Get help from the best in academic writing.

Types of Fonts Used in the Medieval Age Essay

Before the invention of printing press, people used to write in their respective handwritings. It was possible to identify the author of a written material from various works because everyone has unique handwriting. However, writers in the medieval ages developed calligraphy which was to be used for unofficial use. Calligraphy can be defined as artistic form of writing which was developed manually by people who had passion for art. The good thing about this art is that one does not require any experience in art. The art of calligraphy was initially practiced for the purpose of adding beauty in one’s written work. Nowadays calligraphers can earn a decent living by designing logos and other items and fields that integrate calligraphy such as textile industry and tattooing. When computers were invented these handwritings were integrated into computers as fonts. Just as they were complex in hardcopies they retained this quality. Fonts come in different forms and shapes and just like handwritings there are some that are difficult to read. There are some fonts which can not be used in lengthy texts because they occupy a larger space. Examples of such medieval fonts include Ithornet, Cloister Black, Sir Fig, Perry Gcothic, and Teutonic which is appropriate for printed cards and T-shirts. Other types of fonts such as Strassburg Fraktur, Cardinal, and MilleniGem are good for preserving space because they are designed to occupy minimal writing space. Using such fonts in websites would confuse users and it would imply that the owners of such a web site are not serious about their business. In brief medieval fonts imitate calligraphy but the good thing about this modern calligraphy is that they are done digitally hence they are not time demanding and tiring like before. When calligraphy is to be applied manually it takes a lot of time to accomplish the desired design. For instance, fonts such as Saraband and Teutonic would require a lot of concentration in bringing out the correct appearance. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Decorative fonts don’t have smooth edges on their characters thus they look distorted. Gothic fonts are more preferred for casual use because ordinary fonts are perceived to be boring. This means that gothic fonts capitalize on their beauty to capture the attention of the reader. Classic examples are Kingthings Spike, Metal Macabre, Middle Saxony Text, and Ardenwood. A font should remain readable even when the font size is reduced. But then, some gothic fonts have so many curls and extensions which make them impossible to read when they are in small size hence they are suited for bigger font sizes. In this sense, if we consider writing a book or even a Bible using Rough Tuscan font, it would be difficult to understand the message in case it is in English. Gothic fonts are good when they are used appropriately hence when one is designing a document it is important to consider the position of the written material that will be occupied by this kind of font. This is because if you use calligraphic font in the preface of a book, you will not drive the intended message home. Furthermore, the preface will take a bigger space hence loose its meaning in the final end. Additionally, such font should not be used in official documents such as resumes because such documents are supposed to be written in fonts that are readily available in most applications. Today calligraphy is still in use because it’s very easy to learn as long as one can read and write. Most people like it because the outcome is instant and does not require much effort. Even with the modern technology most people have refused to let go of the ancient calligraphy because it manifests the creativity of an individual. In fact some people have integrated it into their other cultures such as the tattooing art among the Japanese. This is because some people don’t appreciate the ones that are already installed in computer applications hence they prefer to generate their own which makes them proud of their writing skills. Works Cited Asghar, Taimur. “20 Splendid Medieval Fonts for Gothic Typography.” Addictive Fonts. 2010. Web. We will write a custom Essay on Types of Fonts Used in the Medieval Age specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dafont. Gothic: Medieval Fonts. 2010. Web. Day, Carter,
5.0 Introduction The results of our analysis demonstrate that increase in cigarette tax would reduce the cigarette consumption or quit smoking among lower income smokers and heavily addicted smokers, thus it upheld the hypotheses four and five. However, the tax factor does not prove to be significantly related on younger smokers, female smokers and less educated smokers. Chapter 5 includes a summary description of descriptive and inferential analyses and discussion of major findings that validate our research objective and hypotheses. Next section provides the implications of our study toward the society. Following section will discuss several limitations that are apparent during the progress of the study, as well as to provide some recommendations for future research. Then, an overall conclusion of our entire study is presented at the end of this chapter. 5.1 Summary of Statistical Analysis The demographic profiles of respondents are analyzed when the data are collected. Smokers are categorized by different races, gender, smoking degree, education and age and the data is presented in pie charts. Besides, the central tendencies statistic of the variables is also calculated in the analysis. Cross tabulation tables are presented to show responses of each subgroup. Statistical method used in the inferential analysis is multinomial logistic regression. This statistical method presented the predictability relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the form of odd ratio [i.e. Exp(B)]. When the significant level is less than 0.05, the alternative hypothesis is accepted. In this research, alternative hypothesis for age, gender, and education level are rejected as these factor do not affect the likelihood of the responses towards cigarette tax. The alternative hypothesis for smoking degree and income level are accepted as the significant level is less than 0.05. Therefore, smoking degree and income level are more likely to predict a certain type of responses from the smokers. Multivariate analysis is also performed by inputting all independent variables as covariate factors in the SPSS program. Multivariate analysis is to ensure the relationship is not significantly affected by other independent variables. 5.2 Discussion of Major Finding Table 5.1: Summary of the Inferential Analysis’s Results Hypothesis Result H1: Younger smokers are more likely to quit smoking than older smokers given cigarette tax increase. Rejected H2: Male smokers are more likely to give no response to cigarette tax increase than female smokers. Rejected H3: Highly educated smokers are more likely to quit smoking than less educated smokers given cigarette tax increase. Rejected H4: Lower income smokers are more likely to cut cost than higher income smokers given cigarette tax increase. Accepted H5: Heavy smokers are more likely to give no response to cigarettes tax increase than light smokers. Accepted Source: Developed for the research According to rational addiction theory in terms of the variable age, rational young smokers should be more likely to quit smoking given that their longer life remaining compared to older smokers and their comparatively lower income. Younger smokers who might develop lung cancer right now would lose much more (time) compared to an 80 years old smoker with lung cancer. Our empirical research does not confirmed this because we had shown that younger smokers are not more likely to quit/cut smoking than adult smokers. Past studies by Lewit and Coate (1982) and Sylvain (2007) also contradicted the result we had. The possible reason leading to this result might include the small number of young smokers in our sample. The alternative explanation is that since we perform our data collection in urban areas, young smokers tend to be more affluent, therefore they are not affected by increase in tax. Interestingly, Decicca, Kenkel and Mathios (2008) stated that since most smoking initiation starts during youth, therefore, the existing young smokers who quit/cut smoking due to taxes could be higher. The study also finds that gender is not a factor in determining the decision to cut/quit smoking given cigarette tax increase. However, rational addiction theory predicts female is more likely to cut down cigarette consumption due to traditionally being poorer than male. This contradiction happened because, we suspect, the income gap between the genders is fast closing. Therefore, any tax increase will not significantly create any reduced consumption of cigarettes among the women. Our finding is in line with the mixed results of previous literature. Chaloupka (1990) discovered that men are more likely to quit/cut smoking while Stehr (2007) found that women are more likely to quit/cut smoking. We find that education has little impact on the decision of smokers in response to cigarette tax increase. According to rational addiction theory, smokers with less education incur much “cost” than highly educated smokers for smoking because they have generally lower income. Our findings did not support rational addiction theory. Previous research by Madden (2007) partly supported our finding, he found that highly educated smokers are less responsive to cigarette tax. However, Tansel’s (1993) findings in Turkey (a middle income country) partly supported our conclusion. He found a positive and significant relationship between education and cigarette tax elasticity meaning that the higher the education, the higher the sensitivity towards cigarette tax a smoker will be. The reason behind is that highly educated smokers also tend to cut down smoking when taxed are raised, not because of the money issue, but because they are fearful of the health consequences. They have utilized the tax increase as the opportunity to go “cold turkey”. Therefore, when both higher education and lower education smokers choose to smoke less, none is more likely than the other. Lower income smokers are more likely to cut cost than richer smokers because the “cost” of continuing the habit of smoking is higher. Each RM increase in cigarette price will affect their quality of life, even creating shortages of money for children’s education, food and other daily expenses compounded to the future. This result conforms to previous research done by Biener et al. (1998) which says that poor smokers are 3 times as likely to either switch to cheaper brands of cigarettes or reduce consumption. Townsend et al. (1994) findings also brings forth similar conclusion. As expected, heavy smokers are more likely to give no response towards cigarettes tax increase than light smokers. Adjacent complementarity explains that within a certain time frame, the more a smoker smokes now, the more he would like to smoke in the future. Unless the pain of higher cigarette price is more than the pain of giving up the smoking addiction, smokers will tend to continue to smoke in the future. Previous research done by Lee (2008) does not conform to our findings. Lee et al. (2004) whose result shows that heavy smokers increase smoking consumption when tax is increased supported our result. Overall, the article that Biener et al. (1998) produced matches our results almost entirely. Other studies that contradict our result normally utilized national cigarette sales data. Therefore, their studies are not entirely comparable to our individualistic survey-based study. 5.3 Implications of the Study Whether cigarette tax effectively achieves the government’s goal in reducing cigarette consumption is a significant issue that needs to be carefully considered from time to time in order to better determine the direction of future policies. Hence, identifying the effect of tax increases on cigarette consumption is an essential part for regulating proper governmental policies on the tobacco use. Generally, the progressive increase in cigarette tax rates may provide a powerful contribution toward the government’s taxation policy which would boost the government’s income tax revenue, as well as to improve economic efficiency of the country. In our study, we found that highly addicted and high income smokers do not respond to cigarette tax well. They still purchase same quantity of cigarettes. Therefore, government should devise a method of targeting cigarette taxes towards these groups of smokers to maximize tax revenue. According to Tsai et al. (2003), portions of extra revenue which was derived from the cigarette tax would be earmarked to the government’s effort for implementing tobacco control program against the tobacco use such as anti-smoking media-campaigns. Still, other portion of the cigarette tax revenues would dedicate into funding healthcare for under-insured population, lung cancer research and other health related activities. Apart from that, our study also contributes to public health by identifying that education does not play a significant role in reducing consumption of cigarette due to taxes. This implies that our education system is not emphasizing the danger and health hazard of smoking. This, however, agrees with the rational addiction theory because highly educated people are likely to be wealthy. Therefore, they do not suffer as much because of tax increase. In contrast, wealthy people also “suffer more” because of health problems because they have much to enjoy in life (holidays, entertainment, longer life etc.) compared to low income smokers. Therefore, in devising a public health policy, our study implies that we should educate people on the danger of smoking while at the same time increasing cigarette tax so that in the end, the rich and the poor both smoke less. During the process of conceptual foundation, our research has contributed extensive amount of empirical evidence that have reviewed the relationships between various demographic and smoking degree factors and the response to cigarette tax increase. Through our study, we can better understand the effects of taxation on cigarette consumption which will result in different consumption patterns. For instance, smokers may cut cost either by reducing the number of cigarette they smoke or change to a cheaper brand, choose to quit smoking, or maintain their original level of consumption. According to the fundamental law of economics which specified that as the price of a product rises, the quantity demanded for that product would fall. However, we found that there is an exception to this most basic law of economics because of the nature of rational addiction. Since we viewed the cigarettes smoking as an addictive behaviour, therefore it could be expected that increasing cigarette tax would have smaller effect than normal product in reducing people’s consumption of cigarettes. Alternatively, increasing cigarette taxes too high and the government would risk creating a black market or the emergent of smuggled cigarette. 5.4 Limitations of the Study Limitation of this survey-based research is that smokers may not always do what they say they would do in the questionnaire. They may choose to answer “quit smoking”, “cut cost” in the questionnaire but may act to smoke next week, next month or some other dates. On the other hand, they may answer “no response” to cigarette tax but choose to quit smoking the next day. However, they are not necessarily been telling lies. It is just that future behavior is hard to predict even for smokers themselves especially those who are highly addicted to cigarettes. Warner (1978) had showed that self-reported consumption in questionnaire significantly underestimate the actual sales data taken at the national level. Apart from that, the small numbers of samples of young smokers age 11 and below may not be sufficient to produce any strong evidence for that age group. The reason for such low numbers is that it is illegal for them to smoke in Malaysia. Besides, retailers are not permitted to sell cigarettes to minors age 18 and below. Besides, comparably smaller numbers of female smokers compared to male smokers may have distorted the results. Female smokers are historically and nationally lower than male smokers. Therefore, each female smoker’s responses to cigarettes tax have larger impact per person to the end result as compared to individual male smoker. Wasserman, Manning, Newhouse and Winkler (1991) had observed that using individual level data may incorporate ecological bias into the study. There may be other variables affecting the tobacco use that are not incorporated into the determinant. Example might include, family size, social statuses of smokers and profession (e.g. doctors may possibly smoke less). Another example would be the existence of societal culture that disapproves the habit of smoking. The respondent going through the survey questionnaire cannot choose to answer the questionnaire in any other way than was included in the choices of answers. The smoker only can fill in their answer according to the objective answers set by the researcher beforehand and all the answer categories are based on nominal or ordinal. If the questionnaire is asking about question such as how would you response to a RM1 increase in cigarette price and the respondent wish to answer that he would quit for 1 month and only continue smoking if his income has increase accordingly, it is not possible. These will result in inaccurate result as the researcher has already set the chooseable answers, namely to quit smoking, cutting cost and choose not to respond. Another limitation of the research is that it does not consider smuggled cigarettes and cigarettes sold in tax free zone. Tsai et al. (2003) and Lee and Chen (2006) had proved in their studies that smokers tend to purchased smuggled cigarettes to avoid the high cost of legal cigarettes in Taiwan. Respondent who purchase “tax-exempted” cigarettes from these two sources may not be hurt by the tax and therefore our result will be biased towards “No Response”. Moreover, although we know that the main effect of rising price of cigarette due to tax would reduce smokers’ cigarette consumption but we do not know whether it is cigarette tax that has actually play an important role on the demand of cigarette. Perhaps the reason for reducing cigarette consumption may be due to some issues other than taxation policy such as concern over the health consequences of cigarette smoking since they know that smoking will lead to lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, etc. Another issue that could influence on the demand of cigarette may be the tobacco control policy, for example advertising restrictions or ban on smoking in public places, as well as anti-smoking media campaigns could induce smokers to quit/cut smoking as well. Besides that, law policy also plays a major effect on cigarette consumption which limit smoking in public place and restrictions on youth under 18 years old to purchase the tobacco products. Since there are a lot of other issues than taxation in affecting their smoking behaviour, therefore it is recommended that future research in those issues need to be conducted to verify its actual effects. The final limitation of our study is that we seek our respondent mainly in the Klang Valley area. Therefore, it may not truly represent the whole population in Malaysia. We know that Klang Valley populations are urban dwellers and the result may deviate a little if we include smokers from rural areas. Urban dwellers normally had higher education level and higher income level compared to non-urban dwellers. However, since majority of the smokers live in the city and most of the tax revenue collected comes from them, it is acceptable to neglect smokers from rural areas. All limitations are acknowledged but they do not detract from the significance of finding but merely provides platforms for future research. 5.5 Recommendations for Future Research As we use cross-sectional method in our research, we highly recommend future research on this topic conducted in the longitudinal method. Future researchers can conduct the research on the change of cigarette tax in Malaysia in the time period of few years or longer. It is similar to the way conducted by Hamilton, Levinton, Pierre,

SUNYCO Examining Policies and Programs to Improve Racial Equity Essay

SUNYCO Examining Policies and Programs to Improve Racial Equity Essay.

i need one page paragraph about the policy paper am working on. this is the description about the policy paper:Examining Policies and Programs to Improve Racial Equity (Los Angeles World Airports)The purpose of this project (or these projects) is to assist Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) in analyzing various policies and programs that both LAWA and the City of Los Angeles currently have in place to combat racial inequity, assess the extent to which such policies have been successful in fostering racial equity or have come up short in that regard, and develop recommendations to improve racial equity.LAWA has established an interdepartmental task force – the Racial Equity Core Team – to examine this issue. The Core Team has identified two separate projects:1.Internal Staff Project : Surveying data from the 3000+ staff members about this issue. The purpose of this is to engage airport employees in identifying issues and solutions to address racial equity, identifying training, education, work assignments, or other factors that have contributed to promotional success of minority staff members, and developing recommendations for programs or policies to improve the diversity of airport staff members across all positions.this is what the professor asked for the background : am just looking for a few paragraphs that describe the nature of the problem and perhaps a brief description of the status quo.so LAWA made a team and they are working with us to spread the survey and get the results to find the problem, now we are nearly done from the survey.
SUNYCO Examining Policies and Programs to Improve Racial Equity Essay

Physical Cleanliness Moral Purity

research paper help When we talk about physical cleanliness, what will be come up in our mind would be the medical benefits, which we may get rid of sick if we have a good condition of physical cleanliness. Physical cleanliness is defined as getting rid of the dirt and filth from your body (Can Tran, 2011).While moral purity is defined as our spiritual and mental state are in clean and genuineness condition. In fact, physical cleanliness and moral purity are highly encouraged by religions (Salih Uslu, 2007), they feel that they are purified with physical cleansing. It is suggested that there is a metaphorical association between physical cleanliness and moral purity (Zhong

Module 4 Assignment 2

Module 4 Assignment 2.

For almost any job, you will need to provide one or more references. These people will speak on your behalf and help your potential employer decide if you are the right fit for their needs. This is a very important component of a job search!For this assignment, you will begin the process of securing professional references. Specifically, identify 3 potential professional references, and explain why they would be a good reference. What will these people say about you? Provide their name, company, title, contact information, and a short paragraph about each
Module 4 Assignment 2

MDC Sleep Deprivation Significance on College Students Performance Thesis Essay

MDC Sleep Deprivation Significance on College Students Performance Thesis Essay.

Write a brief narrative essay (of around 500 words) where you discuss the topic you have decided to research and write about.Tell your audience, your fellow classmates and your instructor all of the following:the working thesis you have settled on for your projecthow you arrived at the topicsome of the other ideas you considered in your brainstorming activitiesat least two reasons for choosing this topic (universal value + personal interest)what initial library research you have conducted so far/what working knowledge you’ve gathered to datewhat you hope to learn from researching this topic over the course of the semesterUse MLA General Format.
MDC Sleep Deprivation Significance on College Students Performance Thesis Essay

Essay Writing at Online Custom Essay

5.0 rating based on 10,001 ratings

Rated 4.9/5
10001 review

Review This Service




Rating: