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Two psychological approaches/perspectives

Psychodynamic Perspective and Cognitive Perspective: Psychology is characterised by a variety of different approaches, each emphasising different factors in their explanations of mind and behaviour. This essay is going to outline two of the five approaches which are psychodynamic and cognitive approaches. The Psychodynamic approach was mainly initiated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and he explained behaviour in terms of unconscious drives and the dynamics of the id, ego and superego. However the cognitive approach was developed by Piaget in the (1950’s) and this was because of a growing dissatisfaction with the behaviourist approach. In the psychodynamic approach, focus is more on what takes place in human heads, in other words it is a natural process which humans are born with and it determines behaviour patterns concerning relationships, experience and surroundings. However the cognitive approach focuses on how humans process information (stimuli/input) and how we respond to what we have processed in (output) which is also a natural process as humans are born with this function. The main areas of study in cognitive psychology are perception, attention, memory and language. Freud assumed that the mind is divided into three parts; conscious, unconscious and preconscious and that sex was the central motivating force, although subsequent psychoanalysts’ preferred to emphasise the importance of social factors, and they highlighted the importance of childhood experience. The three components id, ego, and superego influence the mind or human behaviour in four different categories. The first one is the unconscious process, which humans have no direct awareness of. Psychodynamic conflict is the second one where by different parts of the mind are in constant struggle with each other. The third is emotional drives which Freud believed that behaviour is motivated by sexual and aggressive drives. And the fourth is development, which brings out personality in humans through relationships particularly during child hood. Cognitive psychologists assume that the study of internal mental process is important in understanding behaviour. Their focus is upon the role of mental process in activities such as learning and visual perception. Compared with computers, cognitive processes actively organise and manipulate the information we receive. Because analogies and metaphors are used in cognitive psychology to help us understand how the brain operates, there is no unifying theory and cognitive psychology faces opposition from other psychologists. This is due to the fact that the human brain is, not like other organs of the body, its structure does not reveal anything about how it functions, and it is a large mass of cells and fibres. The main method Freud used in his investigations was the case study method, when treating his clients and also used clinical interview methods to probe their past and question to their behaviour. This is similar to the cognitive approach, where evidence of case studying has been used to study brain damaged patients which is crucial in memory research. The psychodynamic approach was the first approach to try and attempt to explain mental illness in psychological terms and has had an enormous influence on the understanding and treatment of mental disorders. An example of this is Psychoanalysis and Dream Therapy which aims to make the unconscious material conscious so it is easier to deal with as Freud believed that dreams showed our hidden thoughts and wishes. Evidence to support this was carried out by Sandell (1999) who studied the symptoms of 756 patients before and after three years or state-funded psychoanalysis and found that patients had significantly fewer symptoms after the therapy. Cognitive approach on the other hand, investigates using rigorous scientific methods and has provided explanations of many aspects of human behaviour and has had useful practical applications. The fact that it makes use of experimental research, studies on brain damaged patients, computer stimulations and advanced techniques of studying the brain. The other approaches have also confirmed the distinction between short term memory and long term memory. Both approaches claim that children are qualitatively different from adults. Freud’s theory is centred largely on emotional and social development, whereas Piaget’s concern is with intellectual growth which he sees as arising from an interaction between biological growth and environmental stimulation. Research methods such as free association and dream analysis in psychodynamic approach have been widely used but experimentations have been used in the cognitive approach. Both approaches have similar contributions to psychology such as memory where in psychodynamic approach Freud explained theoretically that forgetting is caused by repression, and cognitive psychologists gave an example of Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) multi-store model which suggested that memory is made up of a series of stores. Abnormality is another similarity in which both approaches have identified the cause of trauma and depression found in individuals. Psychologists in both approaches have introduced therapies that can be of good use in the treatment of depression and mental disorders. Other contributions made to psychology in both approaches have had effective explanations in a vast number of topics; such as personality development, moral gender development and aggression in the psychodynamic approach. On the other hand cognitive approach has contributed to a broad range of applications such as education, and health promotion. Both approaches have had a large impact on psychology. For example a hundred years on Freud’s ideas and psychiatry are still discussed and used in both theoretical and practical manner. Cognitive approach has also influenced and integrated with all the other approaches in the areas of study to produce social learning theory, social cognition, cognitive neuropsychology and artificial intelligence. Major weaknesses have been identified in both approaches, due to the type of methods used in their research programmes. The unscientific approach adopted by Freud, makes it very hard to test most of his theories. He never carried out any experiments to test his ideas and he relied on the observation methods. The fact that he used very small numbers of people in his experiments, convincing evidence was hugely lacked. Every class and culture of people have differ ways and values, so his findings cannot be generalized to all cultures. Cognitive models have been accused of ignoring the huge complexity of human functioning, unrealistic and ignoring the biological influences and grounding of mental processes. They have also been accused of being too cold therefore ignoring the emotional life of humans and their conscious experience and possible use of free will. Genetic factors like hereditary correlations of mental disorders are not taken into account. The approach depends largely on controlled experiments to observe human behaviour may lack ecological validity. Despite some weaknesses in both psychodynamic and cognitive approaches, humans today have achieved treatment to various disorders of the mind and brain through theories and practical treatments such as psychoanalysis therapy which is an effective form of treatment but little is known to why it is effective. Cognitive behavioural therapy is also a popular and successful form of treatment for issues such as obsessive disorders. “Piaget’s theory emphasises the fundamentally rational nature of human beings and also sees immature reasoning and intellectual functioning as being profoundly different from that of mature adults”. {Taylor I 1999 Active psychology Pearson publishers} Bibliography: Eysenck M.W 2000 Psychology A Students Gross R 2001 Psychology the Science of Mind and Behaviour Fourth Edition Green Gate Publishers Hand Book Psychology Press Ltd Hill G 2001 AS
ENG 100 University of Phoenix Dream Job Reflective Essay.

As you know from the Course Overview and this week’s introduction, during this course, you will complete journal entries. Your journal entries won’t be shared with the class or your faculty member, but it is important you do this activity each week as a part of becoming more comfortable putting your thoughts and words on paper. You can type your journal entries or you can hand write them; the choice is yours. The most important thing is that each week you write 1 to 1 ½ pages for your journal entry. Don’t stress about this journal writing! Write whatever you want, however you want. You can write about what you are learning in class, your daily life, personal relationships, your dreams, or whatever is on your mind that day. You can take risks, make mistakes, outline, or make notes on the course in your reflective journal, too. The goal is to get more comfortable with the idea and practice of writing.If you find yourself struggling for something to write about, check out these suggested journal topics:Describe the most memorable day of your life.List the reasons you chose to attend college.Describe what it means to be a parent or your child rearing philosophy. Alternatively, describe what your childhood was like. What do you recall?Discuss some mentors in your life. Describe who you most admire and why. Discuss the people who support you on your educational journey.Describe your dream job.Recount your greatest success or mistake and what you learned from it.Describe and discuss your favorite film, book, or story.To complete and submit this assignment, follow these instruction:Select the topic you want to write about this week.Choose the format you will use for the Weekly Reflective Writing Journal assignments (e.g., Microsoft® Word or hand-written on paper).Write 1 to 1 ½ pages in your journal. Once you complete your journal entry, write a summary sentence or phrase that captures your writing experience or your topic.Post your summary sentence or phrase into the text box below these instructions to receive credit for this week’s Reflective Journal Writing assignment.Note: This assignment is a completion grade only and it is not necessary to submit the reflective journal entry.Resources Center for Writing Excellence Reference and Citation Generator Grammar and Writing Guides
ENG 100 University of Phoenix Dream Job Reflective Essay

FIN 350 Strayer University Wk 7 Value of The British Pound Discussion.

Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate document. Explain how you reached the answer or show your work if a mathematical calculation is needed, or both. Submit your assignment using the assignment link above. This homework assignment is worth 20 points.Assume that stocks in the United Kingdom become very attractive to U.S. investors. How could this affect the value of the British pound? Explain.The Bank of Japan desires to decrease the value of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar. How could it use direct intervention to do this?Assume that Mexico suddenly experiences high and unexpected inflation. How could this affect the value of the Mexican peso according to purchasing power parity (PPP) theory?Explain the use of the federal funds market in facilitating bank operations.How does the yield on a repurchase agreement differ from a loan in the federal funds market? Why?
FIN 350 Strayer University Wk 7 Value of The British Pound Discussion

provide feeedback on authors technique in ” the story of an hour”. I don’t understand this English question and need help to study. link to short story
Please provide your feedback on the author’s techniques in ONE . In doing so, please comment on how the author utilizes at least one of the literary devices (plot, setting, characterization, etc) to create reader interest or to build depth. Quote for support. be at least 250 words in length.
then i will show you a peer response and you review and respond to them in 100 words
provide feeedback on authors technique in ” the story of an hour”

Business Statistics Homework

Business Statistics Homework. Paper details The data in the table are from a study conducted by an insurance company to determine the effect of changing the process by which insurance claims are approved. The goal was to improve policyholder satisfaction by expediting the process and eliminating some extraneous approval steps. The response measured was the average time required to approve and mail all claims initiated in a week. The new procedure was tested for 12 weeks, and the results were compared to the process performance for the 12 weeks prior to instituting the change. Use the data in the table and submit the answers to the following questions in a Word document: In Excel, calculate the average effect of each process. Did the process change? Did the process average increase or decrease, and by how much? Copy-paste your Excel calculations into your Word Document. In Excel, create the Linear Regression Model. Analyze the data using the regression model y= b0 b1 x, where y = time to approve and mail a claim (weekly average), x = 0 for the old process, and x = 1 for the new process. Copy-paste the Regression Model into your Word Document. How does this model measure the effect of the process change?Business Statistics Homework

The Establishment of a convenience store and other delivery services at ABZ gas station Research Paper

custom essay Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Product and Service Description Competitive Advantages of the New Products and Services Target Market Strategic Analysis Works Cited Executive Summary The ABZ gas station has been in operation for ten years. Due to the increasing market opportunities and the threats by the existing competitors, the company has indentified new products and services that it can invest in. The new services and products encompass: the establishment of a convenience store, a car wash, a service station and delivery services. These services are expected to add value to the fuel refilling station and customers will be able to get most of the products and services at one place. The services are expected to increase the competitive advantages of the station, result to diversifications of products and services and increase the sales and profit margin. The man weaknesses that the business faces are lack of enough employees, need to manage the supply chain due to increased services and the need to buy new equipments for the extra services. Introduction The ABZ gas station was established 10 years ago and has been in the business of selling fuel to the local residents for the whole period. The station is situated along a highway and receives approximately 3000 cars every day. The location of the stations is near a residential area which is served by four other gas stations. Due to its location, most of the people fueling cars visit the station before going home and also early in the morning when going to work. The station specializes in the sale of diesel, fuels and other petroleum products. Despite the high success that the business has achieved over the ten year period, their sales are constantly stagnating and the management feels that they need to increase their sales and profits. The competition for the target market is very high. Product and Service Description The ABZ gas station has been selling petroleum to customers. All range of petroleum products are offered at the station. In addition to these conventional services and products, the ABZ gas station wants to establish the following new services and products: Convenience store: the station wants to establish an ultramodern convenience store selling consumer products and fast foods. Customers driving home can buy foodstuffs, cosmetics, drinks and other personal effects. Delivery services: the company also wants to establish delivery services. Because of the vicinity that the company is to the residential area, they can be able to deliver fast food and other items as ordered by the customers. Car wash and repair center: the station also wants to establish service stations where minor repairs, car wash, vehicle checkup and other diagnostic tests can be done. Small checkup such as level of oil, engine health, wheel alignment services, greasing and other minor maintenance services will be carried out. Competitive Advantages of the New Products and Services All the new products and services will have superior advantages and uniqueness (David 23). The major competitive advantages are: Convenience stores: it has been shown that customers would like to have everything under one roof. One of the most compulsory services to a driver is fueling a car which he must do frequently. During the fueling process, the driver and the car occupants can buy other products elegantly displayed on the shop floor so as to appeal the consumers (Govindarajan and Trimble 23). Introducing efficiencies in the distribution network as well as diversification are accepted to give the station competitive advantages. The services will also be economical to the customers (Slavin 20). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Delivery services: The Company will deliver products such as quick food to the customer at a very cost effective price. This efficiency is an added advantage as products can be supplied to consumers at any time and place. Service station and car wash: By introducing the service station and car wash, minor vehicle repairs, vehicle cleaning and diagnostic services can be done at one station. This is convenient, cost effective, uses less time and is advantageous to the gas station customers. Target Market The company target market is in the residential area surrounding the station. The market has approximately 1.2 million people who live in the residential areas surrounding the station. This market is currently served by five gas stations. The ABZ Company has the largest market share as it serves 65% of the total market. The market for this business is segmented based on individuals and corporate clients (Cadle, Debra and Turner 112). Using this segmentation, there are three groups, namely: Individuals: these are people who fuel their cars at the stations. They form 75 % of the total market size. Companies: these are corporate and business clients who fuel their company cars at the station. Retailers: the station also sells fuel in large scale to other small gas stations. Corporate and retail clientele are sold fuel at a lower price as compared to the individuals who buy the fuel at a retail price. Strategic Analysis The strategic analysis of the company was carried out using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis matrix (Lawrence 26). This matrix is shown in figure 1 below Positive forces Negative forces Strength Weaknesses The business location has large number of customers The company has a lot of experience in the oil sector The company has enough employees and can be able to hire more Diversification through provision of more services as outlined in this business plan Good corporate culture Brand loyalty (customers in the area know and like our station) The use of high tech fuel dispensing machines and other equipments Economies of scale(large purchases attract discounts) Introduction of delivery services will boost the sales New services will result to more products and services under one station Employees are not well trained in the new products and services to be started There is need for proper management of the new supply chain There are no established buildings that can be used by the company Opportunities Threats Large market size of about 1.2 million people There is possibility of expanding to other markets New services are required by consumers The locations of the business is strategic Environmental challenges and pollution caused by fossil fuels Threat by the existing competitors who may introduce such services Threat of new entrants to the market From the SWOT analysis, the main weaknesses need to be reduced by training workers, proper management of the supply chain and buying of equipments. The company has many opportunities and strengths which forms it competitive advantage (Porter 43). The threat can be reduced by product and service diversification as well as establishing stations in other regions. Works Cited Cadle, James, Debra Paul and Turner Paul. Business Analysis Techniques: 72 Essential Tools for Success, London: British Computer Society, 2010. Print. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Establishment of a convenience store and other delivery services at ABZ gas station specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More David, Aaker. Developing Business Strategies, 5th edition, New York: Wiley, 1998. Print. Govindarajan, Vijay, and C.Trimble. Ten Rules for Strategic Innovators: From Idea to Execution, Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press, 2005. Print. Lawrence, Fine. The SWOT Analysis: Using your Strength to overcome Weaknesses, Using Opportunities to overcome Threats, Seattle, Washington: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2009. Print. Porter, Jim. How to Perform Your Own SWOT Analysis (Entrepreneurs Brief Guide), Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press, 2010. Print. Slavin, Stephen. Economics, 10th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2011. Print.

Statistics homework help

Statistics homework help. Why did the Founders want to establish a republic rather than a (direct) democracy or populist form of government? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of government?,Why did the Founders want to establish a republic rather than a (direct) democracy or populist form of government?,For this essay you have the choice between two prompts and you can pick the one that will be easiest and develop a strong paper., 1. Why did the Founders want to establish a republic rather than a (direct) democracy or populist form of government? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of government? If ‘the people’ were to (re)found the U.S. today by re/writing the Constitution (their social contract), which form of government would ‘they’ most likely choose, and why? What kind of persons do they actually elect and want in office? Should all of the ‘people’ be involved in creating a form of government, or only some certain ones? Does it take aristocrats to create a decent democracy, as Publius sometimes seems to imply? Does it take such persons to keep it going?,2. Consider the U.S. Constitution as a ,kind, of ‘social contract’ justifying government’s right to command and citizens’ duty to obey. Then ask yourself: is it a good agreement? That is, is it one that you are/ would be willing to make with others about shared governing institutions? Or, would you enter the contract only if certain changes were made first, and if so which ones? That is, (how) would you revise (and/or improve) the Constitution as a founding document? Are our institutions (in theory? in practice?) in fact – as Publius suggests – the ‘best’ form of government created by humans so far; alternatively, as many Americans think, is ours (politically speaking) in fact the ‘greatest country in the world’? Why or why not?,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Statistics homework help

Management Changes in the Vodacom Company Essay

Globalization has resulted in the relentless upsurge of global trade. The process is a culmination of initiation of novel markets thus allowing importation and exportation to augment. It has equally permitted entities to create centres in other countries. Evidently, corporations are the key supporters and recipients of such a move since they gain entrée into untapped markets. Indeed, the past decade, has seen phenomenal expansion in global business in the service and commodity divisions. The telecommunication commerce has developed tremendously. An example is evident in Vodacom, which is a market leader in the industry. Consequently, it has expanded from its traditional market in Europe and America. This entity has launched its presence in Africa and southern Asia in the last decade. The two markets are lucrative and untapped thus a priority for any entity going global (Manole