of the chosen visualisation’s anatomy. In each case your assessment is only concerned with one design layer at a time.For this task, take a close look at the data representation choices:Start by identifying all the charts and their typesHow suitable do you think the chart type choice(s) are to display the data? If they are not, what do you think they should have been?Are the marks and, especially, the attributes appropriately assigned and accurately portrayed?Go through the set of ‘Influencing factors’ from the latter section of the book’s chapter to help shape your assessment and to possibly inform how you might tackle this design layer differentlyAre there any data values/statistics presented in table/raw form that maybe could have benefited from a more visual representation?Assignment Link: http://book.visualisingdata.com/chapter/chapter-6Assignment Requirements: At least 500 words in lengthReferences: At least two peer-reviewed, scholarly journal references.
UC Data Analyzing & Visualizing Data Infographics Cognitive Processing Discussion

UIU Management Laws and Benefits & Dream Job Essay.

What is your dream job?

Write down three occupations you have an interest in. 
Make at least one of these in an area that your education is preparing you.  

Next to each one, write your estimate of what the hourly rate/annual salary is for each occupation.

Go to the Occupational Outlook Handbook at www.bls.gov/OCO/.
Locate your three occupations from the list of occupations.
Review the OOH information for each of your selected occupations: 
Nature of the Work

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement 
Employment 
Job Outlook 
Projections Data 
Earnings 
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Data 
Related Occupations 
Sources of Additional Information 

Now list your salary findings next to your estimate for each occupation. 
Are you surprised by your finding?
Share facts you found interesting or surprising.
Has this changed your interest?

Do you see value in this handbook?
Please review the website and respond completely to all of the questions.  Format should allow me to review your finding easily.  I am fine with word, excel or PowerPoint.  It fine to use tables if it helps.
Essay 2
Instructions
Laws and Benefits
Employers are required by law to provide specific benefits to employees.  

What laws mandate benefits to employers, and what are the provisions of the laws?

(hint there are 6)
Provide a brief explanation of each.  Be sure to demonstrate understanding of each.

UIU Management Laws and Benefits & Dream Job Essay

Nursing Sampling Techniques Presentation.

.1In this assignment, you will create a presentation that reflects on your proposed problem of interest and evaluates sampling techniques that would create a meaningful study pertaining to this problem.Step 1: Reflect on your proposed research question or problem of interest.Step 2: Consider different sampling techniques.Think about how you would compare and contrast the following sampling techniques:Simple Random SampleStratified Random SampleCluster Random SampleSystematic Random SampleConsider which of these sampling techniques you might employ for your research study. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?Step 3: Consider who your audience might be if you were to deliver your presentation in person.What would you want them to know about this topic?What would you expect them to already know?Step 4: Create a 10- to 12-slide presentation that that evaluates and briefly summarizes the various sampling techniques listed in Step 2. Describe the sampling technique(s) you will use in your research and explain how your choice of sampling technique(s) will help you to create a meaningful study cohort.Address the following questions in your presentation:Who/what will your proposed sample consist of?How will subjects be recruited?Are there any special considerations about your population of interest that might pose barriers to obtaining a sample?What are the advantages and disadvantages of the sampling method(s) you plan to use?What potentials for error and bias related to sampling exist?Step 5: Review your presentation to ensure that you are using best practices for formatting slides.Include a title screen and summary screen.Avoid making slides too text heavy or dense with text. As a guideline, limit text on each slide to five bullet points of six words each.If using graphics, be sure that they are professional, reinforce your points, and are not used merely for decoration.Be sure to add what you would say if delivering the presentation to a live audience in the notes section of each slide.Make sure that the format of your presentation is professional and visually attractive. Cite any sources in APA format.8.1In this assignment, you will write a paper that describes data collection strategies used in quantitative and qualitative research; the paper will also describe strategies to gain trust with participants in your proposed research question or problem of interest.Step 1: Reflect on your proposed research question or problem of interest.Step 2: As you prepare to write your paper, consider the following questions:What data collection strategies are used in quantitative research? Why?What data collection strategies are used in qualitative research? Why?What quantitative or qualitative data collection strategies would you use in your proposed research study and why?Which strategy or strategies would help you to gain trust with your participants? Why?Step 3: Write a two-four page paper.Write a paper that describes and summarizes the various data collection strategies used in quantitative and qualitative research and those strategies used to gain participant trust. Identify and describe the qualitative or quantitative strategies you would use in your proposed study and the ways in which you would gain trust with participants.Construct your paper and cite any sources in APA format.NUR4158.1In order to influence policy, you have to understand how a bill is started, moves through the legislative system, and final enacted. In this assignment, you will trace a piece of legislation from introduction to how it impacts health care or nursing practice. Develop the assignment as if it will be used during a presentation at a conference or poster presentation.Step 1: Identify a bill that relates to health care, a social issue, or nursing practice.Step 2: Develop a poster presentation, infographic, FAQ document, or pamphlet which outlines how a bill is introduced and passed by including answers the following questions:State the legislation.Who introduced/sponsored the bill?Why did the person introduce it?Where was it introduced?Who helped to draft the legislation?Was nursing involved?Which committees were involved?Was it authorized?Was it appropriated?Did it make it out of committee?Was it enacted?What is the impact on health care or nursing practice?Step 3: Submit the written assignment using this assignment box.Cite any sources in 7th ed. APA format.Requirements: Whats required to complete assignmentStudent has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with ‘s honor code & terms of service.
Nursing Sampling Techniques Presentation

Impact of World Trade Organization (WTO) Policies

World trade organization (WTO): Introduction: World exchange transactions designed for understandings and settlements for exchange liberalization have been occurring persistently since 1986, with the initiation of the Uruguay Round of transactions in the schema of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which turned into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. Since the establishing of the WTO the transactions have been highlighted by an arrangement of ecclesiastical gatherings where real choices are to be made by the most abnormal amount of government authorities. Some of these gatherings have been disappointments all alone terms— practically as regularly as they have been effective. Contrasts over the regulation of horticultural exchange what’s more homestead endowments assumed focal parts in the most broadcasted of the disappointments, in Seattle in 1999 and in Cancun, Mexico, in 2003. Verifiable setting At the point when inspecting issues behind this worldwide contention, it is vital to comprehend the verifiable connection of exchange liberalization. World financial history has long been described by cycles—or pendulum swings—between more liberated exchange and protectionism. Swings to exchange liberalization are frequently alluded to as “financial incorporation”— as in coordinating the economies of Canada, the US and Mexico through NAFTA—and the latest swing has been named “financial globalization.” It would be wrong to assume that incorporation and globalization have never happened some time recently. The most clear authentic illustration is that of European frontiers, in which the economies of the states were incorporated into the undeniably worldwide economies of Europe Structural Adjustment: Forerunner to Trade Agreements The “South” required obligation rebuilding and the “North” needed more noteworthy access to Southern markets. The arrangement was obligation rebuilding molded upon the selection of Structural Adjustment Packages (Saps) by Southern governments. A focal peculiarity of these Saps was exchange liberalization including the slicing of imports levies and portions, steep cuts in residential endowments, and begin of no matter how you look at it privatization of state administrations and services. From the GATT to the Uruguay Round and the WTO An arrangement of exchange talks which kept going from 1986 to 1994, and that extended the tenets of worldwide exchange to cover administrations and protected innovation. An exchange round is the name given to arrangement of arrangements where nations attempt to achieve concessions to exchange issue, for example, levy diminishment. The World Exchange Organization (WTO) was made as one of the understandings of the Uruguay Round. The WTO started life in 1995 as another worldwide trade organization, changing the GATT into a more enforceable worldwide exchange code focused around an arrangement of approvals for rebelliousness. The expressed goals of the world trade organization incorporate “raising expectations for everyday comforts, guaranteeing full job and a vast and relentlessly becoming volume of genuine wage and viable request, and growing the generation of and exchange merchandise and administrations,” in different words, financial improvement focused around the business. This implies that WTO understandings are intended to bring free market standards into worldwide exchange, through two fundamental components: 1) decreasing exchange boundaries, and 2) applying nondiscriminatory standards. One other imperative guideline, from a certain point of view, is attention for creating nations. Current Status of the WTO Negotiations After the disappointment of the Cancun clerical gathering, arrangements on rural exchange and sponsorships moved in two different bearings. From one perspective, both the U’s what’s more the EU hurried to arrange and now and again sign local and respective organized commerce assertions. These incorporated the signings and arrangements between the U’s what’s more Central America (CAFTA), the Andean area, the Middle East, Australia, Africa and others, including the stalled arrangements for the Western Hemisphere (FTAA), (Q.A 2003) what’s more between the EU and Latin America, EU extension, and respective negotiations. (Becker, Elizabeth. 2004a) Then again, the US and the EU have escalated their endeavors to concur on another skeleton for WTO arrangements post-Cancun. This took the type of transactions on the alleged “July skeleton” that closed in Geneva on August 1, 2004. Eyewitnesses noted overwhelming weight strategies by the U’s what’s more 6. The key issues in present exchange arrangements 6.1. Grocery Access This is an issue for both Northern and Southern governments. As we saw in the chronicled audit above, access to Southern nation markets for U’s furthermore European Union (EU) fares was a key inspiration first for Saps and later for exchange transactions. Then again, the asymmetry by which Northern nations right now depend on a scope of non-exchange boundaries (Ntbs) to offer more noteworthy assurance to their home markets than Southern nations are allowed for theirs, has transformed business sector access to Northern markets, for Southern fares, into a focal revitalizing cry of the present round of transactions. This was one of the key focuses of accord that united the purported “G-20” which incorporated various vast Southern agro export forces like Brazil, China, South Africa and India—in their hindering of new assertions in Cancun. 6.2. Local Subsidies Domestic sponsorships are government installments and administrations to ranchers and agribusinesses, and are off and on again mistaken for residential helps, with is a more extensive classification that additionally incorporates instruments to help crop what’s more animal’s costs, in the same way as import duties and standards, and value helps. While the U’s what’s more EU formally underwrite slicing appropriations, in practice they have been extremely hesitant to do along these lines, and have regularly depended on what faultfinders and Southern governments see as camouflaging exchange bending appropriations as non-exchange contorting ones. Consequently the endowment issue has assumed a key part in numerous fizzled exchange summits. Agriculturist associations, then again, and numerous exchange economists, see the sponsorship issue in an unexpected way. They indicate studies demonstrating that regardless of the fact that all Northern exchange contorting appropriations were uprooted tomorrow, unnecessarily low yield also domesticated animals costs would even now plague worldwide merchandise markets Send out Subsidies This is an alternate significant bone of controversy, however one in which evident U’s also EU concessions as of late help re-begin stalled WTO arrangements. As per WTO rationale, these countries, particularly the EU, have huge appropriations for exporters (to a great extent agribusinesses and not ranchers), which are intensely exchange mutilating. The US has since quite a while ago utilized fare credits excluded in the WTO’s specialized meaning of fare appropriations to sidestep the fare sponsorship issue and point the finger at the EU 7. Dumping and Subsidies: Unraveling the Confusion Dumping is what is driving a great many agriculturists off the area all through the Third World also into urban slums and global transient streams. It causes the low product costs that make gaining a work off the area progressively impossible.( Bullard, Nicola. 2004). It is likewise unlawful under settled global guidelines. Yet due to the way these principles are composed, they are basically unenforceable when the complainant is a poor nation. First and foremost, nations must have residential enactment that makes dumping illicit. Numerous creating nations don’t have such enactment. Second, the organizations (or ranchers) influenced must take after that residential law, which normally intimates indicating damage to the segment all in all an overwhelming test when the segment is involved a million or more smallholders. While dumping is actually the most obvious issue of the current global exchange administration in ranch items, the media keeps on focusing on US and EU appropriations. The disarray over sponsorships and dumping has deliberately or unintentionally reached out to the Cairn’s gathering countries, by the G-20 arranging coalition, and by elements and individuals as various as the World Bank, Oxfam, Jacques Diouf of FAO, Kofi Annan (leader of the UN), the Wall Street Journal, and heading standard economists.( de Grassi, Aaron, and Peter Rosset) 8. Elective Paradigms Two noteworthy options to the rural liberalization ideal model have been put forward, both with noteworthy effects. These are: 8.1. Multi functionality According to this concept, ( Grain, 2004)agribusiness is not pretty much creating tradable wares, yet rather has different capacities in the public eye. It is additionally about saving scenes and securing homestead vocations and country conventions, and it is about nourishment security, and in this manner merits uncommon attention in exchange assertions, as per the defenders of this concept.( Green, Duncan. 2003) Multi functionality was initially championed by the EU, to some extent as an approach to support keeping up endowments for European ranchers. The EU looked for a partnership with the Third World countries on this idea, yet the U’s furthermore Cairn’s Group (a coalition of real agro exporting nations) effectively contended that the EU was liable of guarding its own particular ranchers while sponsoring fares that undercut agriculturists somewhere else, consequently blocking backing for this idea from Southern countries. 8.2. Sustenance Sovereignty The idea has picked up huge prevalence and reverberate in common society divisions of countries both North and South, and has been created into a comprehensive and inside intelligible option framework. (Hayenga, M. and R. Wisner, 2000) Like the idea of multi functionality, it is focused around the extraordinary nature of horticulture (as contrasted with industry, for instance). Sustenance Sovereignty advocates contend that nourishment and cultivating are about more than exchange, and that generation for neighborhood and national markets is more imperative than generation for fare from the points of view of: wide based what’s more comprehensive nearby and national financial advancement, and for tending to destitution and appetite, safeguarding country life, economies and situations, and overseeing common assets in a manageable manner. They contend that each nation and individuals must have the right and the capacity to characterize their own nourishment, cultivating, and farming approaches that they have to have the right to secure residential markets, and to have open segment plan for agribusiness that may incorporate sponsorships which don’t prompt more prominent generation, fares, dumping and harm to different nations. 9. Arrangement Alternatives for a Different Agriculture Provides each one of us with sufficient, moderate, sound, heavenly and socially fitting nourishment. Offers provincial people groups in each of our nations the opportunity for an existence with poise, in which they gain a living pay for their work and have the opportunity to stay in provincial regions on the off chance that they favor not to relocate to urban areas. Contributes to expansive based, comprehensive financial improvement at the nearby, territorial furthermore national level. Provincial people groups are more being constrained by monetary need to surrender the area also look for their fortune in peri-urban slums and shanty towns, or join the worldwide transient stream. Rustic economies are in a condition of monetary breakdown, from Iowa to Africa, and horticulture helps ever less to neighborhood, local and national monetary improvement. Provincial situations are by and large quickly debased, soils compacted, dissolved and harmed with pesticides, and stripped of biodiversity 10. Business sector Access and Protection: Stop Dumping At the point when poorer nations are obliged to give more outside access to their residential markets than wealthier nations accommodate them, most eyewitnesses consider the framework unequal furthermore uncalled for. When they open their business sectors they get to be defenseless to dumping. Most performing artists appear to concur, at any rate logically, that closure dumping ought to be an objective of universal transactions in agriculture. First, we have to dispense with obvious and concealed fare endowments as fast as could reasonably be expected, despite the fact that that is not as simple as it sounds. In principle this is settled upon even by governments in the WTO, while in practice there are horde ways these endowments are masked and hidden. Second, in light of the fact that full consistence is farfetched, all nations must be allowed a wide scope of choices to ensure themselves from dumping. For instance, all nations ought to be permitted to force countervailing obligations or take other defensive measures if agrarian fares from different nations are consistently dumped at short of what expense of generation costs. 11. Supply Management: Regulate Overproduction Ceaseless worldwide over-creation is a commonly fortifying, descending winding for the world’s agriculturists, as they battle to create more to make up for lower and lower costs, matched against the ever higher generation expenses of the mechanical cultivating model. A generally little number of agro export forces, headed by the U’s also EU, are in charge of the greater part of the over-production. The first is to reestablish enhanced creation restricting approaches for key harvests in the US and the EU. The main demonstrated approaches to diminish creation in the North are generation shares and taking land out of creation, while reinstituting open administration of surpluses—for people in general great and costs. There must be some kind of instrument which keeps agribusiness from seizing powerful, regardless of the fact that aberrant, control of the surpluses, and which includes both government and family cultivate delegates in arranging and choice 12. Potential Stumbling Blocks As Tim Wise has said (Nadal, Alejandro, 2004) these measures face numerous deterrents, most prominently the deliberate resistance of the compelling companies and their legislature associates that right now profit most from the worldwide exchanging framework in farming. Yet these recommendations offer a number of advantages that make them at any rate as conceivable as the thought that we could truly wipe out Northern homestead appropriations. As a matter of first importance, these option recommendations make characteristic associates of rancher and laborer bunches as far and wide as possible, North and South, East and West, as has been sufficiently exhibited by Through Compazine. They additionally lay the introductory foundation for more extensive coalitions and unions inside national and worldwide common society. They could give a shared opinion to numerous Third World and G-10 administrations, were it conceivable to wean them from agribusiness and agro export impacts. They encroach less on national sway, permitting nations to pick the measures they lean toward for the nourishment and cultivating frameworks they need, the length of such approaches don’t prompt fare dumping, and they could be a great deal less expensive regarding citizen dollars used on ranch appropriations, with much better conclusions for the greater part of society. 13. 2003—the WTO Cancun Ministerial Yet the Cancun WTO Ministerial broken down much the same as Seattle, again faltering over farming and again checked by enormous road challenges and the immolation toward oneself at the blockades of Korean ranch pioneer Mr. Lee Kyung-Hae. (Patel, Raj, and Sanaz Memarsadeghi, 2003). Cancun likewise denoted the rise of new Southern nation arranging alliances, most broadly the G-20 gathering of nations with extensive agro export potential, and the G-33 and G-90 alliances of less capable Underdeveloped countries 14. WTO Agricultural Negotiations in Geneva Brussels

HowardCC Neurotoxin Case Study

order essay cheap HowardCC Neurotoxin Case Study.

Instructions.Title and Reference page must be includedNumber and answer each question completelyUse APA format: document format, in-text citations, references.You must cite your textbookAll Sources must be less than 10 years old.Only 1 website may be usedRefer to the ABC’s of Writing a Research Paper PPTX for assistance The ABC’s of Writing a Research Paper.pptxThe ABC’s of Writing a Research Paper.pptxGrammar will be evaluated.Submit the Microsoft word document to Canvas.Failure to follow the guidelines will result in a deduction of points
HowardCC Neurotoxin Case Study

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Pathophysiology and Management

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Pathophysiology and Management. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, in which multiple lesions or plaques are formed within the brain and spinal cord. It can be characterised as a demyelinative disease of the central nervous system that is associated with relative loss of the myelin sheath and axon. The hallmark feature of the disease is the loss of this myelin sheath which leads to scarring and various other symptoms including muscle weakness and visual disturbances. The myelin sheath is a vital component of the axon as it provides protection and insulation (figure 1). Demyelinization of the sheath exposes the underlying axon and can lead to defects in synaptic transmission. In healthy individuals, myelin repair is spontaneous however in patients with MS this repair process occurs slowly or not at all. The integrity and functioning of the nervous system relies on myelinated neurons which allow fast and efficient transfer of electrical impulses and when this function is impaired it can contribute to complete or partial loss of central nervous system (CNS) functions. MS can be a potentially debilitating disease with unpredictable results and sadly there is no cure, however there are some treatments available that assist in the management of the disease. There has been noted beneficial effects with either immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies, though these effects are somewhat reserved as patients responses to treatment are variable (lassmann, 2002). There have been many investigations into the use of novel immunomodulatory therapies, in particular, those using sex hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone. It is thought by many (Voskuhl 2002, Eikelenboom et al 2009, Nicot 2009) that gender is a contributing factor to the initiation and course of MS and that underlying mechanisms of the disease can be linked to sex hormones. The contribution of sex hormones and their actions in the management of the disease will be further discussed. The immune system plays fundamental role in Multiple Sclerosis The immune system can be linked to the gender differences in MS, as sex hormones are thought to affect the immune systems cytokine response (Eikelenboom 2009). It has been perceived that cytokines play an important, however complex, role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as many other inflammatory diseases (Imitola et al, 2005). The disease is thought to be initiated by the release of Th1 cells which have a pro-inflammatory affect (Figure 2). Subsequent to this is an anti-inflammatory response that is mediated by the Th2 cytokines. MS is thought to occur in genetically susceptible individuals in whom Th1 autoimmunity is activated, thus multiple sclerosis is seen primarily as a Th1- mediated auto-immune disese (Gold et al, 2009). One of the more recent theories on MS pathology is that the establishment of the disease is thought to be triggered by an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses (Van den Broek et al 2005). It has been known for some time that gender and gonadal hormones can influence and modulate the immune cytokine response (Schuurs et al 1990, Van den Broek et al 2005). The differences between males and females are first seen during teenage years when testosterone levels in males and oestrogen levels in females start to increase. Furthermore, multiple sclerosis is more common in those who have reached sexual maturity and the disease can be influenced by other changes in hormone levels such as menopause and menstruation (Smith et al 1992). Thus, factors such as gender, that contribute to sex hormone levels, and cytokine regulation and secretion are fundamental in understanding MS pathogenesis. Gender issues in Multiple Sclerosis There have been several studies that have linked gender to the clinical course of MS (Voskuhl 2002 , Reipert 2004). Females have been found to be most frequently affected by MS and this is the case in many other auto-immune diseases (McCarthy 2000). Also, there is higher disease prevalence and better prognosis amongst women with the disease (Whitacre et al 1999). The severity of the disease may often be greater in men, as both sexes follow a different course of the disease. The onset of MS in males is linked with the beginning of the decline in bioavailability of testosterone in healthy men (Reipert 2004). Therefore, susceptibility and severity of the disease between men and women are frequently contrasting. The causes of gender specificity remain unclear; however current interpretations may push towards identifying factors that lead to female bias in MS. Due to the fact that females are dominated by the the disease, it can be proposed that differences in sex hormones may offer protection to males against the disease. The influence of sex hormones in Multiple Sclerosis It has already been established that gender plays a role in MS susceptibility. These differences can be explained by differences in sex hormones and their affect on the brain i.e. roles in damage and repair. Female to male ratios are seen to be approximately 2:1. MS susceptibility has been tested in EAE mice models (Figure 3) and the outcome has been that female mice are most susceptible when compared to male mice (Voskuhl et al, 2001). Sex hormones, oestrogen and testosterone may offer neuroprotection. For many years, it has been known that the prevalence of multiple sclerosis is higher in females than it is in males. This is often the case in many auto-immune diseases. Therefore, it is fair to say that sex hormones play specific roles in the immune responses of these auto-immune diseases such as Multiple sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis (Cutolo 1997). Research into the roles of sex hormones in the immune system has been of topic sincethe 1950’s and 60s (Kappas et al 1963). It is differences in production and secretion patterns of cytokines that seems to vary between males and females with MS and each sex hormone is associated with different clinical manifestations of multiple Sclerosis. Therefore, the concentrations of sex hormones within the body during a certain period can influence the production of cytokines, which in turn affects disease severity and recovery. Oestrogens Oestrogen can been described as an immunomodulator and its concentrations can vary within the body and can rise or fall, for example pregnancy, menstruation and menopause. The effects of oestrogen on the immune response have been studied in both In vivo and In vitro environments. In particular its effects on cytokine production have been noted. Also, it is thought that oestrogens have two effects on the immune system; one involving the suppression T cell development and the other stimulation of antibody production (Van den Broek). Oestrogen is one of the most researched sex hormones, which is thought to have a protective and favourable affects against the progression and clinical course of MS (Eikelenboom et al 2009). This effect is shown in pregnancy, particularly during the third trimester, where the levels of Oestrogen (and progesterone) are high (Figure 4) . The urine of nonpregant and pregnant women was tested for levels of oestrogen. In non pregnant women, the ratio of estriol to estron plus estradiol was approximately 1:1 compared to 10:1 in pregnant women (Drača et al 2006). These increased levels of oestrogens are thought to delay MS progression, which is beneficial. It was found that MS patients experienced clinical improvement during pregnancy (VOSKUHL ,2007) and decreased relapse rates. However, these effects are not permanent and subside post-partum. There may be periods of disease exacerbation post partum, where there is an increase in relapses (Sandyk 1996). Although pregnancy offers favourable disease conditions, these effects have not been conclusively shown to have long term effects. This theory has been supported in EAE, where a reduction in EAE was most prominent during late pregnancy. In addition, Van den Broek has shown that castrated female mice experience a delay in the onset of the disease, when supplemented with oestrogens. This may be indicative of disease modification by hormones. Furthermore, oral contraceptives, containing oestrogen may have similar effects in altering the course of the disease (Jama and archives journals 2005), however long term effects have not been extensively confirmed. Thus, the beneficial effects must outweigh the side effects of long term use for sufficient justification. As previously mentioned Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in the mediation of the disease. Using the EAE animal model, it has been demonstrated that oestrogens promote a Th2 phenotype, which is considered to have anti-inflammatory affects (offner et al 2006). These protective effects seen in EAE, propose the use of oestrogen as a possible therapy for multiple sclerosis. During periods of high oestrogen levels, there is seen to be a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and an increase in suppressor cytokines such as IL-10, which are known to be beneficial on the clinical manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, oestrogens have been shown to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α, which are both toxic to myelin producing oligodendrocytes (Bruce-keller et al 2000). Past findings suggest that oestrogens used as hormonal supplementation may be beneficial in menopausal and post menopausal MS patients (Sandyk 1996). It was found that the risks hormonal replacement therapy outweighed the benefits in healthy menopausal women; however the risk/benefit ratio was thought to be more tolerable in women with autoimmune disease (Soldan et al 2003). Testosterone Testosterone has many functions; however one of the less recognized is its role in nervous system development. Testosterone, as well as oestrogen, is seen as an immunomodulator, however each sex hormone has differing roles in MS. It has been suggested by clinical studies that testosterone could offer neuroprotection that could be useful in the management of MS (Gold et al 2008). Testosterone can offer direct or indirect neuroprotection. Free testosterone may pass the blood brain barrier to directly modulate neuronal cells or it may be converted into oestrogen in the brain, acting indirectly (Bialek et al 2004). The possible protective effects of testosterone have mainly been investigated by studying the effects of castration of male animals. It has been demonstrated that testosterone can decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines that appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of MS (D’Agostino et al 1999). Moreover, a shift towards Th2 immunity has been noted in testosterone treated EAE mice, suggesting the potential use of testosterone in treatment of auto- immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Gold et al explored the immune-modulatory effects of testosterone on a group of males, clinically defined for MS. An anti-inflammatory effect was seen due to a decrease in IL-2 and DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity) responses and an increase in TGFβ-1. Also, testosterone was shown to increase the production of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and has a suggestive neuroprotective effect in MS. BDNFs were the first neurotrophin to be detected in inflammatory lesions (Hohlfeld 2008). BDNFs may have a role in limiting the damage caused by inflammation. Furthermore, there has been a link between MS severity and production of BDNFs (Bialek et al 2004). More damage to the white matter was associated with decreased levels of BDNF. Oestrogen and testosterone in the management of MS Oestrogens The current observation that oestrogens produced during pregnancy subdue clinical manifestations of MS and other auto-immune diseases, has lead to the use of oestrogen therapy in patients whom are not pregnant and suffer severely from MS . There has been suggestion that this type of therapy will be able to mimic the Th1 to Th2 shift that is seen during pregnancy and is correlated with improved clinical symptoms. Oestrogen treatments such as oestriol and oestradiol may offer protection against the clinical severity of MS, as its effects have been shown in EAE (Gold et al 2009). The mechanism of protection that is offered by oestrogens is thought to exert anti-inflammatory processes, by affecting the cytokine response. Treatment with oestrogen has been shown to protect oligodendrocytes from cytotoxic attack (Sur et al 2003). This can be seen as beneficial as oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing myelin proteins that are need for nerve insulation and conductivity. The loss of myelin integrity and function can leave the individual vulnerable to MS. Many clinical studies have been carried out that have aimed to determine the effects of oestrogens for the management of MS. One particular study performed by Soldan et al involved the treatment with oral oestriol. The study intended to showcase the immunological effects of oestriol and the results showed significant decreases in CD4 and CD8 T cells. As well as these results, significant increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-5 and IL-10 and decreases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα were observed. The alterations in cytokine secretions were linked to reductions in lesions seen in monthly MRIs. Overall, it can be suggested that oestriols can influence the course of MS. Oestrogens can regulate gene transcription, acting via oestrogen receptors, ER α and ER β. It has further been assessed whether or not oestrogen treatment was gender specific (Palaszynski et al 2004). It was found that the expression of ER α and ER β were equal in both genders and the disease severity was found to decrease in both males and females with oestriol treatment. Moreover, a decrease in proinflammatory cytokines resulted after oestriol treatment in both males and females. This reveals that therapies need not be gender specific and also a potential use of oestrogen treatment for men, as well as women. Testosterones Recent studies and clinical trials have been able to highlight the roles of testosterone in the management of multiple sclerosis. It is well known that testosterone offers protection to males which may be why they are less susceptible to MS and other auto-immune diseases, compared to females. One recent pilot study conducted by Sicotte et al treated 10 male MS patients with gel testosterone. The results concluded an improvement in spatial and working memory performance; however no changes in inflammatory immune responses were noted in MRI. Overall, the study indicated that testosterone was a safe potential treatment and it was well tolerated. Although the treatments have shown success, more investigations are required to further evaluate the neuroprotective roles of testosterone in the management of MS. Overall, it can be said that testosterone can be protective in MS. The cytokine responses vary between males and females which may explain why men are less affected by MS. These cytokine differences could be due to testosterone (Liva at al 2004). Conclusion From the numerous studies that have been undertaken to further understand and explore the roles of Oestrogens and testosterones in disease initiation and progression, it can be concluded that sex hormones may have powerful anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective functions. In spite of there being no specific treatments that are able to offer improvements to the long term prognosis of the disease, there has been increasing evidence to suggest that gender and hormonal profile can affect therapy and that these factors should be taken into account (Nicot 2009). Using a gender based approach in the management of Multiple Sclerosis may be beneficial as many studies have pointed towards the importance of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of the disease. It has been acknowledged that sex hormones have roles in MS pathology therefore can be utilised in potential therapeutic measures for the treatment of the disease. It is known that immune mechanisms that promote the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to a more severe and progressive disease and the mechanisms that promote the release of anti- inflammatory cytokines have shown to be protective (Palaszynski 2003). Sex hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone have been shown to encourage a shift towards an anti-inflammatory immune response which is favoured in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, oestrogen and testosterone are promising candidates for the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis as they posses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective traits. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Pathophysiology and Management

CSU Ford an Auto Company in Transition Case Analysis Research Paper

CSU Ford an Auto Company in Transition Case Analysis Research Paper.

ISSUES: You should identify the key issues of the case. ANALYSES: You then need to conduct the following three analyses on your case: financial, SWOT, and Porter’s Five-Forces. RECOMMENDATIONS: Based on the details, correlations, and synthesis of your analyses, include your feasible recommendations which will address the main issues of your case. Recommendations: You will develop and present a recommended course of action, as you would to a company’s board of directors, based on your analyses. The viability of the recommendations, level of implementation detail, justification, and supporting documentation will also be considered in your case analysis evaluation. Your Case Analysis research paper should be submitted as a Word document, double-spaced, 1” margins, and size 12 font for your entire paper. Your 12-page paper should be approximately 6 full pages of text including details from the required content listed above (issues, financial analysis, SWOT analysis, Porter’s Five-Forces analysis, and recommendations) plus another 4 pages of supportive exhibits of your text (charts, tables, graphs, diagrams, pictures, etc.). Additionally, add the following 2 pages: First page is your title page including BA 405, case name, your name, and date of paper submission. Last page is your References page(s) citing all your sources (APA or MLA style is acceptable).
CSU Ford an Auto Company in Transition Case Analysis Research Paper

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