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UArizona Global Campus Wk 4 Consumer Reviews and External Factors Discussion

UArizona Global Campus Wk 4 Consumer Reviews and External Factors Discussion.

Week 4 Discussion 1 – Consumer Reviews and External Factors
     Learning Objectives Covered

LO 02.01 – Define digital media and electronic marketing and recognize their increasing importance in strategic planning.
LO 04.02 – Understand how competitive and economic factors affect and organization’s ability to compete and a customer’s ability and willingness to buy products.

Career Relevancy
As technology advances, so will the use of digital media and electronic marketing. These two terms have come together to create what is now known as digital marketing, a tool that has spiked in popularity as people are becoming more connected via their various devices. While marketers must be aware of digital marketing and how to best approach it, marketers must also realize that external factors, such as the competition or the economy, also contribute to whether or not a consumer ultimately purchases the product. 

Digital Marketing in Today’s Modern World
Marketing has reached new heights as technology has advanced in the past several years. Simply put, digital media and electronic marketing (digital marketing) serves to identify consumers’ needs and wants, anticipate and allow consumers to research information and make purchases, and satisfy the consumer in terms of site usability, performance, customer service, and time it takes the product to reach the consumer (Chaffey, 2018).
There are five main areas where marketers can implement digital marketing strategies. First, things like websites or mobile apps can be accessed by consumers via digital devices, such as smartphones, computers, TVs, and gaming devices. Next, digital platforms like Instagram, YouTube, and LinkedIn allow for social interactions. Then, strategies such as advertising, email, and search engines fall under digital media, which is a group of channels that engages the audience through paid, owned, and earned communication. Also, digital data refers to the information businesses gather about their audiences and how the audience interacts with the business. Finally, digital technology refers to the marketing technology used by organizations to make consumers’ experiences on the organization’s website or app more interactive. Together, these areas make up digital marketing.
Now, the types of digital marketing are basically how digital marketing is accomplished. While the list of tools is constantly evolving and changing with the times, the following items are a few areas that you can leverage digital marketing to your advantage (Alexander, 2019):

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
Content Marketing
Social Media Marketing
Pay Per Click (PPC)
Affiliate Marketing
Native Advertising
Marketing Automation
Email Marketing
Online PR
Inbound Marketing

External Factors
In marketing, many things besides just a smart strategy affect a campaign’s success. Many times, external factors have just as much weight in contributing to the campaign’s success.

Market Trends—As a marketer, you will regularly need to analyze the market to determine the audience’s willingness to purchase a given product. Of course, the future is unpredictable, but studying and applying these current trends can help you make decisions for the future.
Economy—When you look at the economy, you need to look at it from the local, national, and global levels. Analyzing one of these types of economies can be beneficial in predicting sales projections, but again, the economy can fluctuate from day to day. Additionally, other factors affect the economy, factors like consumer confidence, job creation, and others. These factors are out of your control, so keep in mind that while you plan for what trends dictate will happen, what happens may be different.
Competition—As the saying goes, keep your friends close and your enemies closer. Not that you want to be enemies with your competition, per se, but you do need to keep an eye on their marketing activities. Just understand they are doing the same to you. As you watch each other, you might decide to change your marketing materials’ designs or allocate advertising resources differently based on different marketing activities. Of course, they might throw you a curveball now and then that gains them a slight advantage, but don’t let that fool you. Keeping an eye on the competition is still valuable. 
Laws—As a marketer, you will find that laws are constantly changing. This includes laws such as tax laws, shipping laws, packaging laws, and labor laws. Of course, you have zero control over these laws, but you do need to be aware of them as they change and how they can affect your marketing plans. 

Resources and References
Alexander, L. (2019, September 23). What Is digital marketing? HubSpot. 
Chaffey, D. (2018, August 7). What is digital marketing? A visual summary. Smart Insights. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)
Root, G. N. (2016, October 26). Uncontrollable external factors of marketing. Chron. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.) 
Social media and blogs give customers the ability to create both positive and negative reflections of their experience without having to confront the business directly, which can be an external factor in gaining new business. Find a business that has typically good reviews and review their webpage. Describe the consumer behavior you see in the negative reviews. How does this passive type of expression impact your ability to market a product or service?
For your response, discuss another external factor that may contribute to or hinder a business from attracting new customers. 
For your citation, you might use articles that show examples of how reviews can affect a business. You can also find articles from experts that suggest how companies can stay competitive despite external factors.

UArizona Global Campus Wk 4 Consumer Reviews and External Factors Discussion

The vulnerability to climate change is considered to be high in developing countries due to social, economic and environmental conditions that amplify susceptibility to negative impacts and contribute to low capacity to cope with and adapt to climate hazards. In addition, projected impacts of climate change generally are more adverse for low latitudes, where most developing countries are located, than for higher latitudes. The developing countries face many challenges – poverty, a high disease burden, rapid population growth, food insecurity, and limited water access. Climate change is likely to drive the majority of the population into destitution, as assets are lost and resources are diverted to deal with emergencies, instead of being used for development. Historically, the earth has experienced periods of cooling and warming, with mean temperatures remaining relatively stable. These changes were due to the energy balance between land, sea and atmosphere. However, human activities such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation have contributed to the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. These trap much of the heat that would otherwise escape from the earth, leading to a generally warmer world. An agricultural expansion seems unlikely and increases in agricultural productivity are needed in order to avoid additional people being forced into poverty and hunger (Cline 2007). Current climate hazards and the impacts of projected climate change threaten human development (African Development Bank et al, 2003). Climate is linked to all the Millennium Development Goals, but is most directly relevant to the goals to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, reduce child mortality, combat disease, and ensure environmental sustainability (Martin-Hurtado et al, 2002). Agriculture, which is highly sensitive to climate and which is projected to be negatively impacted by climate change in much of the tropics and sub-tropics, is the direct or indirect source of livelihood for about two-thirds of the population of developing countries and is a substantial contributor to their national incomes. About 70% of the world’s poor live in rural areas. Management of climate hazards and climate change impacts in the agriculture sector and rural communities will be critical for success. Climate change threatens the basic elements of life for people around the world – access to water, food, health, and use of land and the environment. The vulnerability of people to food insecurity, which accompanies poverty, is increased due to the degradation of the natural environment and the products (e.g. fruits, fish, water and range-fed livestock) and services (e.g. regulating climate) that it provides (Biggs et. al., 2004). Degradation is due to a number of trends including climate change, soil erosion, the conversion of ecosystems into croplands, overgrazing and urban expansion, among other factors (Biggs et. al., 2004). Climate change poses a serious threat to ecosystems in the developing countries in both the medium and long term. Increases in temperature will lead, not only to an increase in the frequency of extreme events, but also to severe degradation of biodiversity and the loss of water resources that are already scarce (Biggs et. al., 2004). Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most vulnerable to the impacts of change because of widespread poverty and low levels of technical development which limits adaptation capabilities. There is considerable evidence that climate change is already affecting Africa’s people and its environment to the greater extend than any other region of the world in terms of their livelihoods (Lindsay, et al 2009). The impacts of climate change are predicted to affect the livelihoods of most people in developing countries and most especially in Africa in many ways. By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are predicted to be exposed to increased water stress due to climate change. By 2020, yields from rain-fed agriculture in some countries could be reduced by up to 50 percent, increasing food insecurity and hunger. By 2080, an increase of 5 to 8 percent of arid and semi-arid land in Africa is projected. Climate change is likely to affect the distribution patterns of infectious diseases; for example, there is likely to be an increase in mosquitoes which spread dengue and yellow fever. Sea levels are projected to rise by around 25cm by 2050; Africa’s coastal areas are already experiencing environmental problems including coastal erosion, flooding and subsidence. (Said Kolawole et al 2009). Alessandra Giannini, et al, 2008, reviews the evidence that connects drought and desertification in the Sahel with climate change past, present and future in the sub-region. Their study concludes that there is a correlation between the desertification and climate change in the Sahel region of Africa. The African Sahel provides the most dramatic example of multi-decadal climate variability that has been quantitatively and directly measured. Annual rainfall across this region fell by between 20 and 30 per cent between the decades leading up to political independence for the Sahelian nations (1930s to 1950s) and the decades since (1970s to 1990s). Lindsay, et al 2009, further throws more light on the impacts of climate change, drought and desertification and how they are closely interlinked, and most acutely experienced by populations whose livelihoods depend principally on natural resources. Their paper examines three interlinked drivers of adaptation; climate change, desertification and drought, assessing the extent to which international and national policy supports local adaptive strategies. 2. Problem Statement The unimpeded growth of greenhouse gas emissions is raising the earth’s temperature. The consequences include melting glaciers, more precipitation, more and more extreme weather events, and shifting seasons. The accelerating pace of climate change, combined with global population and income growth, threatens food security everywhere. Agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields of desirable crops while encouraging weed and pest proliferation. Changes in precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-run crop failures and long-run production declines. Although there will be gains in some crops in some regions of the world, the overall impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected to be negative, threatening global food security. Populations in the developing world, which are already vulnerable and food insecure, are likely to be the most seriously affected. In 2005, nearly half of the economically active population in developing countries-2.5 billion people-relied on agriculture for its livelihood. Today, 75 percent of the world’s poor live in rural areas. (Gerald C. et al 2009). Climate change issues require multiple stakeholders, global challenges and social sustainability issues. This is because there are varying debates on the causes, impacts of climate, adaptation and mitigation issues when identifying sustainable solutions on the topic. The presence of significant uncertainties has led researchers to emphasize the analysis of regional and national effects (Mendelsohn
COMPANY REPORT PRESENTED TO SENIOR MEMEBERS OF MTN NIG PLC CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION This report reviews the impact of the BYOD which was policy implemented in June at Mobile Telecommunications Network (MTN ). This report evaluates the risks , benefits and provides recommendations on the BYOD Policy within MTN. According to IBM( n.d.) BYOD is an abbreviation of bring your own device which is a IT Policy where employees are permitted or encouraged to bring their personal mobile devices e.g. (tablets and smartphones) to their place of work and use those devices to access privileged company’s information and application. According to Maxwell (2013)The term is also used in academic environment when institutions allow students to operate their own mobile devices to access school and college networks. Seemingly, the introduction of BYODhas many decisive impacts. It is important for businesses because it saves money on the purchase of s computing equipments and eradicates the need for extensive IT Support, thus allowing companies to focus on extensive issues. According to Lucas (2016) Organisations can cut their IT cost as employees invest in their own mobile working devices. In the consequent paragraphs , I will be discussing the impacts of BYOD policy to the company , the risk assessment , limitations and my recommendations to improve this policy. CHAPTER 2 THE IMPACT OF THE BYOD POLICY TO MTN An analysis of MTN’s BYOD policy reveals that several benefits have emerged upon which the company will be able to capitalise on. These include the reduction of technology expenditure, a sense of ownership , increased productivity and user efficiency .These benefits are discussed in greater details in the section below : REDUCED COST OF TECHNOLOGY According to Lucas (2016) .BYOD Policy has saved a lot of money for the company by eradicating the need to purchase specific devices that will suit the taste of each employee. Because of this, budget has shifted to each user and the company only must pay for those employees without mobile devices. This has given MTN the opportunity to shift a large part of the budget to training of staffs and has reduced the long-term contracts with suppliers which has indeed saved the company a literal fortune. (Beauchamp, 2017) A SENSE OF OWNERSHIP According to Lucas (2016) there is always a sense of ownership when using a device that belongs to you. The acceptance of BYOD has permitted employees to use their mobile devices and this has also made employees to become more vigilant. INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY According to Lucas (2016) .With the introduction of BYOD, employees become more satisfied and very happy. They work with the comfort and freedom of using their personal device which has ultimately results into higher productivity levels According to Anon(2012)one of the predominant ways in which BYOD has assisted users is by making them more well organized .Users have more access to every document from any platform or web browser and this enables them to get the job done quickly. CHAPTER 3 BRIEF RISK ASSESMENT ON THE BYOD POLICY RISK ASSESSMENT Potential Hazard Who is At Risk Preventive Measures Responsibilities Leakage of Vital Company Data Through Emails Office Staff Limit the information shared by Devices IT Department Invasion of employees’ privacy The workers The usage pf the company’s internal messenger should be limited. IT Administrator ,Software developers and HR. Through the usage of only emails and the company’s internal messenger, the privacy of every employer will be invaded because they will be online always, thereby invading their privacy. This happens when they get offline messengers from the company’s internal messenger from their superiors at work which they they have to attend to. Whilst the first issue may be approipately dealt with through the IT department , the latter would have to be addressed by an IT policy as well as an HR employee in order to promote worklife Furthermore, the company’s internal messenger is susceptible to hackers and if this vulnerability is exploited, all the company’s data shared between users will be utilized. Through the sharing of emails, there could be leakage of vital company information to the public accidentally. Majority of the staff share information to other users and in the cloud. The automated backup of device data to cloud-based accounts can lead to business data being diverged. There are certain limitations to the BYOD Policy which would be further discussed in chapter four. CHAPTER FOUR RISKS OF BYOD POLICY As highlighted in the previous sections, the introduction of BYOD carries many benefits as well as potential risks for organisations . However there are some of the reasons why BYOD shouldn’t be used implemented in the company. They are highlighted below: High Risk of Data Exposure Unprotected Vulnerabilities Combination of both Personal and Corporate Data HIGH RISK OF DATA LEAKAGE According to Morufu O (2015) This occurs when employees have access to company data anywhere and anytime. The company has minimal control over corporate data because corporate data are now stored by personal mobile devices. As a result of this if corporate data is available in a lost personal device , the data could be publicly made available by the individual in possession of the device ACCESSING UNSECURED WIFI According to (Beauchamp, 2017)Majority of employees often utilize their devices outside the company and there is a high probability that they access unsecured WI-FI connections at different public environments like airports, coffee shops etc. If employees download information from public Wi-Fi spots without a secure protection measure, the data on their mobile devices are automatically exposed and could be exploited by attackers. Furthermore, if employees refuse to install the latest anti-virus on their mobile phones and other robust security applications, there is a tendency that attackers would encroach on their devices. Due to this, employees should install reliable decent security programs on their personal devices and should always be provided with quality technical support which will ensure al the security measure are timely executed. COMBINATION OF BOTH PERSONAL AND COPORATE DATA The introduction of BYOD makes it difficult to differentiate between intimate information and corporate data because they are both kept on the same mobile device. In the event an employee’s phone get stolen , all the information could be assessed by an individual who retrieves the device. (Rainey, 2018)To address this issue, employees should be educated on how to use sandbox or ring-fence data which will assist employees to keep corporate data in a specific application. This will safeguard the data stored and it can also be recovered in case the device is stolen through a backup facility. RAPID PENETRATION OF MALWARE Malware are mischievous software’s that could compromise the security of BYOD. Devices could be compromised by malware leading to loss or disappearance of confidential information This could make a whole device unstable If installed ignorantly, it could reproduce by itself and affect the entire network of the company. The company should invest in more security software’s which can be used in scanning and analysing the threats posed by malwares before they cause extensive damages. (Anon., 2018) Another method in which an employee credentials could be tampered with is through key-logging. This tool is used to record the login details and password of a user and apply the details to cause damages to the company. CHAPTER FIVE RECOMMENDATION Here are a few suggestions that could improve BYOD Policy to help in maintaining the security of the company (Paganini, 2013)  Previous security policies that are related to mobile devices should be reviewed.  Create policies before procuring technology. (Klinger, 2016)  The manager should take a consensus among the staff to determine which of their devices meet the security requirements of the company.  Personal information should be kept private. (Klinger, 2016)  Clear policies should be written to govern the use of mobile devices by employees. Terms of use must be defined by each category of mobile devices, including data and application recommended by the employee.  The integrity of each device should be verified to confirm that they havent been rooted by an employee.  Devices should be monitored constantly for non-compliance. (Klinger, 2016)  IT Help /Service Desk should oversee the management of data usage and constantly monitor devices for not following the rules.  Policies should be reviewed quarterly, installed applications and mobile devices should be audited.  The employees should be trained on the proper use of mobile devices and the way they access internal network devices. Paganini (2013) It is the responsibility of the following departments to administer the above rules:  IT Help/Desk is responsible for providing limited support for BYOD to the employees.  All employees are responsible for complying with the policies prepared by the management.  Quality and Internal Audit Department is responsible for assessing the activities and to ensure all staff follow the rules.  Corporate IT Security Management is responsible for identifying security, maintaining the company’s BYOD Policy and taking charge of the problems that arise from its introduction  IT Department is responsible for managing the security of corporate infrastructure.  IT Human Resources Department is responsible for running educational programs and raising awareness of the BYOD Policy to all employee. MOBILE MONITORING The use of monitoring devices should be applied to effectively administer our BYOD policy. One of the monitoring device the company should use is called MDM. MDM is a mobile device management that interpret policies across multiple operating systems which will in turn validate the device to the network and secure information. It is a tool responsible for the overall control of mobile devices. Mobile device manager performs the following functions:  MDM locks down devices, enforce policies, encrypt data and wipes out data remotely.  MDM monitors, controls and protects a mobile device.  MDM can force an application to be installed on a device, enforce policies for the usage of that application and even uninstall applications.  MDM can enforce security settings, manage passwords and install digital certificates for authentication.  MDM can restrict a user to download/install an application.  MDM configures devices on the remotely.  MDM helps in the blacklisting of applications. Anon( n.d.)  Assigning commercial and enterprise applications to required devices.  Wiping of corporate data or an entire device remotely.  Nullifying application licenses when users don’t need them.  Restricting interaction between applications. The following steps highlights how a device is configured to work with MDM. (Anon., n.d.)  Enrols the device connected to the company network with a device manager to provide a strong authentication process and verifies that the device is genuine.  The MDM device communicates with the Server and a secure network is granted connection.  The application of the MDM device is then connected with the mobile device manager  Encryption takes place between the Virtual Private Network and Gateway server.  The device is connected by the server it ensures Group policy settings on the device.  And finally, the MDM Device is then authorised to access the services on the network. SECURITY INCIDENT PLAN The IT department should ensure that there is a plan, to deal with security issues such as malware, stolen devices and data breaches. Users should be told to bring n their devices to the IT department if the believe they have been compromised .This will promote trust and co-operation between co-workers rather than threats . Secondly, a rule should be enforced to prevent any worker from storing any company data inside their BYOD-related devices. File synchronization such as a corporate drop box should be utilized to reduce the impact of the damages the company will incur if devices are stolen or exhorted. STANDARD SECURITY SETTINGS PROTOCOL I implore the company to apply security settings on all BYOD devices. Security should be prioritized. Terminating the misuse of data is one of the fundamental concerns of the IT administrators in this company. The IT administrators should be provided with enterprise-security features such as:  Strict password settings.  Detection and notification of non-compliant devices.  Geo tracking and remote locking of compromised devices.  Uninterrupted scanning of security and policy settings. MANDATORY OPERATING SYSTEM UPDATES This will in a long way reduce the threat posed by malwares and hackers to the company. Each operating system could be exploited, and vital company data could be stolen if vulnerabilities in applications arent identified. Devices should be automatically configured to check for updates on daily basics and installed as soon as they are available. STATE THE RULES BEFORE AN EMPLOYEE AGREES TO USE THEIR DEVICE Employees must be informed from the beginning that ANY classified information found on their devices will be wiped off once they quit the job or are dismissed. This must be signed and documented before they agree to use their equipment’s for work. This is very important because we need to regulate how restricted information of the company should be handled before it gets exposed. CONCLUSION Now we must ask ourselves these questions, Is the BYOD Policy right for MTN? Should we continue to use the policy or terminate it? Has the Policy had an impact on our business positively? and do our employees like it? BYOD has efficiently added to our effectiveness in competing with industries. It has also given us an efficient customer service which has increased the customer satisfaction. BYOD has brought so many positives to this company. Employees now have a better work life which has improved their efficiency at work. Nevertheless, the downside of BYOD have refused to go away, the financial responsibility is still there, and the IT department must always be at alert in case of an unforeseen loss, theft or damages. However, for a complete successful implementation of BYOD, devices must be protected with screen lock passwords, a mobile security management suite must also be in place to integrate our environment such that no user device may have access to our corporate assets. Devices must be updated regularly with the latest OS. Company data must be encrypted, and it shouldn’t be mixed with personal data and they must be kept separate. Although BYOD has been very favourable to MTN, it also has several cyber security risks which needs to be properly handled. The company needs to broaden her security guidelines and educate employees on how to protect their devices and constantly monitor any security breaches. References Anon., 2012. An Osterman Research white paper. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 6 November 2018]. Anon., 2018. FossyBytes. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 8 November 2018]. Anon., n.d. [Online]. Anon., n.d. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 November 2018]. Anon., n.d. MobileDeviceManager. [Online] Available at: (

Answer the following questions of organizational behaviour

Answer the following questions of organizational behaviour.

Please answers the following 3 questions for your individual assignment1.Select an organization of your choice and discuss any one of the challenges that it faces currently. Explain the ways in which you will try to overcome the challenge if you are appointed as the manager. Justify your answer with relevant details.2.Choose any two perceptual errors from the textbook or from your extra research. Describe an incident/circumstance that has taken place in your life /experience that matches each of those perceptual errors.3.Please click on the link below and try the Big 5 personality test. Discuss your results on each dimension of Big 5 and explain how it will affect in your work place. Points1.Format (follow the APA style,7th edition guidelines)2.Assignment a. Title pageb. Give a short introduction and conclusion to each question.c. The body of each answer should have a detailed explanationd. No need to write the question, write the answers with the corresponding question numbers (Writing the questions will increase the similarity score)e. References from outside (minimum five) + course textbook = Total 63.Word limit: maximum 2000 words (From title page to references)
Answer the following questions of organizational behaviour

English As An Additional Language

java assignment help Over the past decade, there has been much discussion and research into factors affecting the performance of pupils with English as an Additional Language (EAL) in mainstream secondary schools in the United Kingdom. Recent studies in the UK have focused on the relationship between factors such as gender, ethnicity, pupil mobility, parental occupation, entitlement to free school meals and educational achievement. Nevertheless socio-economic status (SES) continues to be the most important single determinant of educational and social outcomes. The nature of the relationship between socioeconomic status and student achievement has been the point of argument for years, with the most influential arguments appearing in Equality of Educational Opportunity (Coleman, et al., 1968) and Inequality (Jencks, et al., 1973) in the United States of America, and a number of commissioned inquiries in Australia (Commission of Inquiry into Poverty, 1976; Karmel, 1973). How SES influences student achievement is not clear, and there have been many theories to explain the relationship. In one scenario, school students from low-SES homes are at a disadvantage in schools because they lack an academic home environment, which influences their academic success at school. Another scenario argues that school and neighbourhood environments influence academic success, so that low-SES schools are generally lower-performing, and that only extremely resilient young people can escape the ‘fate’ of low academic achievement. How governments interpret the SES-achievement debate influences education policies designed to ameliorate educational disadvantage, so it is important to point out the contribution SES makes to achievement at both student and school level. This study seeks to find out what level of performances EAL pupils have achieved in recent years and what are the overriding factors that determine their achievement in Modern Foreign Languages (MFL). A central characteristic of provision for EAL students in mainstream classrooms in the English context is that it can best be described as “patchy and varied” (Bourne, 2007; Leung, 2002; Leung

Produsage and Participatory Culture

M024610021 – Grégoire Lesene Second Response Essay for The Audience in Media and Communications course Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation – Axel Bruns Summary: In Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation, Dr. Axel Bruns defines the concept of produsage, coined by the scholar himself after the terms “production” and “usage” (Wikipedia), so as to characterize today’s user led content environments. According to Bruns, produsage is “the collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement.” (Bruns 2). This notion is linked with the emergence of the so-called “social software” and “Web 2.0” environments, and illustrates the phenomenon of users or consumers playing the roles of producers in various virtual settings such as social networking (with sites such as Facebook, Myspace or LinkedIn), knowledge management (Wikipedia or Google Earth), creative practice (Flickr, YouTube or ccMixter), multi-user online gaming (as gamers are being more and more involved in the development of games, with the example of The Sims, where 90% of the game’s content being made by consumers rather than the developer Maxis), citizen journalism (Indymedia or Slashdot, having an impact on political processes in several countries (Bruns 3)), collaborative filtering (Amazon’s recommendations or Google’s PageRank) and open source software development (Linux or LibreOffice). The author informs us the phenomenon of users being involved in content creation is far from being new, as the term “prosumer” was already coined four decades ago by American writer and futurist Alvin Toffler so as to describe “more informed, more involved consumer of goods who would need to be addressed by allowing for a greater customisability and individualisability of products” (Bruns 3). The concept of “pro-am” was also approached by Charles Leadbeater to describe a “joint effort of producers and consumers in developing new and improved commercial goods.” (Bruns 3). It is mentioned by the author that the above-mentioned models sustain however a traditional industrial production chain, as the split into three parts is still present (producer, distributor and consumer). Author Alex Bruns states the concept of produsage can be defined following four characteristics, which are: 1) shifts from producers to wide communities of participants, 2) flowing movement between produsers’ roles, 3) unfinished products that are subjects to constant evolutions and modifications, 4) produsers recognize and value authorship and merit while forbidding unauthorized commercial usage so as to promote constant improvement of products. Detailing commercial approaches of the produsage (i.e.: crowdsourcing), scholar Bruns points out the possible issues of this model, among which the problem of legal concept of copyright which needs to be reconsidered (Bruns 7), and states that if such a trend keeps on working, it should be considered as a fundamental paradigm change with deep involvements. Evaluation: Based on “the affordances of the technosocial framework of the networked environments” (Snurb 1), produsage allows amateurs and professionals alike to work hand in hand in order to create and share information or products with the rest of the world. This collaboration brings several benefits, among which the sharing of knowledge, such as website, which allows anyone free access and content to an Internet encyclopedia. In this era of “participatory culture”, time and money are less of an obstacle than it used to be. For instance number one’s global crowdfunding platform Kickstarter enables individuals to bring a project to life, using public fundraising to bring projects such as video games, music albums, inventions, movies etc. to completion if minimum funding goals are attained. Using the example of the video game industry, where traditionally large publishing companies have an impact on the original ideas and visions of video game developers, rendering at times a piece of work unfinished or oftentimes bugged that necessitates patching afterwards (with for instance the example of computer game Fallout 2, which was rendered fully playable due to an unofficial patching by fans), crowdfunding platforms such as Kickstarter nowadays allow developers to fully conceive their work of art the way they want it to be without any boundaries. Therefore in such cases, the intervention of the public, the involvement of consumers in the production of contents is seen as beneficial, as constraints of the past are now overcome. Although produsage appear to have a positive impact in certain areas, the concept has its limitations in some fields, among which in the domain of education. As media expert and MIT Professor Henry Jenkins states, there is “a huge gap between what you can do when you’ve got unlimited access to broadband in your home and what you can do when your only access is through the public library, where there are often time limits on how long you can work, when there are already federally mandated filters blocking access to certain sites, when there are limits on your ability to store and upload material, and so forth.” (Jenkins 1). Two other deficiencies of the concept of participatory culture are also pointed out by Henry Jenkins, what he calls the “transparency problem” and the “ethics challenge”. For Jenkins, the “transparency problem” is the issue young people are confronted with while learning as media change perceptions of the world. As a matter of fact, we cannot deny that our ability to elucidate the veracity of certain information is at times challenged due to the tremendous amount of information available. The other issue named the “ethics challenge” is defined as “the breakdown of traditional forms of professional training and socialization that might prepare young people for their increasingly public roles as media makers and community participants.” (Norris 1). Taking the rise of citizen journalism to illustrate this point, almost everyone can pretend to be a journalist to date, while this career is traditionally tied with a certain education, rules and techniques. Elaboration: Following the reading of this journal along with various articles linked with the concepts of produsage and participatory culture, we have learnt the involvement of produsers is beneficial and detrimental at the same time. The goal of produsers is to provide freely to individuals without any form of rewards. However the risk might occurs that companies may take advantage of such contents to benefit themselves. Subsequently we cannot help but wonder about the continuity on the long-term of such practices, as eventually contributors might be tempted to earn something in return for their hardwork. Produsage content is nowadays undeniably part of our daily lives and it is somewhat difficult to imagine how we would be able to do without this amount of accessible knowledge to us. Because of produsage, we can have access to unlimited forms of learning such as YouTube tutorials for instance, and Wikipedia has become a student’s staple for dealing with assignment or as a decent if not reliable source of knowledge for plenty of individuals (despite the fact we fundamentally know such affirmations on this website should be treated with caution). Therefore did produsage and participatory culture help us broaden our criticism, view and understanding of our daily surroundings or did they simply worsen these skills? As online communities seem to favor more and more virtual realities such as the game The Sims, does produsage create loneliness and antisocial, reclusive living habits, far away from real human contact? References: Bruns, A., (2007). Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation.Proceedings Creativity

Experience and Motivation of a Customer Service Representative Presentation

Experience and Motivation of a Customer Service Representative Presentation.

Research the customer service representative job description using the O*Net Database and create a PowerPoint presentation of at least 4 slides (with 200-250 words of speaker notes per slide) plus title and reference slide that addresses the following:Describe 5 qualifications that should be found in a customer service representative job description.What level of education should be necessary for a customer service representative, and why?What kinds of job experience should the customer service representative have, and why?What skills should the customer service representative demonstrate to be successful in the position?
Experience and Motivation of a Customer Service Representative Presentation