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Training Evaluation Designs Research Paper

Training Evaluation Designs Research Paper. Abstract This paper involves the use of training evaluation designs. Various training evaluation designs are used in evaluating learners in a given training. The paper is discussing the posttest design, the pretest-posttest design, time series design, and the four Solomon designs. In the introduction, the term evaluation is defined. What is looked at during choosing an evaluation design is also listed. This is further elaborated by discussing how one can construct an evaluation form. Four types of training evaluation designs are discussed in this paper. These are posttest only design, pretest-posttest design, time series design, and Solomon four- group design. The characteristics of these designs are also stated. The advantages and disadvantages of these designs are also discussed where applicable. The posttest only design is the simplest one. Also, we have realized that the pretest –posttest design was developed from the posttest only design. The Solomon four- group was an improvement of both the posttest only design and the pretest- posttest design. These four designs are also discussed from the cheapest to the most expensive. This has enabled the understanding of the posttest only design as the cheapest design. The four group design is highly expensive. The reason why the Solomon four-group design is the most expensive is that it is complex and requires a lot of resources. It is evident that the pretest –posttest design is widely discussed than the other three training evaluation designs. This design is discussed in two perspectives. They are the pretest-post with comparison and the pretest-posttest with the control group. This design is widely discussed since it is used widely in organizations. Introduction Evaluation is the organized recognition of the advantages and importance of education. This is achieved through using a certain criteria against given standards. Evaluation process, in training, has the principal aim of ensuring that the learning process meets the stated objectives. Normally evaluation is conducted in four phases. These include; Analysis, Design, Development, and Implementation. Issues to consider when selecting an evaluation design There are several issues that can be thought of when selecting an evaluation design. These include evaluation that is complicated are expensive. Thus, they portray a strong sense of confidence. Secondly, evaluation designs that are complex require people who are specialized in research methods. This is because they are hard to implement. Interventions work differently in all settings and types of friends. How to design training evaluation forms To design training evaluation forms, one has to use open- ended questions. Moreover, one must use closed-ended questions. Closed ended questions have multiple questions. On the other hand, open- ended questions help assist the learners give a detailed answer, in spaces, provided. The evaluation forms should have the name of the evaluation instructor and the course before it is given to the learners. There are two key factors that guide a trainer in making the choice of the design to use. These include cost and certainty. If the trainer is highly certain on the results of the program, it will be highly expensive (Wisher, 1999). Types of evaluation designs There are many designs that are used in evaluations. The training evaluation designs discussed are; post-test only design, pre-test and post-test design, pre-test and post test with comparison group design and pretest and post test with the control group design, time series design and the Solomon four group design. Posttest only design In this design, a post- test is given to the trainee after the intervention has been administered. This post-test could be a survey or even a questionnaire. This posttest only design has several characteristics. Participants and non participants of the program are not compared. This design is extremely easy and straightforward. Pretest and Posttest design This design was advanced from the posttest only design. The pretest and posttest design has a lot of information. This is because it gives the changes in the behavior and attitudes of the trainees in the program. This design also provides evidence that the alterations were produced after the interventions. This design is not able to illustrate this. The reason is that the changes may have occurred due to the participants’ exposure to other interventions. The pretest and posttest design is associated with two major problems. One it does improve the external validity. This means that it is difficult to judge the results brought about by the pre-test. This is because the two groups used are treated using different measures. Pretest and posttest with comparison design In training evaluations, using this design, the pretest and posttest are administered differently. They are given to two different groups. A group that participated in the program and another one that did not take place in the learning of the given the tests. This assists in determining whether the changes in behavior are brought about by the interventions. Similarities detected in the two groups show that the changes detected are brought about by the interventions. These results are well defined if the two groups are of the same socioeconomic status, race, and education. In addition, this design has the following characteristics. It is more expensive and complex. The design opens a chance for other explanations. This helps in identifying the differences between the intervention group and the control group (Preskill, 2005). Pretest and Posttest with the control group design In this design, individuals are assigned randomly to the intervention or the control group. Thus, all members have the same opportunity of becoming a member of the two groups. This design is the most expensive of the three. In this design, it is also certain that the changes noticed in the evaluation were brought by the interventions. Time series design Time series design is presented in four variations. These are; interrupted time series with follow-up, replicated time series, step-wise time series, and time series with reversal patterns. This design involves the use of interrupted time series experiments used in community research. In this design, two communities are assessed repeatedly. The interventions are administered to each community at their own time. In this design, the community interventions and policies are normally refined after the study. Solomon four group design This design has two extra control groups. This makes the researcher know if the pretest contains an influence on the subjects. This design is hard to set up and analyze. The statistics involved is also very complex. This design solves the problem of internal validity associated with the pretest-posttest design. The Solomon four designs are an improvement of the pretest- posttest two group designs and the post test only design (Okey, 1972). Conclusion The Solomon four group designs help in solving all the problems of internal and external validity experienced in other designs. A trainer using this design should have the requirements and the time to include the four control groups. The statistics used is very complex. Therefore, if, the researcher is aware of the issues of external validity the Solomon four groups are not required. Also, most experiments are simple and could be solved using the pretest-posttest research designs. References Okey, J. R.,Training Evaluation Designs Research Paper
Assignment 2 – Policy Assessment Brief Provide detailed policy brief assessing the purpose and implementation of your selected policy. (You can build on the previous policy selected in assignment 1 if you choose). Use the Policy Brief Assessment areas (How to Write a Policy Brief areas) to help format your document, which is to be 3-4 pages. Requires researching the policy, including the CFR and CFDA numbers for the policy, subparts, rules, and regs under review. Provide a brief history of the policy and remember to identify the ideology, official intent, and target, policy strengths and weaknesses, and an advocacy recommendation.
MIS 215 SNHU MOD3 Management Information Systems and Data Gathering Paper.

– Implement feedback from your instructor to refine your Milestone One and Two submissions, and use your work on those milestones to create a single detailed report on your ideas for linking data in SNHU Clothing’s systems to address the company’s business needs. You will also need to include an executive summary that uses clear communication to address business questions.
– Final Submission: Detailed Report of Information Gathering Process and Executive Summary In Module Seven, you will submit your final project. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product, including the second part of your final project, an executive summary explaining the tools you need to create reports and addressing the business questions you identified in Milestone Two. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded with the Final Project Rubric
– Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:
I. Data Gathering: In this section, you will describe the data that is available to you and how the data systems in the organization work together in the
context of the scenario.
A. Describe the business needs of your organization and the types of data that may be needed to address them.
B. Describe the current client systems in your organization and how they interrelate.
C. Detail how the data you need can be accessed. To do this, be sure you address the following:
i. How will you know what information is currently available?
ii. How and where is the data stored?
iii. What types of tools will you need to extract and gather the data?
iv. What is the importance of data security and integrity, and who within the business should be involved in this process?
II. Business Needs: In this section, you will determine whether your organization’s business needs can be met by the systems and system interactions you
currently have.
A. Determine the questions that need to be asked and the types of data you need to answer them.
B. Illustrate how you will link the organization’s current systems to get the data that answers these questions. You may submit this as a flowchart,
if you desire.
C. Explain gaps in data flow that cannot be addressed with the organization’s current systems.
III. Integrating Business Resources: In this section, you will determine how to produce the appropriate reports now that you have determined how to link
the systems.
A. Referring to the business needs questions, describe what types of reports you would need to produce in order to answer them.
B. Explain what type of information you might need in order to create a report linking data from various systems.
C. Discuss how you could gather the identified information and who should be involved in the process.
D. Explain the types of reporting tools that could be used to answer the business questions, and discuss the various ways that they could be used
to create reports.
IV. Reporting: In this section, you will explain what tools you need to create the reports, and you will write an executive summary that addresses the
business questions. Write an executive summary that does the following:
A. Utilizes audience-appropriate language
B. Explains processes, tools, and solutions
C. Details next steps

MIS 215 SNHU MOD3 Management Information Systems and Data Gathering Paper

The psychological impact on coroners and morticians from their jobs

The psychological impact on coroners and morticians from their jobs. Paper details   1. Provide a historical overview of your topic. Explain how your topic has adapted over time. 2. What religions primarily teach/practice your topic? Provide at least three different religions and their teachings on your topic. (if you can’t find anything on this don’t worry about it) 3. What does the Catholic faith teach about your topic? Provide the reasoning behind the Church teaching and how it differs from other religions. 4. How does your topic of Death and Dying relate to the concept of sacred time and sacred space? What elements reflect these two ideas of transcendence? 5. How does society in general view your topic? Provide at least 3 examples. 6. Provide art, poetry, music in your presentation. Explain how these different forms of art reflect and express your topic. 7. Provide a 3-5 minute video on your topic. You may also create your own video for your topic. 8. Concluding thoughts. 9. Lead class in discussion. You must provide a slide with 2-3 questions for your peers. Resources: psychological impact on coroners and morticians from their jobs

Role of Violence in Modern China Essay

research paper help Role of Violence in Modern China Essay.

For the final, as noted on the syllabus, you will produce a take-home essay. The time for our final, assigned by the Registrar, is Thursday, 6/13, from 3:30 to 5:30. At 3:30 the final prompt will be released as an Announcement via Canvas. You have until 5:30pm to write the essay and email your TA your completed exam. Missing or corrupted files will not be accepted as excuses for late exams. Make sure your essay is attached and that the file works. You may want to bcc or cc yourself on the email so that you can check that the file works.In your essay, use the assigned readings to make your argument. You can reference the textbook, but you will be primarily evaluated on your use of the assigned readings. You cannot use outside readings, and will be marked down if you do. You can, though it is not required, use readings from our sourcebook that were not assigned for class. The exam is open book, open notes, and you can prepare in groups. That said, ensure that the essay you produce is fully yours, and not simply a collective template. This is key.You will be held to high standard for the final. While we do not expect the same level of polish as we demand for your papers, we expect a high standard in terms of writing, use of evidence, thesis, and general thoughtfulness. There is no expected page or word length. You are required to produce a thoughtful, coherent essay within two hours. We expect you to have prepared by thinking about the themes that emerged from the final weeks of class, and connecting these to the assigned readings.The final prompt will be one of the following three:1. What were the tensions between “Red” and “Expert” in the PRC, and how did the tensions manifest themselves? Be specific.2. Was Mao or Deng the PRC’s most successful leader? Support your answer with specifics, and define what success means in this instance. Your essay should consider both leaders, and their failures as well as achievements.3. What role did violence play in modern China (let’s say mid-19th Century through the 20th)? Again, be specific when making your case and consider at least three conflicts (only two can be wars). Make sure to analyze these events and not simply describe them.1.The Cambridge Illustrated Histo – Wei Zhi2. Chinese Civilization_ A Sourceb – Patricia Buckley Ebrey Those are books name u might need.
Role of Violence in Modern China Essay

I need help with paper please

I need help with paper please.

Instructions: Select one prompt on which to write a paper of no more than three pages in length. Submit the essay via the link on the ‘Assignments’ page of our Blackboard site. Stories may be found on Blackboard’s ‘Course Documents’ page: Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings”; Karen Joy Fowler’s “The Elizabeth Complex”; Gabriel García Márquez’s “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World”; and Edith Wharton’s “Roman Fever.” Review the rubric on the ‘Assignments’ page to gain a better understanding of what is expected of this formal academic paper! Most importantly, remember that this is a class in critical theory: Be certain to explain, not simply define, and apply theoretical concepts within and throughout your paper!4. Atwood’s “Happy Endings,” unusual as it may be in terms of short-story form, offers plenty to say about the role of the author, particularly given Atwood’s conclusion: John and Mary die. Concentrate specifically on the final several paragraphs of the story following version “F” and disclose what you believe Atwood is inferring about the author, the “death” of the author, and author function. How does Atwood’s declarations about endings, beginnings, and “the stretch in between” reveal to us the place of author in developing narrative and plot? Why is “How and Why” of more interest for her than “a what and a what and a what?”I picked this one to do my paper on. I am not sure if you need the concepts that we been using but might need them to explain things in the paper so here they are. AUTHORITYAuthor: an individual who has created a particular text.Author Function: a constructed social position devised as a function of discourse to which readers assign expectations. [Michel Foucault, “What Is An Author?” (1969)]Canon: a term referring to those literary works that are “privileged,” or given special status, by a culture; these are works we often tend to think of as “classics” or as “Great Books”—texts that are repeatedly printed in anthologies of literature and tend to reflect the culture’s dominant ideology.Death of the Author: the acceptance of writing and creator being unrelated once the text is completed, and so biography of the creator and any intentions for the text ultimately are meaningless. [Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author,” (1967)]Discourse: ways of speaking that are bound by ideological, professional, cultural, political, or sociological communities—ways of thinking and talking about the world which promote specific kinds of power relations.Fabula: the chronological ordering or sequence of events; the “raw material of the story,” which serves as the basis for syuhzet. [Viktor Shklovsy, “Art as Technique” (1917)]Ideology: a belief system that develops out of cultural conditioning—and which may or may not be repressive or oppressive even as it is passed off as “the way it is” in the world; these interrelated ideas form a seemingly coherent view of the world.Intentional Fallacy: concern for the author’s purpose in writing the work; to the New Critic, this way of determining the meaning and effectiveness of a work is erroneous because it is based on information outside the text. [W. K. Wimsatt & Monroe Beardsley, The Verbal Icon (1954)]Naratemes: the structural elements of story that appear systematically and sequentially in fairy tales and quest motifs, thirty-one in total, that appear in four spheres (groupings), reinforcing Aristotle’s concept of stories having a beginning, middle and end. [Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, 1928]Syuhzet: the plot of the narrative, or “the way the story is organized”; the finished arrangement of narrative events as presented to a reader, defamiliarizing or “making strange” the events of the narrative. [Viktor Shklovsky, “Art as Technique” (1917)]READINGDeferral: the inability to isolate a signifier as multiple possibilities always already exist. [Jacques Derrida, Différance (1968)]Différance: the concept suggesting that words and signs can never fully summon forth what they intend to mean, but are always reliant upon additional words and signs from which they differ, demonstrating the instability of language. [Jacques Derrida, Différance (1968)]Dissemination: the inability to isolate a signified, as multiple possibilities always already exist. [Jacques Derrida, Différance (1968)].Horizon of Expectations: expectations likely on part of readers based upon understanding of genres, works, and languages; what they value and look for in a work [Robert Jauss, Literary History as a Challenge to Literary Theory (1967)].Implied Reader: reader ‘created’ by the text, based upon necessary skills and qualities required for the text to have an intended effect [Wolfgang Iser, The Implied Reader (1972)] Indeterminacies: uncertainties or ‘blanks’ within a text that must be filled in by the reader; indeterminacies exist wherever a reader perceives something to be missing between words, sentences, paragraphs, stanzas or chapters [Wolfgang Iser, “Indeterminacy and the Reader’s Response in Prose Fiction” (1971)]. Interpretive Communities: existence of multiple and diverse reading groups, each with specific reading goals and strategies, leading to the inevitability of multiple interpretations [Stanley Fish, “Interpreting the Variorum” (1976)]. Lisible (readerly text): a prescriptive text that attempts to dictate meaning to the reader, resulting in a “readable” text that brings “pleasure” while allowing the reader “consumption” of the material yet without challenging the reader as a subject. [Barthes, S/Z (1970)].Scriptible (writerly text): an open text that allows for participation by the reader in determining meaning rather than prescriptively dictating meaning, thus allowing the reader to engage in a “writable” text that brings “bliss” (jouissance) while fracturing the subject-status of the reader. [Barthes, S/Z (1970)].Signification: a representation or conveyance of meaning through the interaction of:Sign: combination of signifier and signified, producing meaning;Signifier: sound or script image used to represent a more abstract concept, the ‘signified’;Signified: abstract idea being represented by the signifier, although meaning is recognizably arbitrary. [Ferdinand de Saussure, A Course on General Linguistics (1916)]Subject: identity as defined by cultural and social practices; the person defined externally.Transcendental Signified: the apparent meaning to which all signs point but to which they can never refer because of an inevitable gap between signifier and signified into which all meaning falls. [Jacques Derrida, Différance (1968)].SUBJECTIVITYArchetypes: inherited ideas and patterns such as universal and recurring images and motifs that exist in the collective unconscious and which appear in literature, art, fairy tales, dreams and rituals; they emerge in individuals through dreams, visions, and creative production. [Carl Gustav Jung, Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1928)]Collective Unconscious: the unconscious mind derived from ancestral memory and experience, distinct from the personal unconscious, and common to all humankind. [Carl Gustav Jung, “The Structure of the Unconscious” (1916)]Constructivist: belief in a personal and socio-cultural development of truth.Electra Complex: the daughter’s unconscious desire for father’s attention, creating rivalry with mother for that attention, originally referred to as the “negative Oedipus complex.” [Carl Gustav Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious (1912)].Essentialist: belief in the natural/biological certainty of truth.Individuation: conscious realization of one’s unique psychological reality, including both strengths and limitations; it is ultimate maturation—discovery, acceptance, integration [Carl Gustav Jung, Psychological Types (1921)]. Oedipal Complex: son’s unconscious desire for mother’s attention, creating rivalry with father for that attention [Freud, “A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men” (1910)].Self: the individual untouched and untainted by cultural factors and influences; intrinsic nature of person.Self-Defense Mechanisms: behaviors protecting us from unwanted emotions such as anger, guilt, fear, and anxiety, displayed in activities such as:displacement—transference of feelings on unrelated thing/person;repression—deliberate withdrawal of attention from disagreeable experience; projection—one’s own unconscious quality/characteristic perceived and reacted to in another;regression—retreat into childish tendencies governed by id impulses [Sigmund Freud, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)].Subject: identity as defined by cultural and social practices; the person defined externally.Tripartite Model: division of individual psyche into three components:Id—source of conscious desires and impulses;Superego—conscience or moral guide, providing discipline and restraint;Ego—mediation of inner self and external world to satisfy both ego and superego [Sigmund Freud, The Ego and the Id (1923)] CULTUREBinary Opposition: a concept suggesting how Western culture tends to think and express thoughts in terms of contrary pairs, leading to a privileging of one over the other, e.g., rich/poor, with rich privileged of the pair. [Jacques Derrida, Of Grammatology (1976)]Commodification: a perception of objects or people for their exchange or sign-exchange value, determining a value the object or person holds in status, power, and worth.”Exchange Value: the value of an object or person in trade for money or other objects or persons.Sign-Exchange Value: the value of an object or person for what the status or symbolic power it confers upon the owner.Use Value: the physical value of an object or person for what it can do practically, functionally, or the need it can fulfill.Culture: the sum of social patterns, traits, and products of a particular time or group of people; practices, habits, customs, beliefs and traditions that become institutions within that time and space, particular to that time and space.False Consciousness: an ideology that appears of value but which actually serves the interests of those in power, offering the illusion of being part of the “natural order” of things, but they actually disguise and draw one’s attention from socio-economic conditions that limit, oppress, and deny the potential of the individual. [Friedrich Engels, “Letter to Mehring” (1893)].Hegemony: the imposed, formalized system of social practices of the dominant fundamental power that seek to convince the less powerful these behaviors are for their own good. [Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks (c. 1927-35)]Identity Politics: ideological formations that typically aim to secure the political freedom of a specific marginalized constituency within its larger context through assertion of power, reclamation of distinctive characteristics, and appropriation of signifiers that have been used to oppress or demean.Interpellation: a process by which ideology constitutes subjected identity through institutions, discourses, and other social, cultural and familial factors:situation precedes subject, ‘hailing’ the subject who is ‘always-already interpellated’ identities are produced by social forces rather than independent agency, constituted in Ideological State Apparatuses (schools, churches, families, and so on) and Repressive State Apparatuses (government, courts, police force, military). [Louis Althusser, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” (1971)].Othering: perceiving/treating a person or group of people as intrinsically different from and alien to oneself.Paired Identities: in feminist critical theory, stereotypical good/bad roles: madonna/whore, angel/bitch, virgin/slut that appear routinely in patriarchal cultural constructs, denying to women a range of humanity. Patriarchy: a term used by feminist critics who consider Western society to be “father-ruled,” that is, dominated and generally controlled by men upholding and promoting masculine “values” that, in turn, maintain men in positions of power.Political Economy: recognition of political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system produce and distribute media for ideological aims and commercial profit.Semiotics: the study of signs and sign systems and the way meaning is derived and determined from them on the part of the interpreter. [Charles Sanders Peirce, “Questions Concerning Certain Capacities Claimed for Man” (1868)]Symbol: a sign that stands for or suggests something larger or more complex, usually a tangible item that represents an abstraction.Once someone can help me I will post the Atwood Happy Ending so you have it.
I need help with paper please

De Anza College Alpha Male Geographic Documentary Questions

De Anza College Alpha Male Geographic Documentary Questions.

Directions: Students will watch a video that explains the importance and techniques associated with power positioning. Use Studio to help you pinpoint answers to the questions. (Links to an external site.)Alpha Male (and Female) National Geographic Documentary(Find out what you need to do, to make an impression on people)In the Ape World, how do smaller Alpha chimps make up for their smaller size in order to intimidate?Research shows that over 58% of Fortune 500 CEOs are over _____________ feet tall, which compares with only 5 percent of the general public being that tall.Having ______________ hair signals a dominant status in a group.In the mall experiment, what did the smaller-built person do, to make himself appear to be a dominant Alpha?In the Automotive Experiment where participants were told they would be rebuilding a car engine. Who displayed dominance through the entire experiment? Which participants appeared submissive to this “Alpha?”If you want to sound threatening to another individual, what should you do to your voice to make it sound more assertive and be taken more seriously.Most people in the pub who were victims of the 7 ft. tall, hulking beer thief didn’t protest much when he took their beers from right under their noses. One patron however, did protest. Why?In the raging gorilla experiment at the zoo, who proved to be the Alpha Male? What did he do to secure his position as Alpha?Discussion Questions: What techniques can one use to establish themselves as an Alpha?In politics, which world leaders do you feel display alpha characteristics? Name someone in your life who is an alpha (male or female). What do they do to establish and secure that role of dominance?Have you ever tried to establish your position as alpha in a specific situation? If so how and why did you do it
De Anza College Alpha Male Geographic Documentary Questions