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Two Forms Of Communication Psychology Essay

Generally, there are two forms of communication, the commonly known verbal communication which uses sounds or spoken language to relay messages and the non-verbal communication which will be discussed throughout the essay. Non-verbal communication comprises all types of communication which doesn’t engage any spoken word (Greene et al. 1994). The observation of non-verbal communication engages all the senses, such as hearing which is used to identify the vocal characteristics of the spoken messages (Sundeen et al. 1989). Peter Bull (2001) states that nonverbal communication can be unpremeditated, idiosyncratic and unaware. Individuals may perform non-verbal behaviors unintentionally such as trying to look as if he/she is concentrating on the talk or lecture but unable to suppress a yawn. In some occasions, the observer aren’t able to describe the nonverbal cues that transmitted an identified message. For an example, an individual may felt that his partner is angry but unable to state how he/she get the intuition. Nonverbal communication can also be unique to one individual. Different individuals has their own unique nonverbal cues to transmit certain messages they intend to send. The process of non-verbal communication is a chain of cues intentionally or automatically encoded by the sender and consequently decoded by the recipient. Accurate coding and decoding of the signals by both parties determines the flow of communications initiated. There are researchers who emphasizes that apart from spoken language, non-verbal language is also an essential component of natural language. Communication seems artificial without the functioning of non-verbal cues (Bull P., 2001). Thus, this essay will be discussing on the functions, non-verbal cues, importance and limitations of non-verbal communication. FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION First and foremost, it functions as a way to convey emotions. Neurocultural model of facial expression holds that there are at least six primary emotions with intrinsic facial expressions, both which are common to everyone. The six primary emotions identified are happy, sad, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. We convey much of our emotions through facial expressions during our conservations with others. Next it functions as an aid for people facing physical incapability such as hearing disability to convey or interpret messages. In other words, as a substitution for spoken language when verbal communication is impossible (Argyle, 1972) Sign language which uses the hands and fingers to perform are primary example. Furthermore, it functions as an identifier which identifies types of interpersonal relationship between individuals and others. There goes a saying that the physical contact of the hands, the mutual glance of each other eyes and a kiss enable to conveys the intimacy of two or more individuals successfully then thousand words. Apart from that through status differences, and association or hostility, types of inter-personal relationships could be reflected and they also shows an individual keenness to establish which type of relationship (Argyle, 1972). Peter Bull (2001) also states that an identity of an unseen conversational opponent can be identified just by observing the non-verbal behavior of one individual alone. Lastly, non-verbal communication function in integrating with verbal messages. They integrate with verbal messages by acting as a support and in maintaining conversations. Supporting as in to reinforce a verbal message such as showing 2 fingers to the waitress to order 2 beers in the bar. The aim in this circumstances is to increase the probability of the accurate response of the verbal message. While maintaining as in initiating and ending of conversations, intruding, turn-taking are all negotiated mostly by non-verbal cues (Argyle, 1972). Besides that, they act as a direct replacement for words to integrate with verbal messages. For example pointing directly to a place to give clearer directions or refer to an object immediately without describing too much. Furthermore, it also enables the individual to give emphasis to the verbal message by physical touch, leaning forward and increase the volume of the voice. NON-VERBAL CUES Non-verbal cues are broadly defined as all communication excluding those coded in words (Eisenberg
Theories about Theories and Differences of Teaching and Learning Assignment.

Theories about Theories Given what you have read in this week’s two chapters and the additional readings, describe two ways that it has affected your own personal views about teaching and learning.Be specific with your answers and reference the material from the book.You can also reference other materials on learning and teaching theory that you use or have used as well.Respond to one of your classmates.Do their views align with your own?If you had to work with this person as a co-teacher, how would you ensure that both of your views were respected and represented in the classroom?
Theories about Theories and Differences of Teaching and Learning Assignment

Discussion

Discussion. Need help with my Computer Science question – I’m studying for my class.

Incident Response: Recovery and Maintenance
This chapter discusses key steps that firms should take after containing a security incident and regaining control of their systems. They include recovery, maintenance, forensics, and preservation of technical data (Whitman, Mattord, & Green, 2013). Recovery is a continuation of the incident response process, but in this case focuses on identifying things that went wrong and how systems were compromised. Some of the main things that CSIRT teams should examine include nature of the attack, extent of damage or compromise, attacker strategies, and state of security controls. The desired product of this process is identification of the underlying problem and elimination of vulnerabilities that were exploited by attackers. The maintenance stage where CSIRT teams will review the incident, identify lessons learned, and use them to improve future plans. Firms are recommended to implement them during training, especially when running drills with their staff. In case there is evidence of a crime, then an organizations may be required to involve the forensics department of the law enforcement. Forensics is usually part of the recovery process, but its goal is to collect data or evidence that can be used in court (Johnson, 2013). The process can be complex if an organization does not have a policy that permits search for such evidence. Firms planning for a forensics operation should take into account the cost, response time, and data sensitivity. The process should also be done in two steps, including first response, and analysis and presentation. Besides, they should preserve the technical data using the best practices to ensure that it is safe.
Question: when should an organization plan for a forensic investigation and what are the benefits of the practice?
References
Johnson, L. (2013). Computer incident response and forensics team management. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
Whitman, M., Mattord, H., & Green, A. (2013). Principles of incident response and disaster recovery (2nd ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
Discussion

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

essay writer free Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease. Mohammad Faisal Association of moderate to severe Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning and Cardiovascular disease Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is colorless and odorless gas which can be very fatal and has important clinical values mainly due to the toxicological affects it can create. A broad range of studies suggest that acute CO poisoning may cause sudden deaths and other deadly clinical manifestations such as toxicity of central nervous system, comma etc. In USA 50,000 cases of CO poisoning along with 2700 deaths are reported each year (Lee, F. et al., 2015). However, the relationship between moderate to severe CO poisoning and developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has not been studied properly even though CVD is assumed to be a frequent outcome of CO poisoning (Henry, C. R. 2006). Since general people might easily be exposed to CO through incorrectly installed, poorly ventilated or poorly maintained household appliances, it is not uncommon to be exposed to various level of CO poisoning as well. Therefore, in this literature review I have explored the correlation between moderate to severe CO poisoning and cardiovascular risk in the general population ranging from children to adults. Usually carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are measured in order to determine the extent of poisoning (moderate to severe) caused by CO. The articles regarding acute CO poisoning are not considered in this review since it usually causes sudden death and reports regarding acute CO poisoning and long term manifestation of CVD is not clear and very limited. In this review, in total 7 articles were used; five of the studies were published during the last 7 years, whereas 2 of them were published in 2006. Relationship of CO poisoning to Myocardial injury and Peripheral artery disease Moderate to severe CO poisoning was studied in a prospective cohort study from 1994 to 2002 in Hennepin County Medical Center. The study was followed up till 2005 and the investigators found that myocardial injury (MI) was a frequent clinical manifestation in the moderate to severe CO exposed group. The two markers of MI: cardiac troponin I or creatine kinase-MB levels were measured and found to be higher among the exposed group than usual. Investigators determined that the hazard ratio (HR) of patients who eventually died from MI and who died from other consequences other than MI was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2-3.7) (Henry, C. R. 2006). In another retrospective study in Taiwan, investigators examined a large cohort of patients who were subjected to CO poisoning and compared them with a frequency matched control cohort at a ratio of 1:4. The study was done from 1998 to 2010 and the investigators used Cox proportional hazards regression models for their analytical approach. Outcome was measured using angiography, magnetic resonance angiography and it was found that the patients exposed to moderate to severe CO poisoning had 1.85-fold higher chances of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) compared to the control group. However the risk was much higher between the two groups when some comorbidities such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes were ignored, which eventually supported the CO poisoning and peripheral artery disease (PAD) more strongly (Chen, Y. et al., 2015). Risk of Developing Cardiovascular disease Since moderate to severe CO poisoning is related to myocardial injury, a large retrospective cohort, somewhat similar to the previous one mentioned above was done considering the CO poisoning and hospitalization data from 2000 to 2011. Investigators found a significant association between CO poisoning and arrhythmia among the CO poisoned patients (1.83 fold higher) compared to the control cohort. Also a significant correlation was seemed to exist with Coronary artery disease (CAD) and Coronary heart disease (CHD), but the correlation was not statistically significant after adjusting for confounders (Lee, F. et al., 2015). This study was particularly important considering the fact that most of the previous studies, regarding this association were done in small scale. For example, a case report between CO poisoning and subsequent development of cardiomyopathy was reported in a restaurant worker who was diagnosed with very high levels of cardiac enzymes along with high carboxyhemoglobin, even though he was ruled out of acute ischemic heart disease according to diagnosis reports (Kim, H et al., 2015). This type of study indicates an association of CO poisoning with cardiovascular disease but as mentioned before it wasn’t enough to be convincing and required large sample based investigation rather than any individual case report to establish the association. For this reason, the two cohorts, done from 1998 to 2010 and 2000 to 2011 were particularly important in this regard. In Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC), 230 patients who were diagnosed with moderate to severe CO poisoning were examined, and investigators reported frequent cardiovascular and myocardial injury (MI). Among those patients 35% had elevated levels of creatine kinase or troponin I (cardiovascular biomarkers) along with 37% MI injury biomarkers. Even most of the patients who died during hospitalization, were diagnosed with cardiac arrest, Coronary artery disease (CAD) along with abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) (Satran, D et al., 2006). However, some case reports indicated a difficulty of diagnosis between severe CO poisoning and myocardial injury due to a large spectrum of confusing symptoms of CO poisoning. CO poisoning is often involved with tissue hypoxia which might indicate neurological manifestations other than cardiovascular manifestations and make the diagnosis procedure somewhat complex (Grieb, G. et al., 2011). Most of the reported studies regarding CO poisoning and cardiovascular manifestations were conducted with adult participants. However, a particular study indicated that CO poisoning may have more harmful effects to infants and children than the adults due the fact that, the basal metabolic rate along with the tissue oxygen demand is much higher in children. This study was conducted between 2004 to 2007 and reported an association between CO poisoning and cardiovascular manifestations, according to the diagnosis reports of elevated cardiovascular biomarkers among children under 17 years of age, but surprisingly the electrocardiogram (ECG) reports were normal (Teksam, O. et al., 2010). Limitations There are some limitations in the studies regarding moderate to severe CO poisoning and cardiovascular manifestations. Even though, in some studies- an association to CVD was shown, information regarding participants’ use of medication, or any previous treatment for CVD was not available which might have been influential. Moreover, some of the the risk factors such as smoking, dietary pattern, obesity etc. were missing (Chen, Y. et al., 2015). Some studies were retrospective which may not establish a causal relationship between the exposure and outcome. Investigators also suspected miscoding and misclassification in some cases of disease definition. Some other factors such as family history of CVD, educational background, socioeconomic status were also missing. Another important limitation was lack of sufficient laboratory data including electrocardiogram (ECG), and other cardiovascular markers which were considered to be vital for CVD manifestation as well. In some study, investigators were uncertain whether the patients developed cardiovascular disease before they were exposed to CO poisoning. Patients who were diagnosed at later stages of any study were subjected to loss to follow-up for long term analysis of CVD morbidity (Lee, F. et al., 2015). Finally, the epidemiological and geographical differences may not be generalized to USA and other countries. Conclusion Moderate to severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is responsible for tissue hypoxia, which may ultimately lead to myocardial injury. Other than hypoxia, CO poisoning may also cause free radical formation, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) induced cellular apoptosis-which all may be responsible for developing cardiovascular disease in long term. A prospective cohort study including the measurement of all these biomarkers for a reasonably long time would elucidate more clear association with CVD. It has been evident from some studies that diagnosis of CO poisoning is complex and risky to draw any conclusion for any association. So, other than depending on hospital based data, some other animal models like mouse can be used in this purpose at times. Also, some studies showed some different clinical patterns of CO poisoning and CVD. In one study, a group of participants showed the presence of less cardiac risk factors even though they were subjected to severe CO poisoning. On the other hand, some other participants showed the presence of higher cardiac risk factors while they were subjected to moderate CO poisoning. Age and heart dysfunctions of some specific location e.g. left ventricular function were found to be coherent with the observed risk factors (Satran, D et al., 2006). In this regard these data need to be considered, even though many retrospective studies lacked these data. So, it can be said that future studies will definitely require the evaluation of serial biomarkers along with electrocardiogram (ECG) of all participants, who are exposed to moderate to severe CO poisoning. This will definitely help the therapeutic approach along with developing proper strategies to prevent any cardiovascular disease associated with moderate to severe CO poisoning. References Chen, Y., Lin, T., Dai, M., Lin, C., Hung, Y., Huang, W.,Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

Write the equation of the line with the given slope and y-intercept.

Write the equation of the line with the given slope and y-intercept..

slope = 12y-intercept = 7A)y = 7x + 12B)y = 12x + 7C)x = 7y + 12D)x = 12y + 7
Write the equation of the line with the given slope and y-intercept.

Assignment4.1

Assignment4.1.

Assignment 4.1: The Value of Compound Interest for InvestmentsIn this course project assignment, you will research the value of compounding interest (or reinvesting all gains) for investments.Click on the “Project” tab on the top navigation bar for details on the course project.ProcedureAssume your company has $25,000 available to invest for 10 years. The investment may be broken down into $5,000 increments.Make an assumption about the company’s risk-return trade-off tolerance. Write a statement about your assumption.Choose investments from the following list that meet the company’s risk tolerance:Cash-on-hand checking account, 0% interestSavings account at 1½% interest, compounded annuallyCD’s at 3%, compounded bi-annuallyBonds at 7% interest, compounded bi-annuallyMutual funds at 10%, compounded quarterlyStocks at 15%, compounded quarterlyFor example: you may choose $5,000 in Cash-on-hand; $10,000 invested in CD’s; and $10,000 invested in Bonds.Using Table 12.1 “Future Value of $1 at Compound Interest” inPractical Business Math Procedures (text), calculate the value of the investment in each account after the 10 year time period for each investment chosen. Compute the total for the investment.After you have organized your thoughts, post your recommendation for how the company should invest the $25,000 to the course Forum. Provide an argument for each investment you made, supporting your choices using the risk-return trade-off assumption you made for the company. Copy this information to the financial plan final report template.
Assignment4.1

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