The U.S. health care system is unique in comparison to health care systems in other industrialized countries. According to the Commonwealth Fund Analysis (2017), the U.S. ranks 11 in overall ranking of health care system performance rankings.
(Image: Common Wealth Fund, Retrieved from https://www.commonwealthfund.org/chart/2017/health-care-system-performance-rankings)
Identify and select 5 of the following countries to research:
In a 13- to 15-slide PowerPoint (PPT) presentation:
Compare and contrast the selected country’s health care delivery systems to the U.S.
Based on your research, provide 2-3 recommendations the U.S. should adopt to improve health care delivery.
Speaker’s notes are required for each slide. Much of the information presented on the slides should be concise and explained in detail through your speaker notes.
SLP Assignment Expectations
Conduct additional research to gather sufficient information to support your design of your PPT.
Limit your total PPT to a maximum of 15 slides, not including your title or reference slide.
Support your report with peer-reviewed articles, with at least 3 references. Use the following link for additional information on how to recognize peer-reviewed journals. Angelo State University Library (n.d.) Library guide: How to recognize peer reviewed (refereed journals). Retrieved from: https://www.angelo.edu/services/library/handouts/peerrev.php
You may use the following source to assist in formatting your assignment. Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). General APA guidelines. Retrieved from: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.
For additional information on reliability of sources review the following source. Georgetown University Library (n.d.) Evaluating internet resources. Retrieved from https://www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/evaluating-internet-content
U.S. HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS (session long project) module 1
Review the Wk 2 – Apply: Statistical Report assignment. In preparation for writing your report to senior management next week, conduct the following descriptive statistics analyses with Microsoft® Excel®. Answer the questions below in your Microsoft® Excel® sheet or in a separate Microsoft® Word document:Insert a new column in the database that corresponds to “Annual Sales.” Annual Sales is the result of multiplying a restaurant’s “SqFt.” by “Sales/SqFt.”Calculate the mean, standard deviation, skew, 5-number summary, and interquartile range (IQR) for each of the variables.Create a box-plot for the “Annual Sales” variable. Does it look symmetric? Would you prefer the IQR instead of the standard deviation to describe this variable’s dispersion? Why?Create a histogram for the “Sales/SqFt” variable. Is the distribution symmetric? If not, what is the skew? Are there any outliers? If so, which one(s)? What is the “SqFt” area of the outlier(s)? Is the outlier(s) smaller or larger than the average restaurant in the database? What can you conclude from this observation?What measure of central tendency is more appropriate to describe “Sales/SqFt”? Why?
Virginia University Annual Sales Statistics Descriptive Analysis Questions
Choose one (1) of the topics from the list of topic choices below. Read the topic carefully. Write a three to four (3-4) page paper (750-1,000 words) that follows instructions and covers each part of the topic. (The title page and References list do not get included in this word count).Note: Your instructor may require you to submit your topic choice for approval before the end of Week 5.For the topic you choose:Establish a clear thesis about your topic as part of the introductory paragraph (often the thesis is the last thing one determines after doing the basic research and outline; however it will be placed in the first paragraph of your paper).This is a comparative essay. Comparison approached properly will require some critical thinking on your part. Use a point-by-point approach for the essay. That means, if comparing subject A with subject B, don’t do the first half of the essay on subject A and then the second half on subject B–that will seem like two (2) separate essays and comparisons will tend to get lost. Instead, you should be mentioning both subjects in most of your paragraphs as you compare them throughout the essay. Comparisons will identify similarities as well as contrasts.Do not try to do everything on your two (2) subjects. You should end up narrowing your focus to a few insights and issues about the subjects being compared. And, from those fairly specific points of comparison, you will develop a thesis and glean some lessons.Follow closely the instructions below for your specific topic.Include a concluding paragraph at the end. This paragraph will, in some way, refer back to the thesis established in your first paragraph, since now you have demonstrated and supported it. It may be here that you also include your observations relating your study to the modern workplace or society (see your topic). Try to finish with flair!Use at least three (3) good quality academic sources, with one (1) source being the class text. Note: Wikipedia and other similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources. You are highly encouraged to use the Resource Center tab at the top of your Blackboard page.Topic Choices – Choose just one (1) of the topics below:Qualities of the Hero: Comparing Gilgamesh and Odysseus. Write an essay comparing these two (2) heroic figures from ancient epics of different cultures, especially focusing your analysis on the sources about their encounters with monsters: Gilgamesh encounters the monster guarding the forest, Humbaba, in Tablets 3-5 of the Epic of Gilgamesh (see http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/eog/ ). Odysseus encounters Polyphemus the Cyclops in Book 9 of The Odyssey(see http://www.theoi.com/Text/HomerOdyssey9.html; from line 105 to the end). Your paper should: a) Compare Gilgamesh and Odysseus as to their heroic qualities, noting similarities and differences, using specific examples from the epics.b) Summarize what this indicates about differences between ancient Mesopotamian and Greek cultures in their ideals and expectations.c) From this comparison, suggest ways that current cultural ideals and expectations shape modern notions about role models and heroes.Confucius and Aristotle on Virtue. Write an essay comparing these two (2) ancient thinkers on the concept of virtue or good ethical character and conduct. Stay focused on the issue; keep any biographical or other information short or limited. As much as possible, analyze their writings (in translation, of course), using Confucius’ Analects (at http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.html ) and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (at http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html ). Your paper should:a) Compare the teachings of Confucius and Aristotle on what constitutes virtue or good ethical character and conduct, noting similarities and differences in specific ideas or emphasis.b) Consider what your findings suggest about differences between ancient Chinese and ancient Greek culture.c) From this comparison, suggest ideas of virtue that can apply to ethics in a modern setting, such as a diverse workplace. Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece. Write an essay comparing the way gods and humans were depicted in sculpture in ancient India and Greece, and identify the cultural values and ideals that these art works reflect in each case. Your paper should: a) Using specific examples, compare the way gods and people were depicted in the sculptures of ancient India and Greece, noting similarities and differences.b) Identify the cultural values and ideals that these art works reflect for each society. c) From this comparison, suggest a modern situation of artistic expression and the ways it reflects or counters prevailing cultural values. Comparing Ancient Skeptics. Write an essay comparing Lucretius and Wang Chong (=Wang Ch’ung), skeptical philosophers of ancient Rome and China. They were skeptical about popular religious and spiritual beliefs and widely-held superstitions. Lucretius was an Epicurean philosopher of Roman culture (Chapter 6). Wang Ch’ung was a thinker in ancient Chinese culture (Chapter 7). Focus your comparison on their writings as found at http://www.humanistictexts.org/lucretius.htmand http://www.humanistictexts.org/wangchung.htm#On Not Flying to Heaven. Your paper should:a) Using examples from their writings, compare these two (2) thinkers on their views about specific subjects and on their approach in explaining and expressing their skepticism.b) From this comparison, identify popular beliefs in each culture that seem similar and those that seem different.c) From this comparison, suggest any modern situation in which materialist skeptics confront spiritual and religious beliefs, and comment on the considerations of free expression and cultural respect. Comparing Ancient Male Rulers. Take any two (2) of these rulers and write an essay comparing them: Ramses II, Shihuangdi, Constantine, Ashoka, Pericles, or Charlemagne. Select rulers from different cultures. You may also propose (for approval or not) a ruler not listed. Avoid lengthy quoting or lengthy close paraphrasing from biographical sources. Make it YOUR comparative analysis. Your paper should:a) Compare the two (2) rulers in terms of their situation and methods of rule and their apparent ideals and practices, noting similarities and differences. Use specific examples.b) Consider what your study suggests about the cultures over which they ruled, identifying any similarities and differences between the cultures.c) From this comparison, suggest lessons about different types of effective leadership in the world of modern business and / or modern politics. Comparing Ancient Female Rulers. Compare the Tang Empress Wu Zetian (also known as Empress Wu or as Wu Zhao; ruled China around 690-705 AD) with either the Pharaoh Cleopatra (ruled Egypt around 51-31 BC) or the Pharaoh Hatshepsut (ruled Egypt around 1478-1458 BC). You may also propose (for approval or not) a female ruler not listed. Avoid lengthy quoting or lengthy close paraphrasing from biographical sources. Make it YOUR comparative analysis. Your paper should:a) Compare the two (2) rulers in terms of their situation and ascent to power, their methods of rule, and their achievements and resourcefulness, noting similarities and differences. Use specific examples.b) Consider what your study suggests about the cultures over which they ruled, identifying any similarities and differences between the cultures.c) From this comparison, suggest lessons about different types of effective leadership by a female in the world of modern business and / or modern politics. Other topic choice using a comparative approach (proposed by student or instructor) and approved by the professor and supported by the grading rubric.I will grade this Project Paper on:The level to which the instructions were followed for the paper generally and for the specific topic.The establishment of a clear thesis about your topic.The adequacy and relevance of information, examples, and details which support the general thesis.Covering each part of the topic as instructed, including the comparisons, the consideration of ancient cultural differences, and the reflection on lessons for modern society or the modern workplace.The quality of your research and your persuasiveness using critical reasoning.The use and acknowledgement of a minimum of three (3) required references (the class textbook plus at least two (2) other quality academic sources) documented using the APA style –including both the use of a proper References list and the use of proper in-text citations.Adherence to standard rules of grammar, punctuation, paragraphing, and mechanics, and general clarity of presentation.The assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. Both in-text citations and a References list are required. Citations and references must follow APA style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions specific to the selected topic. (Note: You can find APA style materials located in the course shell for guidance).Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the your name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length. For our purposes, you may omit any abstract page.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Explain how key social, cultural, and artistic contributions contribute to historical changes.Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions.Identify major historical developments in world cultures during the eras of antiquity to the Renaissance.Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.
World Cultures – Comparative Essay
For this weeks assignment, we are discussing voting and elections. Voting is an essential component of our democracy. However it is not without its criticism. For this assignment, please read the study provided by the Pew Research and answer the following questions.https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/11/05/i…1. Exploring the data surrounding the four voting variables (i.e. Important, Convenient, Straightforward, and exciting), describe and explain how your generation is categorized (as a percentage), in respect to each of the four variables.2. Do you feel that any of the four voting variables from the above question, are applicable to you? Explain your answer.3. Do you think voting is easy or difficult? Either for all voters in general or even in respect to your own personal experiences.4.How do you feel voting can be made to feel easier or more secure? Do you vote absentee or do you go to the polls?
Walden University The Voting and Elections Questions
Forecasting and changing environment
Forecasting and changing environment.
400 words. APA Format. 3 references……………….This week’s electronic reading from Schmidt, Goffeney and Willis highlight that intelligence analysts and military planners need to accurately use forecasting techniques for predicting future terror events. The article points out that threat analysis forecasts must consider historical events, up-to-date geospatial features, terrorist behavior, and uncertainty and error in the input measurements and propagation of data.
From the 9/11 attacks, to those committed at the Boston Marathon the connection between predictive threat analysis and terrorist behaviors continues to be studied.
For this week’s forum consider how terrorists behave and what actions might be useful in predictive analysis. Dr Robert Pape from the University of Chicago has explored the behavior of suicide bombers in countless articles and books (Watch a port of Dr Pape’s presentation on the subject: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4HnIyClHEM (CC), and watch a portion of Dr Pape’s discussion on the subject with Sam Harris: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=emiwacyap0Q (CC). AMU’s Dr Brent Smith, in his article entitled “A Look at Terrorist Behavior: How They Prepare and Where They Strike,” looks at the same issue with a different spin. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/222900.pdf
Forecasting and changing environment
BUS 302 Strayer University Creating a Culture of Innovation & Creativity Report
essay help online BUS 302 Strayer University Creating a Culture of Innovation & Creativity Report.
Instructions Choose one of the following: Write a 3–5 page business report in which you: Identify which option you chose and indicate the products and/or services the company provides.Describe the ideal qualities and characteristics of the company employees in terms of creating a creative and innovative culture.Describe the ideal background and experience needed for company leaders to foster a culture of creativity and innovation.Identify the two most important leadership qualities and characteristics the employees should have to be effective leaders.Discuss the ideal organizational culture and how it would foster creativity and innovation among employees.Use at least three quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources.
BUS 302 Strayer University Creating a Culture of Innovation & Creativity Report
Ohio State University What is Sociology of Art Essay
Ohio State University What is Sociology of Art Essay.
Essay must be a minimum of 350 words (not including reference page or headingTopic: What is Sociology of Art?Read:• What is the Artist’s Role in Societyhttps://www.artworkarchive.com/blog/what-is-the-ar…• Why is Art Important to Societyhttps://www.ccorinnef.com/blog/2018/8/21/why-is-ar…Watch:• George Zisiadis: Can Art (and Sociology) Change The World?• The Role of Arts & Culture in an Open Society• TedTalk: Why Art MattersEssay 1 Prompts: Consider what you have read and watched this week. Using this information explain why art matters for a society (any and all societies). What do we gain from the existence and creation of art? Why is art important? Reference what you have read and watched in answering these questions.
Ohio State University What is Sociology of Art Essay
Enabling Individuals with Additional Needs to Face Daily Challenges
Enabling individuals with additional needs to face daily challenges Appendix 1- Case study 1. Rebecca Brown (Child Study) Rebecca Brown is 8 years old and is a wheelchair user, following a road traffic accident when she was five years old. Rebecca requires one to one personal care due to her physical disabilities, as she sustained a fractured spine in the accident, meaning that she has no movement below her cervical spine. Rebecca attends a school for children with additional needs, where she has a designated teaching assistant and also a carer who provides her with personal care during the school day. Rebecca lives with her parents Sue and David and her older sibling Michael who is 12 years of age. The family live in an upstairs apartment provided by a housing association, which is small and not ‘wheelchair friendly’. Sue has a part time job at a local day nursery but has to stay at home during the school holidays, in order to care for Rebecca and Michael, reducing the family income. David works full-time at a local factory, working long hours for a low wage. The neighbourhood where the Brown family live are not tolerant of Rebecca’s ‘difference’, and the family have received unpleasant comments as they pass neighbours in the street, causing them to avoid going out whenever possible. Appendix 2- Case study 1. Ben Grace (Adult Study) Ben Grace is fifty two and has Down’s syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Ben has a learning age of 8 and requires support with all aspects of daily living. Ben lives in a group setting with five other adults who have learning difficulties and who also require additional support. Ben previously lived with his mother, but following her death last year, Ben moved to the residential setting. Ben has always enjoyed going shopping, but since he has moved into the residence, he prefers to stay in his room which is a concern for the staff, following an incident with some local youths who shouted at Ben when he went shopping with the residents and carers. Recently Ben was refused entry to a local funfair by the manager who stated that Ben’s appearance could prevent other people wanting to attend. Ben is refusing to keep to the special diet required to control his type 2 diabetes and staff have found bags of sweets under his pillow when making his bed. His blood glucose levels are unstable, resulting in Ben feeling unwell. Ben has become withdrawn. Task 1 Introduction This report with evaluate the significance of receiving a diagnosis of additional needs to both once child and one adult and their families and wider society. It will address their intellectual and learning needs; physical health needs and social and emotional needs Adult case study My adult case study is a fifty two year old man called Ben Grace, he has Down’s Syndrome and type 2 diabetes along with the learning age 8, meaning he requires support with all aspects of daily living, however with the death of his mother it meant he had to move into supported living where he lives with other people that also have learning difficulties and require support however he has not been getting on well there as it appears he has been discriminated by a local funfair manager and made fun of by some youths. This has lead to him becoming ‘with drawn’ and not wanting to stick to his special diet. Child case study My child case study is a 8 year old girl called Rebeca Brown, she is a wheelchair user following a road accident in which she sustained a fractured spine meaning she has no movement below her cervical spine. Because of this she requires one to one personal care at all times therefor now goes to a specialist school where she can have a teaching assistant and carer. Due to her ‘differences’ she has received unpleasant comments from neighbours and her home doesn’t support her needs as it isn’t wheelchair friendly and is small. Disability’s range from severe, moderate and mild. In Rebecca’s case she has a more severe physical disability and in Ben’s case he has a more profound learning disability. This means that both of these individuals additional needs would have different professionals involved in their diagnostics and care. Ben Grace Type 2 diabetes It is a condition which causes the glucose in the blood to become to high (sugar levels). It is diagnosed with a blood or urine test, but is often accidentally diagnosed as it shows up when being tested for other problems. Once the results come back, the doctor will put the patient on relevant medication and discuss what it is and the importance of life style choices. Patients will often have to monitor their sugar intake after a diagnosis. The most common causes of developing this is being overweight and inactive, however it can also be genetic. Common symptoms: • peeing more than usual, particularly at night • feeling thirsty all the time • feeling very tired • losing weight without trying to • itching around your penis or vagina, or repeatedly getting thrush • cuts or wounds taking longer to heal • blurred vision (14) In Ben’s case, as he is aged 52 he was at a risk of developing type 2 diabetes anyway as it becomes a higher risk the older the patient becomes, however it may also of been genetically passed to him or caused from being overweight and inactive. As stated in the case study, Ben has been refusing the special diet and eating sweets, which indicates he has been eating unhealthy for a while which may of been the cause of the development as it is harder for Ben to be more active due to struggles he has and has had in the past. To keep himself healthy he needs to stick to the diet and get plenty of exercise, he may need encouragement to exercise but he could attend exercise groups for people who have special needs as they have the right support their to help Ben make the most of what he does and understand the reasons for staying active, as going to a gym or for a run may be intimidating for Ben, especially as he has struggles with bullying in the past. Down’s Syndrome Ben has Down’s Syndrome which is caused by an extra chromosome in your cells. In the majority of cases it can not be inherited, it occurs by chance conception (4). Ben lives in a group setting of supported living, as he would require help with daily tasks such as personal hygiene, dressing, grocery shopping, leisure activities and also attending frequent appointments such as regular checkups which is common for adults with Down’s Syndrome. This support would typically come from a learning disability nurse/carer or support worker, which would also be Ben’s source of everyday encouragement and would also support him in other aspects such as finding employment and tidying. Ben may also require emotional support, in which case he may have a counsellor or a mental health nurse involved in his care. Ben may also need specific support to socialise and with his confidence as he has previously encountered bullying in the past which could majorly affect how he feels about himself. Living in the shared accommodation could feel scary and intimidating for Ben, especially at the beginning, so having someone check up on him regularly and keep in close contact with is important. Ben may find support groups effective, however may require encouragement to attend and wether there are any available to him. To monitor all of this, it would be useful to have a professional use a chart to measure everything and keep records, which would increase the importance of all of the professionals working closely together. common facial features include: • Flattened face • Small head • Short neck • Protruding tongue • Upward slanting eye lids (palpebral fissures) • Unusually shaped or small ears • Poor muscle tone • Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm • Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet • Excessive flexibility • Tiny white spots on the coloured part (iris) of the eye called Brushfield’s spots • Short height What are the risks? Having Down syndrome also increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia from the age of forty five and onwards. Some health problems that are commonly associated are endocrine problems, dental problems, seizures, ear infections, and hearing and vision problems, however these don’t affect everyone. Most children are born with some type of congenital heart defect which can be life-threatening and may require surgery in early infancy (3). How is Down’s Syndrome diagnosed? The diagnosis for Down’s Syndrome can start during the pregnancy by a number of tests carried out at certain times. All pregnant women are offered a screening test between ten to fourteen weeks of their pregnancy. This test is called the ‘combined’ test as it tests for Down’s, Edward’s and Patau’s syndrome (however the women can choose what she tests for) and it involves a ultrasound and a bloods test, this causes no harm to the mother or the baby. Depending on wether the results show a higher or lower chance determines if other tests are offered. If the women appears at a higher chance, she will be offered a diagnostic test, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to tell her for certain whether or not the baby has Down’s Syndrome, however a diagnostic test does come with a risk of miscarriage (6). These tests don’t have to be taken if the mother wishes not to, in which case the diagnosis would be done after the birth. A diagnosis after birth is often based on physical the physical appearance and physical signs. However some baby’s may not have these symptoms, and some the of them are common in the general population, the health care provider would take a blood sample to check the number of chromosomes and confirm the diagnosis (7). What is a learning disability? A learning disability is a reduced intellectual ability and difficulty with everyday activities; for example household tasks, socialising or managing money which affects someone for their whole life. People with a learning disability tend to take longer to learn and may need support to develop new skills, understand complicated information and interact with other people. The level of support someone needs depends on the individual. For example, someone with a mild learning disability may only need support with things like getting a job. However, someone with a more profound learning disability may need fulltime care and support with every aspect of their life and they may also have physical disabilities (1). People with Down’s syndrome will typically have some level of learning disability and characteristic physical features but the severity will be different for each individual (4). In Ben’s case his Down’s Syndrome has caused him to have quite a more severe learning disability, he has the learning age of 8 so therefore he requires support with all aspects of living. Rebeca doesn’t have any learning disabilities. What are the early signs of a learning disability? • Trouble feeding, sucking and digesting. (8) • Delayed learning to sit or stand. (8) • Difficulty pronouncing words and short sentences, or learning new words. (8) • School-aged children may find reading and writing difficult or have problems understanding information and instructions. (8) How is a learning disability diagnosed? GP usually makes a diagnosis of a learning disability, but it is often parents or teachers who first become aware that a child is having difficulties in certain areas. A learning disability may be diagnosed in various ways: A learning disability may be diagnosed at a developmental check. All children have checks to monitor their growth rate and highlight any health problems. Health visitors and GPs will also look at what age the child is reaching their development milestones, such as learning to talk and developing physical skills. Diagnosis may be made through psychological checks. These tests look at the child’s ability and compare it with what is considered typical for a child of that age. A learning disability may be identified by your child’s teacher. A clinical psychologist may be able to diagnose an adult’s learning disability, by assessing their level of understanding. What is an IQ and how does it help to define learning disabilities? An ‘IQ’ stands for intelligence quotient and it is several tests that are designed to assess a humans intelligence (2). IQ less than 20 – described as ‘profound learning disability’ (5) IQ of 20-35 describes as ‘severe learning disability’ (5) IQ of 35-49 described as ‘moderate learning disability’ (5) IQ of 50-70 described as ‘mild learning disability’ (5) Rebeca Brown Physical disabilities ‘’A physical disability is a limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.’’ (9) In Rebecca’s case, her injuries caused her to have a fractured spine meaning she has no movement below her cervical spine, because of this she would have been given physical examinations and radio-graphical screenings to determine what injuries she had and the severity of it. With Rebecca having a fractured spine it means she will need a lot of one to one help with personal care which is why she was placed in a school for additional needs so that she can get the appropriate help and support she needs which would be a teaching assistant and carer which she has, stated in the case study. However Rebecca may need emotional support which she can get from her peers and family, but a specialist councillor or mental health nurse may be more beneficial as she may struggle to comprehend the extent her injuries have effected her and her family’s life, and may have encountered mental health issues. Rebecca may find socialising difficult so she may need encouragement to do so, especially if she has previously had issues with bullying or confidence. Rebecca might find support groups beneficial, but might need some encouragement to attend any if they are available. It is important to help Rebecca be independent where she can as this can help her to increase mobility and ability to do things for herself. How is a fractured spine diagnosed? Firstly the patients breathing is assessed as this can show signs of damage to the diaphragm, secondly a physical exam of the spine will be performed, during these processes the spine is kept in a neck or back brace to protect any injuries until the diagnostics are completed (10). There are scans that can be done to confirm if a patient has any damage such as MRI, CT scans and X-Rays. What are MRI, CT scans and X-Rays? MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), is a process that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the inside of the body. It can almost examine any part of the body, including the brain and spinal cord, bones and joints, breasts, heart and blood vessels, internal organs, such as the liver and womb or prostate gland. The patient will lie on a flat bed that’s moved into the scanner, either head or feet first depending on the part of the body being scanned. The scan is more longer than the others, lasting anywhere from 15 to 90 minutes, depending on the size of the area being scanned and how many images are taken. Extensive research has been carried out into whether the magnetic fields and radio waves used during MRI scans could pose a risk to the human body which no evidence has been found to suggest there’s a risk, which means MRI scans are one of the safest medical procedures available. MRI scans may not be recommended for patients with a metal implant fitted, such as a pacemaker or artificial joint. CT (computed tomography), is a process that uses X-rays and the use of a computer to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. CT scans are different to MRI scans because they use radiation. They can be used to diagnose conditions including damage to bones, injuries to internal organs, problems with blood flow, stroke, and cancer. They are used to gather information on tumours, including monitoring treatments and allow a doctor to take a accurate biopsy. These scans are not used for screening. CT scans are a small risk of developing cancer in the future (less than 1 in 2,000). During the scan, the patient will lie on a bed that passes into the CT scanner which is a ring that rotates around a small section of the body as they pass through it. Unlike an MRI, it doesn’t surround the whole body which can commonly cause people to feel claustrophobic. These can last 10-20 minutes (12). X-Rays are a radiation called electromagnetic waves which is also used to create a image, these are typically used to detect broken bones. They can detect bone fractures and breaks, tooth problems (loose teeth and dental abscesses), scoliosis (abnormal curvature of the spine), non-cancerous and cancerous bone tumours, lung problems, such as pneumonia and lung cancer, dysphagia (swallowing problems), heart problems, such as heart failure and breast cancer. They are quick usually only lasting a few minutes), easy as the patient will either lie on a table or stand against a flat surface so that the part of the body being examined can be positioned in the right place and it is painless. Being exposed to X-rays does carry a risk of causing cancer many years or decades later, but this risk is thought to be very small, with it being less than a 1 in 1,000,000 chance of causing cancer (13). References 1- Mencap. (Date). What is a learning disability? [online] Available at https://www.mencap.org.uk/learning-disability-explained/what-learning-disability Assessed on 25/03/2019 2- Wikipedia. (29 April 2019). Intelligence quotient [online] Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligence_quotient Assessed on 30/04/2019 3- Mayo Clinic. (8 March 2018). What are the health problems of Down’s Syndrome? (8 March 2018). [online] Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20355977 Assessed on 30/04/2019 4- Mencap. (date?). Down’s Syndrome [online] Available at https://www.mencap.org.uk/learning-disability-explained/conditions/downs-syndrome?gclid=CjwKCAjwqqrmBRAAEiwAdpDXtNg0cffSHgwxKsFmospzanAlkpxPSmNsOb4T9ZSiOwL4v7QEr3ruaRoCUPkQAvD_BwE Assessed on: 30/04/2019 5- Patient. (11 August 2016). General learning disabilities [online] Available at https://patient.info/doctor/general-learning-disability Assessed on: 30/04/2019 6- NHS. (22 February 2018). Your pregnancy and baby guide [online] Available at https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/screening-amniocentesis-downs-syndrome/ Assessed on 30/04/2019 7- National Human Genome Research Institute. (2010). Learning about Down syndrome. [online] Available at http://www.genome.gov/19517824#3 Assessed on 30/04/2019 8- Mencap. (date?). Spotting the signs [online] Available at https://www.mencap.org.uk/advice-and-support/diagnosis/getting-diagnosis-after-your-child-born Assessed on: 30/04/2019 9- Wikipedia. (4 may 2019). Physical disabilities [online] Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_disability Assessed on 6/05/2019 10- Mayfield Brain