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Tribological audit on Gears

Tribology has been there since the beginning of recorded history. Tribology is the word basically derived from Greek in which ‘tribos’ means rubbing. From this we understand that “Tribology is the scientific study of interacting surfaces and of related subjects and practices”. [1] The 3 factors that are considered to be a major factor in tribology are friction, wear and lubrication. Friction is defined as the opposite force created when 2 surfaces are in contact. Friction can cause damage to the parts in contacts due to the heat generation and this can be studied using tribology. Wear is defined as the irregularities caused in a surface due to the external factors. Running a machine with weared parts can reduce the life of the machine. Lubrication is defined as the viscous liquid applied between two surfaces in contact for better performance and longer life. Untitled.jpg Gears are means by which power is transferred from the source to the application. [2] In the present world it has been used in most of the mechanical machines so that power can be transferred in an easier and sufficient way. The gearing technology started at about 100 years before and it was carried out by the Europeans in the ‘Dark Ages’ to bring out the development in the gears. [2] As years passed by more developed versions of gears were introduced which were lightweight, with high speed and gears that could withstand high loads. The gears are used as an important component in automobiles so that power is transmitted from the engine to the wheels to cause an increase in the speed of the vehicle. Hypoid gears are one of the common gears used in automobiles to do this operation. [2] Transmission which is defined as two or more gears working in tandem is used as an important principle in automobiles. In today’s world many gears have been developed and these gears are being used for different purposes. These gears have been been divided into 2 such as: External Gears: In these types of gears the teeth can be found outside the cylinder or cone. Internal Gears: These types of gears have teeths in the inner surface of the cylinder or cone. Spur GearsWith either internal or external gears a lot of gears have been developed for different purposes and these gears are explained below: a) Spur gears: This is one of the most common types of gear. These gears have teeth perpendicular to the face of the gear and the edge of the tooth is parallel to the axis of rotation. The disadvantage of these types of gears is that they are a little noisy at low speeds and this reduces to a minimum at higher speeds. [7] b) Rack and pinion gears: This type of gears consists of a rack more like a spur gear with infinite radius of curvature and a pinion gear which keeps on rotating over the rack. These types of gears are mainly used to convert circular motion into linear motion. Trains run on railway tracks based on this principle. Racks Gears c) Helical gears: Helical gears are almost similar to the spur gears. The difference is that the teeth’s are in a helicoids shape and are not parallel to the axis of rotation. [7] It is less noisy than the spur gears and is widely used in industries. [7] Double helical gears are also used which has helical gears kept inversely on both sides. Helical Gears d) Worm gears: These are the type of gears that consists of a concave teeth profile and this teeth is usually engaged to helical gears. It is used where power is to be transferred at 90 degrees. Here sliding motion is caused rather than helical motion. [7] Heavy lubricants with good film thickness is used to prevent contact of the metals because since the teeth is small there is a chance in breakage of the teeth causing higher maintenance of the gears. Worm Gears e) Bevel gears: These types of gears have conical shaped teeths. It is mainly used to connect shafts to intersecting lines. The angle between 2 bevel gears can be between 0 to 180 degrees depending upon the purpose. Bevel gears with equal number of teeths and shafts at 90 degrees are called miter gears. Spiral bevel gears also known as hypoid gears are used in automobiles. These gears will always have shafts at 90 degrees. Bevel Gears f) Epicyclic gears: Here 2 or more external gears move inside an internal gear as shown in Fig. 8. These types of gears are mainly used in mechanical differentials. In all the types of gears above due to their contact with each other a frictional force is created between them and due to these frictional forces it can cause wear to the gears. Here the tribological factors come into play and reduce the life cycle of the gears. This can also cause the tooth of the gears to break. So lubricants have to be used to an extent to improve the life of the gears and materials have to be used according to the kind of environment in which the gears are to be used. Materials used for making Gears: Gears can be made from a wide variety of materials such as wood to high steel alloys depending on the requirements. Gears in different mechanical machines needs different materials to overcome the surrounding obstacles, for longer life of the equipment and the machine and also to reduce the cost. Due to these the design of gears will always depend on the accuracy level needed for the gears, load to be applied on the gears, speeds to which the gears will rotate, the noise limitations and the material to be used. So the cost of the gear will always depend on these factors. [2] So while selecting materials we should consider the tribological factors that would affect the gear while its operation like: * Allowable bending and Hertz stress because as the bending stress is low there is a chance for the gear to get bend at higher temperatures. * Wear resistance as the gears and gear tooth’s should not get weared at higher speed of rotation of the gears. * Impact strength as the gears should not break when it is engaged with higher force with another gear. * Water and corrosion resistance to resist against corrosion due to lubricant action. * Manufacturing cost to make the gears profitable * Size and weight so that the gears can be used in all machines * Lubricant requirements to see that costly lubricants are not required to maintain the gears. * Dimensionally stable and reliable. * Stress free structure [3] Depending upon these factors, different materials are used and the details about properties of the materials and the conditions on which these materials are used are given below: 1) Plastics: In the past, gears were made of wood or phenolic-resin impregnated cloth and as years passed by more light weight, low cost gears were required. With the invention of new polymers in plastics it gave more opportunities for the preparation of light weight, low cost gears. For this the most common plastics used today are acetate and nylon resins. This plastic gear reduces the cost of the gears when produced at large quantities and also is sometimes mixed with metals for longer and quieter operation of the gears. But since these acetate and nylon resins gears are limited to certain conditions such as strength, temperature resistance and accuracy it was required to make a different polymer for the preparation of the gears and a different polymer called ‘Polyamide’ was developed. This polyamide molded gears could resist higher temperatures and could be used in certain situations in place of metal gears to overcome the tribological factors but due to its higher cost for production its still not used in all situations. [2] 2) Non-ferrous alloys: Titanium is also another material that can be combined with other metals to form a gear. Also the die cast materials like zinc, aluminium, brass, bronze are also used for gears due to its high corrosion property, high strength, less machining. These non ferrous alloys can be used for making gears because it can overcome most of the tribological factors. But these metals cannot be produced at large quantities due to its high cost of production. [2] 3) Cast iron: Cast iron is used for the preparation of gears because of its low cost, machinability and moderate mechanical properties. There are 3 types of cast irons differentiated basically depending on the structure of graphite in these irons. These are gray iron, malleable iron and ductile iron. Out of these the malleable and ductile irons have good shock resisting property and are mostly used in most of the gears by mixing it with other metals so that the gear made from this will be able to overcome most of the external factors affecting tribology. [2] 4) Sintered Powder Metals: These metals are used where high production is required with low cost. The process is simple where powder is put into the suitable high pressure die. A wide variety of selections of powders are available in this section of powdered metals. This sintered powder is also widely used in automotive industries by hot forming process which was recently developed to improve the mechanical properties of gears and resist against the effects of tribology. [2] 5) Hardened steels: This is one the most commonly used material in all industries for the manufacture of gears. These types of materials are used based on the factors like load, time period for which the material will work, lubricants to be used and the surrounding conditions that affect tribology such as temperature, pressure and humidity. When the gears are to be run at moderate temperature a low alloy material will be used for the production of gear and if the work load on the gear is to be high a high alloy material will be used after case carburizing or case nitriding to increase the fatigue strength. Of the 2 processes the case carburizing will have more distortion than the case nitriding process and would require an additional grinding process that would cause an increase in the cost of the gears. [2] Steel alloy is mostly used for the production gears more than normal steels. The materials used for gear preparation are an important factor for the preparation of gears as the working, the life of the gear, strength of the gear will all depend on the material. The material chosen must also be able to withstand the friction, wear and lubrication and have to be overcome to have long lasting and strong gears. If correct material is not chosen according to the criteria the machine can be of a complete failure and may not work properly. While selecting the materials the following factors have to be considered: Surface of the gears: The surface of gear has an important part in the life cycle of the gear as it must be able to withstand friction, wear and it must be able to properly engage with other gears and provide the required power to the required output shaft. For gears the surface texture which is defined as “the combinations of imperfections on a surface” [11] must be smooth and the gap between two teeths must be of proper size so the the 2 teeths are engaged correctly to each other. Eventhough gears now produced are with poor geometrical perfection or quality of surface texture companies is trying hard to produce gears with reduced surface texture by processes such as honing, lapping and super finishing methods. This is the opposite force caused when one body moves tangentially over another. The force can cause heat between the surface and can lead to the wear of the parts. The quality of the material used and the surface roughness decides the amount of friction that would occur on the surface of gears and this inturn decides the depth of wear that would occur on gears.The different types of wears that occurs on the surface of gears are given below: Ø Adhesive wear: This type of wear occurs on the tooth surface and is very difficult to find. Here the surface of the tooth gets a quashed look due to the long running of the gears. A moderate adhesive wear can also be caused on the gear surface due to variable loading of on the gear at different times. [15] The moderate adhesive wear will appear bright and can be seen with the naked eye 9as shown in fig. 11). Ø Abrasive wear: This type of wear occurs on gear surfaces when fine or severe dust particles are present in the lubricant used to reduce friction between the engaging gear surfaces. This type of wear is mainly seen in machines used at cement factories, road laying machines, mining machineries etc. The abrasives can cause the surface texture of the gear to change which in turn causes the application of more lubricant to the surface for the smooth running of the machine. [15] The abrasives in the lubricant can be of 2 types and cause wear to the gear in 2 methods which are classified as mild abrasion and severe abrasion. · Mild Abrasion: This type of wear is caused when mild or fine particles are present in the lubricant and this causes wear on the surface of the gear. This cause only small marks on the surface of the gear and wear increases in the longer run of the gears. [15] · Severe Abrasion: This type of wear is caused when large particles are present in the lubricant. It causes a larger wear in the gear and also can cause the breakdown in the machine. [15] · Corrosive Abrasion: This type of abrasion is caused when the chemicals in Lubricating oil reacts with the surface. [15] Conformity: It is defined as “the degree of agreement between the surfaces”.[1] The degree of conformity must be maximum for gears to exactly engage and run for a longer period of time. Initial wear can increase the conformity between the gears. If the right amount of lubricant is added during the initial wear period the initial wear will stop by itself and increase the conformity between the gears. High conformity is found mostly between 2 flat surfaces. The lowest conformity is found between a flat surface and a ball.[1] Surface Texture: It is surface condition that depends on the material of manufacture, the way in which the material was processed, the lubricant used on the surface and the type of wear that occurs on the surface. Surface texture is an important factor for gears movement of the gears and the degree at which the gears touch each other depends on this property. Below the shows the terms that are used for defining the surface texture: The irregularities in the surface of gears must be reduced to minimum while making a gear so that the thin film lubricant can run smoothly between gears and reduce the tribological factors between the gears. The surface finish should be smooth and must be free from sharp irregularities to increase the fatigue strength of the gear and this should be maintained throughout the gears to have a quieter operation. [3] The surface of the gear which is to be in contact with the other gear has to be of higher strength so the tooth don’t get weared out easily. The precision of the gears structure should be considered for long lasting of the gears. The surface of the gears can be improved using methods like polishing, heat treatment methods, Lubrication for smoother operation of gears: Lubricants are a viscous fluid applied between 2 gears for reducing the heat generated between them and to lubricate the teeth to reduce the friction between the gears. The selections of lubricant have to be correct to in order to provide high efficiency, good reliability, low maintenance and long life for the gears. [4] Generally the gear operates in 3 modes of lubrication mainly boundary, mixed, full film and hydrodynamic lubrication. The boundary condition is attained when the gear is started or stopped. With increase in relative motion the mixed lubrication condition is obtained and with further increase in speed the gear is said to run at full film lubrication.[3] “If there is a lubricant between the 2 contact surfaces and it is sufficient to protect the gears from contact then the lubrication is called as hydrodynamic lubrication”. [1] The lubricant differs from the normal liquid by the property of viscosity. Viscosity is defined as “the measure of the fluids resistance to flow”. [13] Since gears would be under high pressure and sliding it would require a medium to high grade lubricant. As the viscosity of lubricant increases the lubricant is said to be more reliable for the gears. A gear lubricant is said to have the below factors for obtaining a good performance from the gear: * thermal and oxidative stability * thermal durability * compatibility with seal materials * protection against excessive gear and bearing wear * high-temperature extreme pressure protection * gear and bearing cleanliness * emulsibility characteristics * rust and corrosion protection, especially to yellow metal components * antifoaming characteristics [5] The major tribological factors of the lubricant are: · Viscosity: It is a property of the lubricant for providing the lubrication affect to the engaging gears. The viscosity of the lubricant can protect the gear from friction. Higher the viscosity greater the protection to the gears. · Additives: It is a chemical substance added to oil to increase the property of oil and protect the gear against wear. Additives can protect the gear from wear and overheating. Better the additives greater will be the protection for the gear. · Contamination: It is the addition of an external component in the lubricant that could reduce the property of the lubricant. This is a disadvantage for gears. If the contaminated substance is large it can cause a breakdown to the gears. · Degradation: It is the wearing out of some parts of the gear due to chemical reactions. This is also a disadvantage to the gears. More the degradation more the chance for the tooth to break off. The below table explains the factors affecting selection of industrial gear lubricants: Factor Requirement Gearing Type * Spur and bevel * Helical and spiral bevel * Hypoid * Worm Low slide, low speed Moderate slide, moderate to high loading High slide, high loading Excessive sliding,moderate to high loading Loading High loaded industrial gear drives requires the use of extreme gear pressure gear lubricants. Surface finish Rougher surfaces requires high viscosity oils Smoother surfaces can use low viscosity oils Transmitted power As load is increased viscosity must be increased. Gear speed The higher the speed of the gear drive the lighter the viscosity needs to be Materials compatibility Some types of extreme pressure additives can attack yellow metals like brass and bronze Temperature The industrial gear lubricants viscosity must be selected based on the lowest and highest operating temperature. Types of gear lubricants: There are lots of oil used as lubricant for gears to reduce wear,to protect against corrosion, to protect the gear against oxidation and to prevent the formation of foam between the 2 gears. [12] · Inhibited oil: This is a lubricant used to prevent the corrosion and foaming between the gears. [12] · Extreme Pressure Oils: These oils contain inhibited oils and chemically active substances and are used for modifying the friction acting between the 2 engaging gears.[12] · Compounded oils; These are oils made from steam cylinder stocks compounded with fatless additives. The purpose of this oil is also to reduce friction.[12] · Open gear compounds: This lubricant consists of additives and is used for high, slow speed heavily loaded gears. This lubricant protects the gear teeth from damage.[12] · Greases: This is one of the commonly used lubricants. It consists thick soap contents. It can only be used on low speed gear surfaces.[12] Methods of lubrication: · Grease Lubrication: This type of lubrication is used at gears with0 to 6 m/s tangential speed. It can be applied on all types of gears operating at low speeds. Excess of this lubricant can lead power loss and viscous drag.[5] · Splash Lubrication: This type of lubrication is applied to gears with speed of 4 to 15 m/s tangential speed. Here the lubrication is done by running the gear through an oil bath. The lubricant is effective only from 3 m/s speed of the gear and the oil should be prevented from mixing with some other liquid or particles which could cause a damage to the gear teeth.[5] · Spray Lubrication: This type of lubrication is applied to gears with more 12m/s of tangential operating speed. Here the oil for lubrication is sprayed through a nozzle. The nozzle should be engineered properly as there is a chance for the oil to get deflected out of path of flow by centrifugal force or by the air that is flowing out. [5] Lubricants can protect the gears from the tribological factors such as friction and wear. We know what are the types of lubricants to be used, their applications and the types of lubrication processes. It is important that we select the right amount and quality of lubricants for the gears so that they have a longer life and don’t get weared out easily. Engineers are still now researching to find the best lubricant for gears so that defects in gears like scoring, scuffing, pitting doesn’t occur at all for gears. The gear noise is also prevented to an extend by lubrication. Operating Conditions for Gears: Operating conditions are important tribological factors for gears as this will determine the lubricant to be used, the material to be selected for making gears. The operating conditions of gears are determined by the factors like load applied on the gear, the speed at which the gear is about to rotate,relative motion between the gears, environmental condition, the product of pressure and velocity acting on the gears and the temperature on which the gear is about to work. These operating conditions which are to be considered for operation of gear are applied below: 1) Load: Load is the determining factor for the strength of a gear which determines the material to be used for the gear production, the amount of rubbing that would occur between the gear surfaces, the whole network of surface stresses that would occur in the contact zone of the gear surfaces and the coefficient of friction that would occur between the gears. The load also influences the behaviour of a lubricant or the abrasive particles present in the lubricant which would cause an impact on the gear tooth directly. The other area where the load influence is known is at the bonding between the gears that is directly dependent on the degradation of the surface films, increase in contact area and on temperature. In fact loading has a major impact on the change, age and wear characteristics of the materials. The schematic diagram of the influence of load on the operation of gear is given in the fig. 11.the explains the stresses produced due to load applied and the effects of these substances on the element.So in order to keep the gear in good condition and free from wear the following points have to be taken into account: * To keep the gears in good condition progressive loading of gears is a best way. * Decrease in load variation as it would reduce the rise of cavitation in the gears * Decreasing fatigue loading in gears to prevent surface fatigue wear.[14] 2) Speed: Speed of gear is an important factor as it varies from one mechanical component to another and is an important factor for the working of the machine. The parameter of the gears that are greatly influenced by the speed of gears are : a) Temperature: Temperature is a factor which is greatly influenced by the speed of the gear. As the speed of the gears increases the temperature between the gears also increases leading to more heat dissipation. Inorder to maintain the temperature between the gears we have to consider a good coolant and a good heat conducting surrounding medium. b) Friction coefficient: The effect of speed on the friction coefficient comes into play especially in a lubricated circumstance, where this factor determines the hydrodynamic load carrying capacity. At very low speed of the gears there is a chance for the stick-slip phenomenon due to the fluctuation in friction coefficient. [14] 3) Relative motion: The relative motion involves motions like sliding, rolling, spinning and bouncing. These motion can decrease the performance of the gear and also can cause wear in the gear. The use of correct material, lubricant and designing the gear correctly can increase the performance of the gear and also give longer life to the gear. [1] 4) Environment: Environment can cause a decrease in performance of the gear. This is caused by the contamination of the lubricant and also due to the chemical reaction of the lubricant with the gear metals. [1] 5) Product (PxV): Here the quantity of heat generated by friction is calculated from the energy at the contact which is given by the equation E = QVf (where Q = load applied to the contact, V = displacement velocity, f = friction coefficient). Here the term PxV is used as a reference to estimate the limiting conditions for materials such as polymers, solid lubricants, self lubricating sintered materials etc. This in turn can be used as a basis for the selection and comparison of materials. Thus we are able to know the maximum PxV for certain materials and us them for the production of gears. [14] 6) Temperature: Temperature has a major effect on the contact zone of the 2 surfaces of a gear. The temperature increase in the tooth of the gear can cause geometric distortion or loss of clearance in the tooth. It can also cause an increase in the coefficient of friction and wear to the gear. Temperature can also cause deterioration in the mechanical properties of the materials and change the properties of the lubricants. An increase in the interfacial bonds is also caused which lead to a chemical reaction between the materials. [14] Conclusion: Thus the audit of gears using the tribological factors such as material, surface, lubrication and operating conditions was conducted. It is found that gears are useful in most of the mechanical applications and also have a lot of properties that are to be taken care of while the operation of the gear. In today’s world, a lot of materials are available for the manufacture of gears. These materials can only be used in different conditions and have their own advantages and disadvantages. So in future a much modern material with zero wearing property and that provides longer life to the gears have to be developed. In the case of surfaces of gears smooth finished gears are already been produced these days. A surface with normal surface texture and conformity will provide smoother running of gears in future. A lots of lubricants are available in todays world. In future a more advanced lubricant can be developed that can reduce wearing of gears completely and also help to increase the performance of gears to the fullest. All gears today are developed for performing at a particular load and temperature above which the gear can get damaged. So in future gears have to be developed that can operate at maximum temperature and load so that wear of gears due to these characteristics can be reduced to minimum. References: [1] J.A. Williams, Oxford Science Publications, OUP, 1994, pp.1. [2] Coy, J.J., Townsend, P.D. and Zaretsky, E.V., “Gearing”, NASA RP-1152, December 1985. [3] Gear Materials, Ashoka Group [online].[Accessed on 6th December,2009]. Available from: [4] Gearology, Boston Gear [online].[Accessed on 2nd December,2009]. Available from: [5] Gear Lubrication [online].[Accessed on 4thDecember,2009]. Available from: [6] Lawrence G. Ludwig, Jr., Schaeffer Manufacturing Company, “Lubrication Selection for Enclosed Gear Drives”.Machinery Lubrication. January 2005 [7] Gear Types, Engineers Edge [online].[Accessed on 4th December,2009]. Available from: [8] Precision Gears,Inc [online]. [Accessed on 4th December,2009]. Available from: [9] Gears,Monarch Bearing [online]. [Accessed on 4th December,2009]. Available from: [10] Surface Finish [online].[Accessed on 6th December,2009].Available from: [11] Surface Texture –Definition [online].[Accessed on 6th December,2009].Available from: [12] Gear Systems – A Tribological Review [ online].[Accessed on 6th December,2009]. Available from: [13] Viscosity [online].[Accessed on 6th December,2009].Available from: [14] Neale.M.J, Polak.T.A., Priest.M, “Handbook of Surface Treatments and Coatings”, Professional engineering Publishing Limited London and Bury St Edmunds,UK,2003,pp. 24-27. [15] Gear Failures[online].[Accessed on 6th December,2009]. Available from:
Inkheart by Cornelia Funke is a wonderful story within a story that is a delightful blend of fantasy and reality revolving around the adventures of a little girl Meggie and her father, Mo who has a special gift of bringing alive the characters he reads out of novels. This power invites the attention of villainous Capricorn, who plans to use Mo to bring to life both evil characters and great riches from books like Treasure Island and The Arabian Nights. When Meggie finds all about Capricorn and his evil things, she finds her dad missing, taken by Capricorn. Dustfinger, a character read from Inkheart by her father, betrays them and goes with her and her aunt Elinor to rescue her father. Inkheart unfolds several themes with which readers can relate. But the most important underlying theme of the book is the dilemma of good over evil. A balance between good and evil is the main theme of this story with its focus on character development, both within the characters of the larger text as well as with Fenoglio and the characters of his novel and three incidents that can be used to analyze the balancing of good and evil in characters are conflicted between Meggie and Mo, representing good face the ultimate evil in the character of Capricorn; inner conflict within Dustfinger who desires to go back into the book at any cost and also does not want to leave Mo and Meggie in danger; and the confrontation between the good Fenoglio and evil Capricorn and Busta towards the end of the story. One day when Mo was reading Inkheart, Teresa and two family cats disappeared at the exact moment Capricorn, Dusterfinger, and Capricorn’s henchman, Basta, appeared. This was due to the magical power of Mo, who could bring transfer characters from fiction to reality and vice versa. Mo desperately attempted to bring Teresa back out of the book, but to no avail. In his despair, Mo decided there would be no more attempts to bring Teresa back because he was simply too frightened of what else might come out of the book. So he locked away his copy of Inkheart. The new villain out of the book, Capricorn sent his henchmen to collect all of the copies of the book in existence so he could control both his former and his current worlds and also wants to find Mo. Capricorn has his unique personality and Fenoglio, the author of “Inkheart”, calls him “the unapproachable,” and says that his heart “is a stone… a black stone with about as much human sympathy as a lump of coal.” Ever since his fifteenth year, Capricorn has worked hard to get rid of weaknesses in his character such as compassion and love. Having achieved that goal, he lived a self-centered life, full of hatred, power-hungry, and having no capacity to love, be kind, or happy. Capricorn is merciless and Mo, in contrast, is the personification of goodness and kindness. He tries to protect his daughter from the harsh realities of life and often risks his life for Meggie. He accepts responsibility for the tragic situation of Dustfinger and tries to send him back where he belongs. Even in the face of danger, Mo does not hesitate in doing what is right. Capricorn says to an imprisoned Meggie, “[Mo will] come here even though he knows I won’t let him go again, any more than I will let his daughter go. He’ll come all the same”. Capricorn and Mo, along with Meggie are depicted as polar opposite personalities. The clash of good and evil is well etched through the conflicts among these characters. Mo and Meggie try to get the help of Fenoglio, the author of the book “Inkheart”. Eager to help them, mainly because he is excited at the prospect of meeting his creations, Fenoglio joins them. Together, they outwit Capricorn and his minions and thereby show that good wins over evil. In this book, Dustfinger is shown more as a victim of circumstances created by Mo. One evening, as Mo was reading Inkheart, Teresa and two family cats disappeared at the exact moment Capricorn, Dusterfinger, and Capricorn’s henchman, Basta, appeared. Mo desperately attempted to bring his wife, Teresa back out of the book, but to no avail. In his despair, Mo decided there would be no more attempts to bring Teresa back because he was simply too frightened of what else might come out of the book. So he locked away his copy of Inkheart. Dustfinger is a reluctant entry into reality from the book “Inkheart” and one who is desperate to get back home into the book. He is a kindly fire-eater/juggler who misses the fairies and his friends among trolls. Capricorn uses Dustfinger to lure Mo and Meggie to his hideout village; there Meggie sees a demonstration of her father’s reading skill when he brings gold treasure out of Treasure Island and a young Arab boy out of the Arabian Nights. When Dustfinger learns Capricorn’s true plans to exploit the powers of Mo to his advantage, Dustfinger decides to help Mo, Meggie, and Elinor escape over the hills. Dustfinger is torn apart by conflicting emotions: he desperately wants to return to his story and the life he always knew and finds the task of betraying Meggie to be much harder than he expected. However, even as his guilty conscience stirs, he “[pushes] the tiresome feeling away” and convinces himself that “the girl [has] nothing to do with him… [and] he [has] no reason to feel like a miserable double-dealing villain.” Despite this reassurance, however, Dustfinger still feels guilty for his actions, and he constantly struggles with himself throughout the story. This is an inner conflict between the goodness in him and the evil in him. Fenoglio is the author of the book “Inkheart”. Meggie confronts him and blames him for creating Capricorn and not destroying him in his book. While he is initially proud of Capricorn, understands the destruction he is causing to Mo and Meggie, Fenoglio decides to help Mo. Fenoglio on the side of good fights both Busta and Capricorn with his intelligent ways. He escapes Busta by giving him magical charms for three days. Within that time, he experiments an idea of Meggie. He makes Meggie call to life the tin soldier from “The Steadfast Tin Soldier,” a Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale. Fenoglio then rewrites the original, sad ending of “The Steadfast Tin Soldier,” and then tells Meggie to read it aloud. The tin soldier returns to the book and has a happy ending. After this, he decides to apply the same idea to destroy Capricorn. He rewrites Inkheart’s ending so that the Shadow, instead of helping Capricorn with his evil plans will destroy him. This plan succeeds. Meggie reads this new ending aloud, the book’s author disappears into his creation, and Capricorn falls dead. Thus, in this particular instance of conflict between good and evil, we find that Fenoglio makes the supreme sacrifice of going into his creation and destroying the monster he has created. Cornelia Funke’s “Inkheart” has the theme of good over evil running as a subtle undercurrent beneath its main plot and its subplots as well. Capricorn is the main villain personifying evil in the main plot. Both Mo and Meggie are shown as good people. But in this conflict between good and evil, the other characters such as Dustfinger, Basta, Elinor, Fenoglio, and Farid take sides and there is confrontation depending on the side they take. Thus the book deals with the balancing of good and evil in every conflict and can be discussed in the context of three main situations – in the case of Mo and Capricorn, the inner conflict of Dustfinger, and between Fenoglio and Capricorn. Bibliography: Funke, Cornelia (2005). Inkheart. Thorndike Press.
GSU Level of Vitamin D During Pregnancy Affects a Child IQ Discussion.

NO PLAGIARISM250 wordsInstructions:You are expected to make a minimum of *two* posts in this discussion: one to answer three question(s) posed by the discussion prompt based on the article you reviewed, and one response to another classmate’s post on the board.All posts should be written using proper grammar and punctuation, and all information used from the textbook and/or outside readings must be properly documented. There will be two deadlines for this discussion. You are required to post your answers to the discussion questions based on the article you read by the first deadline. You are required to respond to at least one classmate’s post by the final deadline for this discussion.Please conduct an online literature search for recently published research (e.g., a journal article) on your topic of interest. There are two specific requirements to satisfy this assignment: 1) the topic must be one that is related to human development; 2) the information must be current (published in a scholarly journal within the last two years).When you locate an appropriate source pertaining to the chosen topic, your task is to: 1) read the article, 2) answer the following 3 questions in your own words and 3) provide a link to the article and/or cite the article.In your post, based on the article that you read, I want you to answer three questions in about 250 words:1) What do you think are the key point(s) of interest? 2) How is this information relevant to material covered in PSYC 2103? 3) What is your reaction to this article? Do you agree or disagree with the conclusions drawn in the article? Why?
GSU Level of Vitamin D During Pregnancy Affects a Child IQ Discussion

Lululemon’s Expansion into Finland. Lululemon in Finland TABLEOFCONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 3 PROJECT OVERVIEW 4 GLOBAL MARKET ASSESSMENT 8 MODE OF ENTRY 12 CULTURE 13 ETHICS 15 RISK AND REWARDS 16 CONCLUSION 17 REFERENCES 18 APPENDIX 20 Introduction This report discusses about the expansion of Lululemon Athletica, a Canadian apparel company, by moving into Finland. As we go along this report it will present a brief discussion about the company Lululemon athletica followed by a brief market analysis of Finland. We will then progress to talk about Lululemon’s international strategy and our expected mode of entry into the Finnish market. After carrying out a thorough country and company analysis of the Finnish apparel market, then we will discuss about the cultural aspects and work force available in Finland and then discussing about the company’s ethical standards. Finally, the last chapter will discuss about the potential risk and rewards for lululemon by expanding to Finland. PROJECT OVERVIEW Lululemon Atheltica Inc. is a Canadian apparel retailer dealing mostly in women athletic clothes. Most people just refer it as “Lululemon”, it is known for its iconic yoga pants, the other products also include performance shirts, shorts and pants, also as fashion apparel and yoga accessories. Lululemon was founded in 1998 by Chip Wilson in Vancouver, British Columbia, he originally started in the snowboard and surf and then moved on to yoga pants at right time and capitalized on the growing market trend. Since then lululemon has seen extra ordinary growth. Since its beginning, Lululemon has grown into an iconic brand, it basically pioneered “athleisure”, which is a term used for athletic and leisure clothing. Between 1998 and 2018, Lululemon has been able to expand its stores to 351 stores worldwide. Since its inception in 1998, lululemon has established its brand name to such an extent that it has a cult like following in North America. Over 95% of its sales are accounted from North America, but with increasing competition from other sports wear apparel and life style brands, the advantage to first moving into the women’s sportwear apparel has been decreasing. As a result the company has started to expands its products from men and children as well through its divisions: Ivivva (Men sportswear) and OQOQO (children sportswear). The total sales of Lululemon Atheltica Inc. as of 2017 was about 2.6 Billion USD. While the net profit of Lululemon Atheleica as of 2017 amounted was 520 million USD Figure 1: Lululemon Athletica Inc Sales 2008-2016 (in millions of USD) Looking at Figure 1, lululemon Atheltica Inc, over the eight periods, has been growing continuously, it continues to grow in 2018 as well. However, the company registered a decline in its net income by 31%, this was because in early first quarter of 2017 it was reestablishing its ivivva’s operations, this had declining effect on the net Income throughout 2017. Lululemon Atheltica Inc. has over 13,400 employees working full time throughout its 351 stores worldwide. Country Profile: Finland As of 2014, Finland has a population of five and a half million(5.6million). However, approximately more than 3 million people out of the total population are in the age group of 15-64 which is basically more than half of the population. Economic Conditions: Finland is one of the most economically stable country in Europe with the GDP of 251.9 billion USD (2018) that is continuously growing since the US worldwide market recession in 2008. They rank 41 world-wide in terms of GDP out of 195 countries. Finland the main source of income is majorly from trades this serves as the resource to keep the country operations up. About 30% of income through exports are made through trade in Finland. Finland also has several disadvantages as well. The Labor costs are high in Finland. However, by 2016, the labor costs have been declining (Appendix 1). The expected labor costs are expected to stabilize by the first quarter of 2019. Another negative of the country, is the tax rate is one of the highest in the world. Finland ranks about 7th rank in the world out of 35 (OECD) countries in the world. The tax rate is seven percent higher than the average in OECD countries. The Sales and purchasing power of the people is affected directly. While the tax rate may be on the higher end, but Finland has a very low corporate taxes on the income, this makes it one of the most suitable places to start the business (Appendix2). Finland as a country are encouraging Foreign direct Investments (FDI). The FDI restrictiveness of Finland is very low (0.019), a lot less than the OECD countries average. They are ranked in the top 10 for least FDI restrictive countries in the world (Appendix3). Political conditions: Finland boasts one of the lowest corruption rates across the world. According to TICP, it ranks 3rd in the world index. There has been change in relationship with Soviet Union due to their They have also other countries such as Spain, Portugal and Greece during their economic recessions. They are currently following the trend of Brexit to detach themselves from EU. The law system in Finland is based on Civil law system. The most important key factor in Finnish market is that the both the domestic and foreign business are treated equally. There also strict laws to protect the patent and copyright laws. It is also relatively much easier to resolve the legal issues and other legal matters in Finland. The high regulations on the companies to maintain the safety and hygiene at work place is one of the key elements of Finland corporate culture. SWOT ANALYSIS OF LULULEMON Strengths (Competitive Advantages) ● Strong work culture ● Customer loyalty ● Steady financial growth ● Fabric Innovation Opportunities ● Global expansion ● Men sportswear ● Growing Young population in Finland Weaknesses: ● Online platform ● No international presence ● Majority of sales in North America Threats: ● Highly competitive market with new competitors entering frequently ● Competition ● Growing market for counterfeit products(knockoffs) LULULEMON’S STRATEGY: Lululemon follows current strategy is home replication strategy. The company has different websites for different region like European, japan and US. For example, while in Canada there is a different website with Canadian (Appendix4) Taking into consideration our current approach, we expect to use the same approach to the Finnish market and strict true to our values. We strive to provide the best service to our customers. Lululemon has a very niche market and hence it will be important to use a home replication strategy approach to gain its customer base. Lululemon first started business in Canada and expanded to U.S. Progressively they have branched out into the China and recently have also transitioned into Europe. Thus, we believe our decision to expand into Finland is in line with the Lululemon’s current strategy of expansion. GLOBAL MARKET ASSESSMENT First and foremost, Western Europe oversees the greatest sales of coffee compared to any other lululemon depends heavily on its core market in North America that accounts for ninety-five of its international sales. At the tip of FY16, the corporate operated 296 lululemon stores and fifty-five ivivva stores, enjoying a powerful presence across the region. North America is predicted to be a continued focus for the corporate going forward because the market provides important growth opportunities notably among performance attire set to feature another USD6.8 billion over the subsequent 5 years. Lululemon has slowly begun to venture outside North America, notably therefore in Australasia wherever the corporate operated thirty-two stores at the tip of FY16. the corporate has additionally dilated in Western Europe and Asia Pacific. important growth opportunities do exist outside North America, most noticeable is Asia Pacific however additionally in Western Europe. China and Asian nation are expected to drive activewear growth till 2021 in Asia Pacific. And despite lackluster performance of attire and footwear in Western Europe, the region offers important growth opportunities thanks to the recognition of yoga, demand for performance attire and substantial high-income client base(Appendix5) Competitors Originating in practical yoga wear that sparked the athleisure trend that has formed abundant of world attire and footwear over the last 5 years, lululemon has continued to target design-led performance wear not solely restricted to yoga however additionally running and swimming driving growth well higher than the market average As yoga and Pilates quickly rises in quality in North America, lululemon makes its competitive advantage with premium-positioned purposeful yoga wear. the corporate establishes a close to cult-like following and sales virtually quadruple from 2009 to 2012. Lululemon continues to outdo the worldwide average for attire because it ventures outside its core market in North America. the corporate expands into high income markets in Western Europe and conjointly Asia Pacific thanks to its scale and growth dynamics. As athleisure dynamics stay sturdy, competition intensifies as everybody desires a chunk of the market, from attire giants like Greek deity to fashion giants like HLululemon’s Expansion into Finland

The Walt Disney Company Business Essay

The Walt Disney Company Business Essay. diversified international family entertainment and media enterprise with several businesses: Media network, Parks and Resorts, Studio Entertainment, Consumer Products, and Interactive Media. In 1923, the successful entertained company is recognized worldwide, and conceived in 1923, Walt Disney is very innovative in the entertainment industry as the brand grew it gained power from the brand created. Disney organization is embedded with diverse workforce and focus on the importance and the welfare of employees to achieve great performance. Employee Training and Development All organization must manage their resources such as money, equipment, information, and people. Employee training and development is very important in every organization because employees need to learn new and different things within the organization. Changes in Technology are requiring new skills in the workplace and employees need to be proactive with the changes. Management at Walt Disney has gain tremendous recognition in the way they management their employees and their organization behavior aspect. Managers and Executives are offer training in leadership development courses that will help to promote better leaders. Curriculum is developed to engage leaders to show their true potential and progress in their careers and to build their capabilities. In engaging in these leadership development courses, it will help executive and managers to help other employees to gain self confidence, and know where they belong in the company. The leadership development program helps internal executives to a mentor to other employee; give back to the organization what they have learned. Walt Disney offer development to everyone across the board, employees are able to access the instructor-led and online opportunities to develop themselves personally and professionally. The company has invested in learning for their employees by developing a global learning technology-enabled platform. With these tools in place, employees are able to gain access to online learning and communication via online courses and virtual classroom any time they choose. Training and development helps employees to advance themselves and be able to gain better communication, critical and creative thinking, project management, time management, technical and artistic skills development, cultural awareness, diversity, ethics, safety, career development and wellness (Corporate Responsibility Report, 2008). Different Approaches for Employees Learning and development The different approaches for employee learning and development offers to employees by Walt Disney organization can be recognized as the systematic approach to training. The systematic approach is considered to be a High-Leverage Training Strategy that refers to a planned effort by the company to facilitate employees learning of job-related competencies. Under this approach there are several training that is conducted, that include needs assessment, design of the learning environment, consideration of employee readiness for training, and transfer —of-training ((Noe, Raymond, John Hollenbeck, et al., 2010, p. 273-337). Thus, the opportunities that employees and leaders gained from the courses introduced to them, the company employees were able to build individualized learning plan that can pull from resources of more than 10,000 online and print reference materials, targeted instructor-led classes, performance support systems, guest speakers, mentors, coaches and much more (Corporate Responsibility Report, 2008). Management Succession Plan of Walt Disney Retiring baby boomers are taking with them the knowledge they have acquired over the years, often leaving less experience employees to provide services and also, changes in technology are requiring new skills. Walt Disney have made provision such has success plan program to groom generation Xers employees who may have the knowledge and experience of technology to be able to inherit the vacant positions that have been left by retirees. Walt Disney provide management succession program that employees to gain insight time-testes Disney strategies and tactics for improving business results through exceptional leadership. Newly leaders will learn and experience the details of the Disney Leadership Excellence Model and how to familiarize it to improve result within their own organization. As a result, the management succession program benefitted all Disney employees due to the fact that they were able to give back what they learned in the form of developing and communicating their leadership vision, establish and maintain effective systems an structures to meet goals, apply the strategies use to foster individual responsibility across the organization, inspire commitment and leadership development in others, and implement action plan to align with the vision, goals and continued development of the organization (Disney Institute). Career Opportunities of the Disney Organization Motivation Based on reading from the Walt Disney Company, career opportunities has motivated me given that Disney as created a working environment that engages all employees that they are all leaders and that they are determined and willing to develop leadership quality by having their employees believe in themselves and that their own behavior and vision drives the creation of work environment. Also, open communication is the key to all organization, and Disney has made it possible to help engage employees by having regular questions and answers segments in town hall meetings, executives coffees and employees forums. Employees are able to ask questions of senior executives without censorship or repercussions. All these opportunities are important values for working with any organization. Conclusion In conclusion, Walt Disney is a very innovative entertainment industry and has gain power from around the world. Their focuses are not just their consumers and audiences but they consider their employees’ plays a very important role in the organization. Disney values are indeed driven by the human elements of their business and they are highly keen in their standard quality, ethics and social responsibility. At Walt Disney, their mission to foster safe, inclusive and respectful workplaces whether in any of their subsidiaries and divisions are truly displayed. The Walt Disney Company Business Essay

NEURAL NETWORK, Assignment help

help me with my homework NEURAL NETWORK, Assignment help.

NEURAL NETWORK ASSIGNMENT Assume you want to classify the following four points (x1; x2) €IR2: X1 0 0 1 1 X2 0 1 0 1 Class C0 C0 C0 C1 Explain the simplest neural network that can classify the above points? Consider the following points Note: Fully specify all necessary parameters of a neural network that can classify the points in Part (a) and draw the decision boundary.(6marks) X1 0 0 1 1 X2 0 1 0 1 Class C0 C1 C1 C0 Explain whether the network you provided in part (a) correctly classify these points. (4marks) 2. Back-propagation algorithm: Consider the following neural network: With configuration:- 1 1 1 1 1 -1 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 Perform one iteration of the back propagation algorithm, assuming that the hidden layer and the output layer use the Log-Sigmoid activation function. yk = —————————————————(1) for inputs (x1; x2) = (0,1) and output y = 1. (6marks) 3. Prove that if the activation function of a 2 layered neural network is the identity function, the neural network is equivalent to a simple perceptron with a linear activation function.(4marks)
NEURAL NETWORK, Assignment help

History Through Conflict Napoleon Bonaparte the Illusion of Ruling the World Essay

History Through Conflict Napoleon Bonaparte the Illusion of Ruling the World Essay.

I’m working on a history Essay and need a sample draft to help me study.

Country: France Pick one themes to write the history Year will be 1789-1945, Also it has to choose a person in this year and talk about this person.All writing assignments should be in Chicago format (typed, double-spaced). Be sure to use Times New Roman 12 point font. All pages must be numbered. At the top left of the first page include your full name, the class title, the assignment title, the date, and a word count.In generalIn GeneralThe assignment is meant to explore some details of your chosen nation and to use those details to reflect back upon the themes of our courseThe assignment (s) also give you some freedom to tailor the course to your interests and to the approaches to history that you prefer The 4 themesHistory through BiographyHistory through ConflictHistory through CultureHistory through FoodStarting with History through BiographyFamiliarize yourself with the rough outline of the history of your chosen nationThink about your chosen nation relative to the different approaches to nation (first text)Think about the role of the individual in history–Does the individual make history–Do the times shape the individual–Some of both (sitting on the fence)–Inclined towards… Choosing a Person“Great man” or notPolitical, Cultural, Economic…Sub-altern?When do they fit the history chronologically–Short time?–Life story mimics nation?My exampleDoing Latvian nationBrainstorm ideas:Political: Ulmanis, Skujenieks, Stučka, RainisCultural: Rainis, Aspāzija, Padegs, Čaks, BaronsEconomic: Bergs“Sub-Altern”: Pīpiņa, Schiemann, Peter the PainterChoice: RainisThinking about my choiceRainis, lived from 1865-1929Cultural hero, poet, playwright, editorÉmigréSocial DemocratHow does his experience mirror nationTranslating to PaperBrainstorm ideas about RainisEarly Social DemocratEarly RevolutionaryÉmigréCultural productionWifeReturn to Latvia as hero, politicianRelationship between cultural role and politicalTranslating to paper, part 2Use word count as a guide1,000 to 1,500 words–My paragraphs are about 250 words, 4 to 6 paragraph paper–If paragraphs long, should they be two.–If short, can i flesh them out more–Keyhole structure or noRemember the course!Write paper to be interacting with text (s)Write paper to be interacting with classHave other assignments added? Can I scaffold or ladder assignments?What does (or does not) this person tell us about the history of the nationLoading…OutlineMore detailed the outline, the easier the jump to writingStrengthsWeaknessesStart wide, narrow. Finish from narrow back to wideWhat works for you, not a formulaDraftsMultiple rough draftsMultiple edits–Nails the link to the course?–Readability–Structure–Read out loud,SourcingI prefer footnotes, but be consistentBibliography so I can followLast hintsFollow what interests youPersuasive argument, not prosecutorialViewpoint, but balanceNeat and tidy
History Through Conflict Napoleon Bonaparte the Illusion of Ruling the World Essay

Gender parity in higher education Essay

Table of Contents Introduction The Rights and Choices for Women in Education Gender Parity in Leadership Gender Parity in Employment Reference List Introduction This paper reflects on the issue of gender parity in higher education. The paper outlines three major hindrances to achieving gender equity in access to higher education. The three factors mentioned in the paper include; the rights and choices for women education, gender parity in leadership and employment in senior positions. The paper looks at the three factors based on the four motivational frameworks; inclusion, attitude, meaning and competence. The Rights and Choices for Women in Education The curriculum content as well as the teaching and evaluation methods should not appear to be gender biased. Curriculum designers need to bear in mind the issue of gender inclusivity by examining the language used in the curriculum, as well as the proposed teaching aids and methods Cooke (2011). The implementation part should also embrace gender inclusion. Female students can for example feel excluded reading a text that constantly refers to the “he” pronoun without mentioning “she”. Attitude plays an important role too in achieving gender equity in higher education. Certain curricular choices for example are dominantly a male’s preserve since the old days by attitude. This attitude has been passed on from old generations to the current generations and continues to affect enrollment of female students in engineering courses Collard and Reynolds (2005). Curriculum designers and implementers need to break away from this norm by encouraging equal gender enrollment in the various career choices. The curriculum should also be focused on developing the learners’ competency in handling real life situations. Its content should be practical and applicable in everyday life situation of the learner. It is easier for one to comprehend what they can apply directly in their daily life than theoretical facts. The curriculum should provide learners an opportunity to actively participate in the learning process through questions, assignments, practical sessions and excursions. Gender Parity in Leadership There is a widespread gender parity leadership in various institutions, including the education sector. Women are largely disadvantaged in the process of ascending to competitive leadership positions Cooke (2011). This is mainly because of poor democratic institutions and the nature of campaigns that mostly favor male candidates. There is need to strengthen democratic institutions and emphasize more on affirmative action to enable more female candidates ascend to leadership positions. Curriculum should put more emphasis on practical leadership skills in order to empower and enhance learners’ leadership skills Collard and Reynolds (2005). Curriculum designers and implementers should base the curriculum content on well researched facts that include current and emerging life issues. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to enhance competency in leadership, the curriculum needs to be designed in a manner that it will provide several opportunities to the learner to practice leadership. This can be implemented through group work and presentations. Women should be encouraged to fight for leadership positions in the democratic space and embrace positive attitude towards it Tembon and Fort (2009). Gender Parity in Employment Gender parity in employment is a question that continues to raise eyebrows both in developed and developing nations. Low female enrollment in schools and failure to successfully complete the education program is the bottom line of the problem Tembon and Fort (2009). There is, as a result few females employed in senior leadership positions both in government and private sector. There is need to develop employment laws that emphasize gender inclusion, or even create quotas to have more women employed in senior positions. Certain jobs have for long been dominated by men, they include presidency, and parliamentary positions. It is against the norms for a woman to declare her presidential candidature in some countries even in this era of great civilization and enlighten. Such societies should be enlightened and made to understand that women are as competent as men to hold these positions. Reference List Cooke, P. L. (2011). Gender – Class Equality in Political Economies. New York: Routledge. Collard, J. and Reynolds, C. (2005). Leadership, Gender and Culture in Education: Male