Slaves and slave trade has been an important part of history for a very long time. In the years of the British thirteen colonies in North America, slaves and slave trade was a very important part of its development. It even carried on to almost 200 years of the United States history. The slave trade of the thirteen colonies was an important part of the colonies as well as Europe and Africa. In order to supply the thirteen colonies efficiently through trade, Europe developed the method of triangular trade.It is referred to as triangular trade because it consists of trade with Africa, the thirteen colonies, and England.
These three areas are commonly called the trades “three legs. ” The first leg of this trade was merchants from Europe bringing refined goods to Africa to trade for slaves. The merchants traded with chiefs and high authority leaders. The chiefs pretty much could and would trade whomever they pleased, there was no restriction regarding who the slaves were.On the second leg of this trade slaves were transported to the West Indies, this leg was called the middle passage. This part was horrible for the slaves. About 50% of all the slaves on one ship would not make it to the West Indies because of disease or brutal mistreatment.
Hundreds of men, woman and children were cramped together for most of the journey, occasionally able move an almost decent amount. On the third leg of the journey slaves were traded for sugar, molasses and other products.Those products were shipped to Europe or other European colonies in the Americas. The slaves in the West Indies were then sold to whomever wanted to buy some. After this whole process the cycle repeated itself over and over, and this system was used for a long time. To supply the thirteen colonies effectively though trade, Europe came up with the idea of triangular trade. Africa, the 13 colonies, and Europe were part of Rupee’s invention of triangular trade.
In all, this was a very harsh but somewhat successful way of trade.
Insert surname1 Professor’s name Student’s name Course title Date Cyber Laws Due
Due to immense increase of the internet use and independency of people in multiple fields, a number of new computer related crimes and other gadgets related to the internet have evolved in the society. Cyber laws are those laws which apply to the internet and internet-related technologies. Cyber law is one of the current trending issues in the legal system because the internet technology has been developing at a rapid pace. Such laws provide legal protection to the internet users. This comprises of both the businesses and everyday citizens. Understanding cyber laws is of utmost importance to every internet user and such law has also been referred to as the “Law of the Internet.”
Areas related to cyber law include cyber security and cyber crime. With the right cyber security, people and businesses can protect themselves from cyber crime. Cyber security addresses all the weaknesses in computers and networks. International Cyber security Standards are represented by ISO 27001. The Cyber security policy focuses on providing the guidance to everyone who might be vulnerable to cyber crimes. This may include individuals, businesses, and also the government. Most of the countries are seeking for ways of promoting Cyber security in order to prevent cyber crimes.
In the computer forensics field, as in the law field, civil case procedures somewhat may differ from the criminal cases. The data collected and presented as evidence may be held to different standards, the imaging and data collection process can be quite different, and the case consequences may have different effects.
The criminal law may deal with any offense against the state and such offenders may be accused of infringement of the law. Such offenses may include crimes committed against other individuals, a government body, or the agent of a government body, and the state resources are brought to bear beside the accused entity. Guilty outcomes result to incarceration, fines, probation or even death.
Civil laws cover everything else like contract violations and law suits between parties. In such disputes, the losers normally give payment, services or property to the prevailing party. In civil cases, imprisonment is not at issue and as a result, the evidence standard is not as lofty like in the criminal cases (Aggarwal, Pooja, Arora & Ghai, 2014).
For the law enforcement, computer forensics expert, a particular amount of more care is taken into account when collecting and producing data outcome, as the set of proof is much advanced. The courts authorize a search warrant, and an officer with a gun and badge can go and take hold of the defendant’s computer by force and by surprise. Once the computer has been imaged and seized, all the data is accessed and may lead in extra charge being presented against the defendant.
Through contrasting, in a civil case, there applies a lot of negotiations over what data and which computers must be inspected, as well as when and where. The law enforcement cases which involve computer forensics, the intention always is to place sufficient data in order to prove the defendant as guilty in the court of law. From the time the digital hardware or data is acquired and seized, the rules of evidence must apply. The law enforcement personnel follow the accepted procedures and evidence. Data acquisition and discovery in a criminal case often follow stern and differing guidelines which depend upon whether the control is state, federal or municipality and sometimes, it may depend upon the judge’s preferences. In a civil case, the electronic discovery initial processes may be just to look for sufficient data to prove either party whether they are mostly going to prevail in case a case reaches the court of law. Here, the initial data presentation may be fairly formal and just enough in the settlement of the case.
The law must keep pace with technological advancements for the computer forensics to progress. Consistent and clear legal procedures regarding computer system searches must be developed and put in place so that the investigators and the police can be adequately trained. In international code of ethics for Cyber terrorism and Cyber crime, protocols must be developed for obtaining and preserving evidence and maintaining the chain of custody of evidence across borders (Tripathi, Surya, Ritendra & Praveen, 2014).
Aggarwal, Pooja, P. Arora, and R. Ghai. “Review on cyber crime and security.” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Applied Sciences 2.1 (2014): 48-51.
Tripathi, Dr Surya Prakash, Ritendra Goyal, and Praveen kumar Shukla. “Introduction to Information Security and Cyber Law.” (2014).
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