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Traffic Pattern Discovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Abstract Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is one of the networks of mobile routers that is self-configuring and connected by wireless links. Anonymity communication is one of the major issues in MANET. Though there are many anonymity enhancing techniques that have been proposed based on packet encryption to protect the communication anonymity of mobile ad hoc networks. There are still passive statistical traffic analysis attacks that can be vulnerable to MANET. The communication anonymity consists of two aspects: source/destination anonymity and end-to-end anonymity. In order to discover the communication pattern without decrypting the captured packets, this proposed system will be designed. The proposed system will first search the required node by using a heuristic approach. Then statistical traffic analysis will be performed to find the data transmission of the searched node to its neighboring nodes. After performing the statistical traffic analysis whether the search node is source or destination will be estimated. With the help of this estimation the traffic pattern will be discovered. The utility of this proposed system is basically in military environment. Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), anonymity communication, statistical traffic analysis. Introduction Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless network. It is one of the types of ad hoc network. Every device in MANET is independent to move. This results in changes of link of such device. Thus MANET is also known as an infrastructure less network. The devices that are present in the network must forward the traffic to other devices. In MANET each device must act as a router. The basic figure of a mobile ad hoc network can be illustrated in Fig 1. One of the critical issues of MANET is communication anonymity. Anonymity can be defined as the state in which identity of an object that performs the action is hidden. An anonymous communication system can be defined as a technology that hides the object identity. Communication anonymity [1] has two aspects: Source/destination anonymity and End-to-End relationship anonymity. In source/destination anonymity it is difficult to identify the sources or the destinations of the network flows while in end-to-end relationship anonymity it is difficult to identify the end – to- end communication relations. In MANET communication anonymity has been proposed by anonymous routing protocols such as ANODR (ANonymous On-Demand Routing) [7], OLAR (On-demand Lightweight Anonymous Routing) [6]. All these anonymous routing protocols rely on packet encryption to hide the information from attackers. Still the passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless channel, intercept the transmission, and then perform traffic analysis attacks. Traffic analysis [10] is one of the types of passive attack in MANET. Traffic analysis is further subdivided into predecessor attack [8] and disclosure attack [9]. The following are the three nature of MANET due to which above approaches do not work well to analyze traffic in MANET: Broadcasting nature: In wired networks point to point transmission can be easily applied to only one possible receiver. While in wireless network message is broadcasted to multiple receivers. Ad hoc nature: Mobile node can be served as both source and destination. This can create confusion to determine the role of the node. 3Mobile nature: Traffic analysis model do not consider the mobility of communication peers. This makes the communication among mobile node more complex. There is a need of such a technology which can analyze traffic without any interruption of the above three characteristics of MANET. This proposed system fulfills the need. The objective of this paper is to show that passive attackers can perform traffic analysis without the knowledge of the adversaries. This approach is required in military environment. The proposed system will perform statistical traffic analysis to discover the traffic pattern. This system will perform the point to point as well as end-to-end traffic analysis among receivers. Indirectly this calculation will provide probable source and destination of the network that will discover the hidden traffic pattern. Thus the adversaries will not be able to know about the traffic analysis. Fig. 1. Mobile Ad hoc Network The remaining paper is organized as follows: Section II describes the previous work. Section III presents the proposed work. Section IV describes the expected outcome of the proposed system. Lastly section V presents the conclusion. PREVIOUS WORK Yang Qin, Dijiang Huang and Bing Li [1], proposed that though there are many anonymous routing protocols and anonymous enhancing techniques available still mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to passive statistical traffic analysis attacks. The authors proposed a system called as Statistical Traffic Pattern Discovery System (STARS). A STAR is used to discover the hidden traffic pattern in MANET. The drawback of this proposed system is that no searching algorithm is applied to search the traffic free path. Douglas Kelly, Richard Raines, Rusty Baldwin, Michael Grimaila, and Barry Mullins [2], investigated on anonymity. For a user anonymity can be defined as using any services while keeping their identity hidden from an adversary. Anonymity help user to protect their data from attacks. Unidentifiability, Unlinkability, and Unobservability are the three properties of anonymity. Unidentifiability means the adversary is unable to determine one’s identity or action among similar ones. Unlinkability means the adversary is unable to relate messages or actions by observing the system. Unobservability means the adversary is unable to observe the presence of messages or action in the system. Since unobservability keeps the identity of messages or action secret it can be implied as anonymity. Unidentifiability is subdivided into sender anonymity (SA), receiver anonymity (RA), mutual anonymity (MA) and group anonymity (GA). Unlinkability is subdivided into location anonymity (LA), communication anonymity (CA) and group communication anonymity (GCA). In order to discover the traffic pattern we have to work on unidentifiability property of anonymity and decrease the sender anonymity (SA) and receiver anonymity (RA). Lei Liu, Xiaolong Jin, Geyong Min, and Li Xu [3], proposed that in order to detect the attack in a network traffic intensity and packet number are the two important metrics. Lei et al. had designed an anomaly detection system. This anomaly detection system is used to detect the distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack in MANET. When traffic analysis is carried on MANET these two metrics are used to detect the DDoS attack. Similarly when traffic analysis will be carried on our proposed system data transmission will be considered as a parameter. We can conclude that data transmission will be an important factor whenever traffic analysis will be carried out, though the reason may be for detection of attack or for discovery of traffic pattern. Zhilin Zhang and Yu Zhang [4], introduced that control traffic plays an important role in route discovery in MANET. The characteristic that involve to carry out research on control traffic in MANET when on demand routing protocols are used include distribution of nodes’ control packet traffic, communication of control packets between nodes, rate of RREQ (route request) packets and the ratio of number of RREQ packets originating from one node to all RREQ packets relayed by this node. These characteristics of control traffic are affected by factors such as mobility, node density and data traffic. Thus theoretically we can determine that indirectly one of the factors of control traffic is data traffic. Hence we can conclude that control traffic will also play an important role in route discovery in our proposed system though the situation will be different. In our proposed system we will find traffic free path i.e. control traffic path so that it will be easy to find out the number of data packets transmitted to neighboring nodes. This will help us to discover route in our proposed system. Y. Liu, R. Zhang, J. Shi, and Y. Zhang [5] designed a novel algorithm called as traffic inference algorithm (TIA) which allows an adversary to infer the traffic pattern in MANET. This algorithm is based on the assumption that difference between data frames, routing frames and MAC control frames is visible to passive adversaries. Through these differences they can identify the point-to-point traffic using the MAC control frames, recognize the end-to-end traffic by tracing the routing frames and then find out the actual traffic pattern using the data frames. This algorithm is not a successful invention as it depends on the deterministic network behaviors. Stephen Dabideen and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves [6], proposed that routing in MANET using depth first search (DFS) is feasible as well as efficient than breadth first search (BFS). The algorithm introduced is called as ordered walk search algorithm (OSA). The objective of this algorithm is to take advantage of the smaller time complexity of BFS and combine it with the low communication complexity of DFS in order to improve the efficiency of the search through the known path information. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of OSA, ordered walk with learning (OWL) routing protocol has been presented which uses DFS to establish and repair paths from the source to the destination with minimum signaling overhead and fast convergence. The following are the advantages of DFS over BFS that had been investigated by Stephen et al. in MANET: (i) DFS require less overhead as compared to BFS. When large number of nodes is performing BFS, the routing TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF SEARCHING ALGORITHMS Parameters Searching Algorithms Breadth First Search [4] Depth First Search [4] Overhead More Less Load in network More Less Packet loss More Less overhead can saturate the network making it difficult to deliver any packets. However DFS use only small network for routing. (ii) When BFS is used in a network, where there are multiple flows of search packets this situation can lead to increase the load on network and loss of packets. On the other hand as DFS involves only a small part of the network, thus this reduces the load in the network and results in less packet loss. A comparative study of searching algorithms is shown in TABLE I. From this table we conclude that DFS is better searching algorithm for MANET than BFS. PROPOSED WORK One of the characteristic of MANET is that all the nodes are hidden. This proposed system will unhide the nodes by using one of the searching algorithms. The searching algorithm chosen for searching the node will be depth first search (DFS). Source node will use DFS algorithm for traversing or searching the path in the network. Then statistical traffic pattern analysis will be performed on these searched nodes. This analysis will provide an estimation of the data transmitted to all the neighboring nodes of every searched node. We can discover the traffic pattern by using probability distribution. The working of each of the module is explained in detailed below. Searching node in MANET using depth first search In this proposed system we are using DFS for routing decisions. When a node receives message for the first time, it sorts all its neighboring nodes according to their distance to destination and then uses that same order in DFS algorithm. It starts its searching from the source node and updates one hop neighbors. This search continues to reach traffic free path between source and destination node. As shown in Fig. 2, depth first search works on tree or graph. The Fig. 2 gives an example of DFS routing path for the following graph: The searching starts from root node A. It is assumed that the left edges are selected than the right edges. Each node remembers the last visiting nodes which help to backtrack and reach the last node to complete the traversing. From Fig. 2 the path will be: A, B, D, E, C, and F. Statistical traffic analysis of packets in MANET For point-to-point (one hop) traffic in a certain period, first build point-to-point traffic matrices such that each traffic Fig. 2. Depth First Search matrix only contains independent hop packets. There can be situation in which two packets captured at different time could be the same packet appearing at different location. In order to avoid a single point-to-point traffic matrix form containing two dependent packets time slicing technique is used. Time slice technique is technique in which the process is allowed to run in a preemptive multitasking system. This is called as the time slice or quantum. The scheduler runs once every time slice to choose the next process to run. In this proposed system a sequence of snapshots during a time interval constructs a slice represented by a traffic matrix. The traffic matrix is denoted by W. This traffic matrix will consists of traffic volume from one node to another. For example, Here 1 indicates that there is transmission of data (traffic volume) from node 1 to node 2 whereas 0 indicate that there is no transmission of data between the two nodes. Discovery of system The traffic matrix tell us the deduce point-to-point and end-to-end traffic volume between each pair of nodes. We need to discover the actual source or destination in order to discover the traffic pattern. Here probability distribution is used. Probability distribution calculates the probability of the data transmitted to neighboring node which provide an accurate estimation of a node as source or destination. This will help to discover the traffic pattern. The equation required for source probability distribution is The equation required for destination probability distribution is Fig.3. System Flow Diagram Where s’(i) is the source vector, N is number of nodes, r(i,j) is the accumulative traffic volume from node i to node j, d’(i) is the destination vector. In the Fig. 3, the flow of the proposed system is explained. When the system will start it will form a network. This network will consist of certain number of nodes. All the nodes will be browsed. In order to search the node a heuristic searching algorithm will be applied. If the required node is present then statistical traffic analysis will be performed on it. After performing statistical traffic analysis probability distribution will be applied to discover the traffic pattern. However, if the required node is not found then the system will stop and no further process will be carried out. EXPECTED OUTCOME From the idea of the proposed system we are clear with two outcomes. The outcomes will be to discover traffic pattern in MANET and to find probability of point to point transmission among receivers. These two outcomes are discussed below. Discovery of traffic pattern in MANET The first step to discover traffic pattern will be searching a node. Then using point-to-point traffic matrix and end-to-end traffic matrix a statistical traffic analysis will be performed. The parameter to be considered for traffic pattern discovery will be number of data transmitted. Probability of point to point transmission among receivers is estimated Point-to-Point transmission can be estimated by point-to-point traffic matrix. This matrix will consists of traffic volume between each node at one hop distance. The calculated traffic matrix will be used to determine the probability of point to point transmission among receivers. CONCLUSION The proposed system will be an attacking system. As nodes are hidden in MANET a heuristic searching algorithm will be applied. This heuristic searching algorithm will be depth first search (DFS).This system will perform statistical traffic analysis to find the data transmission between one to one and one to many nodes. Probability of point to point transmission among receivers will be estimated by point-to-point traffic matrix. Then by calculating multihop traffic and performing probability distribution the traffic pattern will be discovered. This will provide an approximate traffic pattern with approximate source and destination in the network. The proposed system will reduce the issue of anonymous communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET). REFERENCES Yang Qin, Dijiang Huang and Bing Li “STARS: A Statistical Traffic Pattern Discovery System for MANETs” IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 11, No. 2, March/April 2014. Douglas Kelly, Richard Raines, Rusty Baldwin, Michael Grimaila, and Barry Mullins, “Exploring Extant and Emerging Issues in Anonymous Networks: A Taxonomy and Survey of Protocols and Metrics”, IEEE Communications Surveys
Hrm in a globalized economy executive summary. The report aims to discuss aspects of Human Resource Management in light of the ever changing business world given the globalization of businesses today. Globalization has seen changes in the way businesses work and are expected to deliver investor value. Companies started competing not just with local competitors but with organizations across continents which forced companies to relook at continuously innovating and providing a unique value to its customers to retain them. Talent Sourcing and Talent Development within an organization have become a science that identify and accept that diverse employee base form the backbone of a business and are responsible for contributing towards achievement of organization’s global goals and directly impacting competitiveness and delivering that Investor value. Early in the 1800s during the times of Industrialization, the approach to managing workforce was primitive task drive approach. Historically, Henry Ford’s assembly lines and Studies of Frederick Taylor such as the time and motion studies thought of improving productivity by putting employees in line with mechanics. They tried to boost productivity by designing the way work is carried out. They focussed purely on productivity since productivity was what gave profits and therefore competitive edge. Workforce was put them in the same league as machines inviting organization conflict and distraction from the goal. As globalized environment changed the rules of the game, Organizations realized that employees and their talents is the single most important supply of sustainable competitive advantage. Employees are the ones that deploy scarce resources optimally. To survive and to succeed, organization need to leverage its human resource capital’s talents to develop new products and services and creating value for customers. This marked change in attitude of managements saw the emergence of concept of Global Human Resource Management which characterizes implementation of personnel policies to maximize objectives of organizational integrity, employee commitment, flexibility and quality at a global level. Global Human Resource Management hence becomes very important since globalization and international operations bring with them challenges beyond a simple Human Resource Management program at a local level. Global Human Resource Management not only covers International recruitment Appropriate training and development Deployment of these resources But also goes beyond simple HRM in maintaining affable international industrial relations. With international operations, managing the employee base worldwide has its own challenges. P Morgan: There are 2 sets of variables when it comes to HRM in for an International Organization First -employee types Second – Political, labour laws, culture, legal environment, economic, and practices prevailing in different countries A successful HRM model for an international organization is the successful interplay between these 2 sets. Clearly there is a need to go beyond basic HRM practices to include: More functions and activities In depth wisdom of employment law of the host country Close involvement with employees personal variables Provide for external influences Exposure to newer hurdles and risks Managing differential pay packages Managing ethnic, gender differences More liasoning activities More travel and coordination Higher management of unknown risk variables beyond the country where the headquarters are based It is imperative that Human Resources Management models are deployed in a global context to ensure success. Main Body The Concept of Globalization: While Global trade itself is not a new concept, Globalization is. Globalization can be defined as “a process of trade and investment transcending political boundaries undertaken by an interaction of people, processes, entities and spurred on by advances in political systems, technology, business ethics and affecting culture, environmentHrm in a globalized economy executive summary
Not everything that you read in the dailies are to be considered gospel truths. This was the answer I have got from my POL221 instructor when I asked him about how I should treat the news I obtain from the broadsheets. True enough, I saw the plausibility in the statement not so long ago during this semester. As I happened to browse on newspaper headlines about the deployment of Chinese ships to the West Philippine Sea, two of the Philippines’ biggest broadsheets had conflicting news headlines. One said that the Chinese ships were already going back to their origin, their country while the other said that the Chinese ships were to stay around the disputed islands in the West Philippine Sea. There is, obviously, something wrong with how the media works in this country. How the Philippine media arrived as how it is today is, of course, due to the history of the Philippines. This section of the paper will talk about the history of the Philippines in relation to media and information dissemination. During the ancient Philippines, the barangay system of government headed by the datu and the council of elders have no other way reaching their constituents but through the umalohokan or the messenger of the barangay. Through him, the more or less 500 families inhabiting the said barangay will happen to know the recent proclamations of the datu and the council of elders concerning their future as a unit of society. Skipping further through our history timeline, near the end of the 333-year rule of the Spaniards was a group called “the Propaganda movement.” [1] With the likes of Marcelo H. Del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Jose P. Rizal, the liberal minds of the nineteenth century Philippines, which battled for reforms and against the Spanish government in general, had really become prominent. This influx of liberalism in the Philippines was described as the start of the tradition of an unrestrained and adversarial press. [2] During the American period, the Philippine Herald was the most prominent mass medium which delivered in-depth national news. [3] As the World War II commenced and when the Americans seceded, the Japanese controlled the Philippine Media by portraying all the benefits of their GEACPS (Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere) [4] program of development. When the Second World War came to a close, the Third Republic commenced and the media developed through the prevalence of the radio as the most important tool for mass communication. The radio, specifically the AM band, delivered national and local news to every household. This is evident every president’s inaugural ceremony and speech. The mass media developed with such dynamics. Yet, it experienced a different turn when Proclamation No. 1081 or known as the Martial Law imposed an immediate seizure and control over all media communication, facilities, and equipment starting September 21, 1972. Famous among all media stations seized by the government was that of the Lopezes’ ABS-CBN Channel 2. Former President Ferdinand E. Marcos stated that he signed the proclamation because of obvious and fearless resistance of government control and depiction of hard, negative news which showed the ineffectivity of the government to suppress the tension brought about by demonstrators. [5] The media, after almost fourteen years, made an effort to restore democracy. With the likes of Radio Veritas and Radyo Bandido, the People Power Revolution that toppled the Marcos regime became powerful since then. Now, journalists will always resist the government control over mass media especially after the said revolution. [6] One very good example was the ouster of Former President Joseph Estrada in 2001. Some historians say that ‘Erap’, as he was fondly called by his supporters, became a victim of “coup d’text.” [7] Text messaging was the fastest mode of information dissemination at that time. Philippine society continues to experience this kind of information dissemination especially with the advent of social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. I posit that, through this section of this paper demonstrating the history of the Philippine media, it is right to say that the mass media in the Philippines greatly influenced the turn of events of Philippine politics. This informal sector of the government encompasses all other sectors of society because through their dissemination of information, they can add, subtract, multiply or divide pieces of news as long as they deliver it to their target audience, to all Filipinos here and abroad. This paper aims to explore these faults of the media, their efforts to affect change in their field and in our society, the challenges they continuously face up to this day, and the feasible and practical solutions offered by the author of this paper to ease the challenges that the world of mass media perenially faces. What composes the new media? What are some of the media’s efforts to address the pressing issues of the present? These questions will serve as the foundation of this paper and will cover a lot of discourse. This section of the paper tackles the media and their use of influence in order to affect change. Anchored with the media’s (the chosen informal sector for this research) methods are the degrees of their effectiveness. Periodicals, radio, and television are the traditional forms of mass media. What has become extraordinary forms of mass media is the use of social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter to disseminate pieces of information in almost realtime. The new media made the individualistic have a community. Furthermore, the prevalence of the Internet made people know about the society they are living in. [8] And because of these new media, there has been a campaign by a certain television network which aims to make people informed while they are using the Internet as a vehicle for their opinions. That is the “Think Before You Click” [9] campaign. Through observation, I, being a member of those sites like Twitter and Facebook, saw that the majority of users have been tamed after the campaign and made sure that their opinions are grounded on empirical data and not hoaxes. There are some forms of regulating agencies or associations which ensure the decent content of news and they will be delved on in the next series of discourse. One association ensuring proper censorship is called the KBP (Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas). The KBP, as an association made for the media, instituted a Code of Ethics in which media agencies should follow. This Code of Ethics of the said association is a testament to the encompassing power of the television to deliver information about all sectors of society. [10] This Code is instituted because the television is the ultimate mass medium, an aggregate of many pictures which conveys a thousand words, bringing up-to-date information anytime, anywhere. [11] Another agency is the PCIJ (Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism). The PCIJ is a non-profit, independent media agency which specializes in investigative reporting. [12] Since they specialize in investigative reporting, the PCIJ journalists have maintained an eye of scrutiny. They always look upon the programs of the government, its advantages and implications, to give the Filipinos a closer look upon the both sides of the story. The PCIJ has always been known for its fair and balanced reporting. This is a good development in the mass media of the past two decades for they give fair pieces of information which come from different public documents. They, too, publish books as part of their information dissemination and proved to be effective in giving the citizens fair, just, and balanced news. Still, another agency which overlooks upon the Philippine media is the CMN (Catholic Media Network) [13] . Being a predominantly Catholic country, the CMN aims to bring about not just good news but also justice and solidarity among the Filipinos in times of tribulations with the likes of People Power 1 and the calamities which has struck the country. One of these serious failings of the media is that there seems to be conflicting reports about a single issue. [14] This basic problem can be rooted from the challenges that continue to prevail upon media personnel until now. There has been, since the advent of Martial Law, the media corruption wherein journalists fell prey to bribery to stop the sensationalization of their exposes. [15] They will fall to bribery because of their low salaries. As many folks say, “Walang pera sa pagsusulat.” This is also true in the Philippine press. That is why, the AC-DC and ATM journalism have been prevalent amongst media agencies especially during and after the Martial Law era. AC-DC or Attack-Collect-Defend-Collect system is a mode of corruption prevalent in the media. It works when a reporter attacks a person’s rival or enemy for a fee; the same reporter defends the person he or she previously attacked for money. [16] It clearly shows that there is no conviction on the part of the journalist. Also, the citizens which happen to be readers of that journalist who succumbed to the AC-DC system will be confused on whose story to believe. Another mode of corruption is the ATM journalism which is a transformation of envelope journalism. [17] Writing positively for certain firms involved in bad light for an exorbitant fee is called ATM journalism. It is called as such because the money is deposited to the ATM account of the journalist. These are clearly challenges to all journalists to become credible in their news writing. But how will they respond to those challenges if there are three factors which hinder many Filipino journalists to going deep into the real cause of events? These factors are deadline pressures, extreme competition, and budgetary constraints. [18] This budgetary constraint and the challenges it imposes can be summarized through this passage. “Working journalists have not been so effective at practicing development journalism because so many of them have been co-opted by the system for their own economic survival. But there are some community newspapers truly working for the community good. Envelope journalism is a problem, but it’s not only the fault of the receiver but also of the giver.” [19] The solution for the said envelope journalism and its transformation which happens to be ATM journalism is said to be development communication or development journalism. That is not yet in full bloom. The development journalism tackled in the above passage will be delved upon later during the discussion of feasible and practical solutions addressing the challenges of the media. Another challenge which curtail the media from delivering the real cause of events is the lack of experience due to many youth reporters. According to one observation conducted by the PCIJ around 1997, Malacañang reporters are not honed in writing stories about the pressing issues of the day due to their youth and inexperience. Also, they find economics, business, and foreign interests topics as among the difficult to work with in their news writing. [20] Youth and inexperience will really serve as an obstacle to reporters in going through the most important issues which the Filipinos need. Moreover, the news brought about by tabloids, which are sold at a lower price than the more important broadsheets, are mediocre and focus on crimes which are obviously hard and negative pieces of news which people ought to disregard because of its unimportance. Furthermore, another challenge is the slow passage of the Freedom of Information Act of 2010. Many media agencies are still having limited access to public documents which are important for transparency, accountability and credibility of the media. The Section 5 of the FOI Act of 2010 states: “Sec. 5. Presumption – There shall be a legal presumption in favor of access to information. Accordingly, government agencies shall have the burden of proof of showing by clear and convincing evidence that the information requested is exempted from disclosure by this Act.” [21] But the lobbying for this FOI Act of 2010 has been taking a long time and those journalists who specialize in investigative journalism really want this bill to be signed as a law to have a greater access on governmental documents, initiating a new press which is fair, just, and balanced in their news delivery. Lastly, the likes of Marlene Esperat and environmentalist Dr. Gerry Ortega have been victims of extrajudicial killings. This posed a challenge to many aspiring journalists who always advocated for the truth. How about these people? They also advocated for the truth and yet they were killed. That is why, this posed danger and fear to aspiring journalists and to those journalists who are already part of the journalism world will now resort to corruption to prevent the loss of their lives and succumbing to the private armies of the influential politicians which ought to hide from the gnashing teeth of the law. The media became the cause of many events which deemed influential and important in the framing of our Philippine history. [22] Some of these events are: 1) toppling of the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986; 2) resignation of many high ranking officials and influenced the system of elections and; 3) many personalities entered the political arena. This simply says that the great bandwidth of media had clearly influenced the Filipinos in framing their decisions. That is why it is important for the author of this paper to propose feasible and practical solutions in order to address the challenges which the media experience. This last section of the paper is a list of possible solutions which the media can adapt to put themselves in order and to deliver fair and balanced news. Many say that to deliver bad news is more profitable than delivering good news. To change this connotation of the media, the writer of this paper adapted Nora Quebral’s definition of what she calls as “development communication.” She defined the term as follows: “Development communication is the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equality and the larger fulfillment of the human potential.” [23] To exercise this development communication is to have a paradigm shift amongst journalists and those who aspire to be such. They must realize that reporting good news is as worthy and as profitable as reporting bad news. Also, journalists must instill in their minds that knowledge and information can empower people and make them productive in their endeavors. [24] Now, for a more balanced reporting, especially of the executive branch of government, the writer proposes that there must be responsible journalism while standing firmly behind the government. [25] Responsible journalism means that accuracy must not be compromised together with the people’s right to know. Through the guidance of KBP, CMN, PCIJ and other agencies, the media will progress to its state of credibility. Also, to address the corruption in Philippine media, the writer proposes that news agencies must increase the salaries for their journalists. Give them many benefits. Moreover, provide them with hazard pay for they risk their lives just to give the Filipinos the main events which complete the nightly habits of our fellow citizens. Maintain teambuilding activities and continue giving seminars to reporters to hone their skill in news writing and to always be accurate in their news delivery, satisfying the Filipinos with credible, balanced, and fair pieces of news. These are some of the not-so-difficult and practical ways which can be initiated by different media agencies to further improve their manpower in terms of newscasting and information dissemination forwarded to development communication. Conveyance of the media of a different interpretation of a news article is evident due to many young journalists who decided to enter the world of mass media. There is lack of training, knowledge, and experience on the part of young journalists. [26] That is why, it is only right that colleges and universities offering journalism as a course must impose a hard and rigid curriculum. This will give journalism majors, the wanna-be-press reporters, a firm impression of what is in store for them in their chosen field. Also, the wanna-be-journalists must have a firm grasp of current events and affairs of the nation to be kept abreast of how to deal with the national public agenda advocated by the president leading at that certain time. [27] For example, the incumbent, President Aquino, advocates the “Kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap” [28] policy. In turn, the journalists must get themselves updated with the programs of the government to have a good interpretation of the news and to disseminate it correctly to the viewers, the citizens of the country. On another note, the professors must also have a strong sense of will and determination to train their students to become professionals and go into in-depth news accounts of what is in store in the history of our nation and of the world. They (the professors), too, must have credence in their own right to prove that they are worthy of imparting knowledge on journalism. That means, showing everything that many young journalists did not have like training, knowledge, and experience. It is previously said above that there must be more fundings and benefits given by media agencies to their personnel as a way to alleviate the lives of our journalists and to stop media corruption for a more credible reporting. But there is still something needed to make the lives of our journalists feel secure. That is by giving them the security aides to make them confident in bringing out the truth no matter what. It is also a solution to prevent, if not stop, the extrajudicial killings which became prevalent during the past administrations. [29] The connotation that what is only correct in the information provided by the press and the media is the date of circulation and broadcast, respectively, is expected to be washed away after the discussion of this paper. In conclusion, there must be a two-way process between the newsmakers and the media in making things correct and credible for viewers and readers. Development journalism, wherein the positive news is as worthy as its contrary, must be given with primordial concern. In this world of social media where news can be as fast as realtime, information may be distorted and may be different from what is real and believable. We should deviate from the tradition of unrestrained and adversarial press which rooted back from the Spanish colonization. We already have our own civilization. We have our own minds. We can use those individual minds to create a nation, a nation whose ideals are embodied in the government and its affiliate agencies which provide for the welfare of its constituents. We must have no time for battling our hearts and minds out. Instead, we must work for the progress of our nation. The media, as the most influential, must start the effort by development journalism. Another is by giving credence to their unrelented works which give exceptional views of the pressing issues of our day. This informal and marginalized sector really works through a two-way process. Therefore, they need the government in carrying out the truth and the government will need them in order to report developmental news which will help increase the productivity of its citizens. Yes, it may take years before the mass media will carry out the advocacies of development journalism. Yet, it is still possible. Mass media and technology, as allies in making lives comfortable, must make good use of their resources to carry out good will and determination. That is, determination to uphold the truth no matter how hard and how risky it is. The citizens must continue to be part in this effort. Especially that the media is in part with the marginalized and the informal sectors of society, citizens must realize their role as the second “disseminators” of truth. That will help for the increase of productivity of the nation which, in turn, will alleviate the country from its tribulations brought about by the aspects of politics, economics, and society in general. 2010-016447
Education homework help. This is an assignment that focuses on the analysis of Times magazines 100 photography. The paper also focuses mainly on the photos and the photographers.,The analysis of Times magazines 100 photography,P‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍roject Objectives, To build more research skills, in particular the ability to find a primary source (including, in this case, a photograph). Apply what was learned from the microstory project, vis-à-vis concision and the use of literary devices. To consider stylistic considerations when incorporating material written by others. To continue to work with purpose and point in writing. Project Description Rather than just focus on taking a well-composed shot, I’d like us to ponder the fact that we do compose a shot.,So when it comes to photographs we consume, especially images that become important or “iconic” in the culture, we can ask some key questions about the nature of images and what they “mean.” If images are composed, are they presenting some kind of truth, or are they staged? Does the distinction matter? It might. As we’ll see, photos have the power to both shape how we think and change how we live. To explore this, we’ll examine Time magazine’s 100 Photographs: The Most Influential Images of All Time (Links to an external site.). The online exhibit features photos and the stories behind them (including details about the photographers who captured the shots). For the project this time you’ll choose a more recent image (from 2016 and after) that you feel should be part of 100 Photographs.,Your task will be to make a strong case for that photo’s inclusion in the project. To do that, you’ll need to know how Time chose its photos, (Links to an external site.)and you’ll have to consider key moments (and images) of more recent times. Once you choose an image, you’ll have to ponder or find out: What the story behind the photo is. Was something going on in the photo, or in the world, that led to the image becoming so fa‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍mous? Is the way people responded to it a part of that story? Additionally, what role did the photographer play? What about the way it’s composed—or its subject matter—helps make it iconic. Whether it was the first of its kind, as some of the Time images are.  Then, explain how it helped shape how we think, or changed how we lived.,Project Requirements The essay will again be in the 3-page range, with 1,000-1,200 words. The essay should have a clear purpose and context for readers beyond merely reporting the story behind the photograph. This is ultimately an argument (like a nomination). Consider Time’s criteria; use them to craft your reasoning. The essay should utilize at least three other sources, which need to documented accurately according to current MLA standards—both in-text as well as through a Works Cited. Those sources should be high-quality ones, given the nature of the project. We want original sources versus secondhand ones where possible—and credible authors. Time looked to experts in history and photography. We shouldn’t rely on casual bloggers, right?,The essay should feature stylistic touches as worked on in class: this time, that’s concision and the use of literary devices (at least somewhere). Project Deadlines I will ask you to share a full draft (by submitting to this assignment) by 3/16, 9:00 pm. Rubric ,https://100photos.time.com/about ht‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍tp://100photos.time.com/Education homework help

New York Times The Modern Love Column Podcast Review Paper

New York Times The Modern Love Column Podcast Review Paper.

Choose a podcast episode, listen to it, write a review, and then record yourself reading the review.By a “review”, I mean a 2 to 3 page (double-spaced) discussion of what you liked and/or didn’t like about the various aspects of podcast production that we have just begun to talk about in class. So, everything from the tone of the speakers’ voices (appropriate for the subject matter &/or the general feel of the show; engaging?) to the sound quality; to use of music and any additional audio, like sound effects; the storytelling (if that’s what they’re doing); the depth of the information they provide; substantiation of their opinions; the entertainment value; the flow of the production (Do the producers do a good job of moving the dialogue onward, and keep you engaged throughout?); verbal economics — When the show is over, do you feel as though the producers covered their focus sufficiently, but without much in the way of “fluff” or unneeded dialogue? There’s other questions you can get into, of course, and different styles of podcasts will have different levels of importance on certain aspects of the production. Email me with any questions.Here’s the assignment:You can choose one of the episodes linked below, or if you have a particular podcast that you think may be an influence on your production, feel free to go with an episode from the podcast of your choice.This American Lifehttps://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9mZWVkc…Episode name: No Coincidence, No Story!We asked listeners to send us their best coincidence stories, and we got more than 1,300 submissions! There were so many good ones we decided to make a whole show about them. From a chance encounter at a bus station to a romantic dollar bill to a baffling apparition in a college shower stall.Modern Lovehttps://player.fm/series/1248280For 16 years, the Modern Love column has given New York Times readers a glimpse into the complicated love lives of real people. Since its start, the column has evolved into a TV show, three books and a podcast. Now, we are excited to announce a relaunch of the podcast at The Times, hosted by Daniel Jones, the editor and creator of Modern Love, and Miya Lee, editor of Tiny Love Stories and Modern Love projects. Each week, we’ll bring you their favorite stories from the column’s vast archive, conversations with the authors, and a few surprises. New episodes every Wednesday.How Did This Get Made?https://player.fm/series/how-did-this-get-made-273…Have you ever seen a movie so bad that it’s amazing? Paul Scheer, June Diane Raphael and Jason Mantzoukas want to hear about it! We’ll watch it with our funniest friends, and report back to you with the results.
New York Times The Modern Love Column Podcast Review Paper

This is online class, so I can’t do it with peers. Just write as you can.

essay help online free This is online class, so I can’t do it with peers. Just write as you can..

Identify two people or a caregiver (as in the case of an infant), who represent two different stages of the life span—ideally, two who do not identify with your own current stage of life span development—and set up an brief 15–20 minute interview with them for this assignment. For example, select an adolescent and a senior in late adulthood, or the parent of a newborn and a child in late childhood. Conversationally interview these two people in order to compare what you have learned here in class, through the textbook, lectures, and videos, with their perception of what it is actually like to be in their stage of life.Interviews may be done via phone, Skype, email, etc. Take notes or record (with permission) your interview. Below are some suggestions for your conversation. You do not need to cover all of these topics in your paper, but they will help you shape your discussion. Be sure to note which topics you discuss.PSYC 290 Interview QuestionsIn your write up, tell us the gender, age, identified life stage of development, and cultural identification(s) of the individuals you interviewed. Be sure to maintain each individual’s privacy and confidentiality when asked to do so. Summarize the topics you discussed and share your interviewees’ responses (you may paraphrase and quote).In your paper, after you have shared what the interviewees discussed, share your thoughts on the process of talking with someone about their place in the life span. Did you learn anything from your conversations that you did not learn in the academic materials? How accurate do you think psychologists have been in identifying and classifying the different life stages? Explain.Your paper should be 2–4 pages long not including the title and reference pages.Be sure to include a brief introduction and a conclusion to your paper.Use current APA Style throughout, include a title page, cite your interviews parenthetically within the paper, and include a reference page for any other resources you use, such as your text or course materials.
This is online class, so I can’t do it with peers. Just write as you can.

Service Categories In Healthcare Nursing Essay

Service failure can occur on multiple dimensions. A core service failure occurs when a customer is not able to use the product or service they have purchased. A service encounter failure occurs when customer interaction with employees of a firm leave the customer feeling negative about the firm. Inadequate responses to other types of service failures entail their own category of service failure. Service failures could be grouped into four categories: service delivery system failures, gap between needs and requests, unprompted/unsolicited employee actions, and problematic customers (Bitner, Booms, and Tetreault, 1990). In a similar fashion, Lewis and Spyrakopoulos (2001) classified service failures into five categories, namely organization procedures, mistakes, employee behaviour, functional/technical failures, and actions/omissions of the organization that are against the sense of fair trade. The following objectives have been defined for this study: ¿½ To identify causes of usual service failure in health care ¿½ To understand specific complaints and categorize them into generic classes ¿½ To identify usual strategies health care adopt to cope with such failures ¿½ To measure the outcome of these service recovery strategies and evaluate the impact of the chosen strategy on consumer perception and future behaviour SERVICE CATEGORIES IN HEALTHCARE Services offered can be broadly classified into core services and supplementary services. Core Services Core service in hospitals includes the treatment provided by the Doctors to the patients and diagnostic services. It is very difficult to measure the success rate of core services as it mainly depends on the criticality of the patient and his conditions. Core service failure might lead even to the death of the patients. In case of death of the patient or any major failures in the core service provided, since there are no recovery mechanisms possible, legal redress is available to ensure sufficient financial compensation for the loss. Supplementary Services Supplementary service in hospitals includes Nursing Services, Operations

CRM 332 Saint Leo Universtiy Homeland Security and Terrorism Discussion

CRM 332 Saint Leo Universtiy Homeland Security and Terrorism Discussion.

Reaction Paper 4 will consist of a critical analysis of and reaction to one of this module’s assigned full chapters that you select. In addition, your critique in Reaction Paper 4 must be in full APA style, formatted with in-text citations, and have a minimum of 800 words in length excluding the cover page, abstract page, and reference page. When completing Reaction Paper 4, you should think in terms of providing a critical synthesis and overview, highlighting significant points and facts, and closing with a well-reasoned and informed conclusion. Provide the cover page, separate abstract page with keywords, body of the paper, and separate references page. Provide a running head on each page and remember the paper title on the cover page and the running head must be identical or the running head may be an abbreviation if lengthy. Develop the paper title based upon the content of the reading – Do not use “Reaction Paper #”, etc. In addition, your critique in Reaction Paper 3 must be in full APA style, formatted with in-text citations, and have a minimum of 800 words in length excluding the cover page, abstract page (with keywords), and reference page. When completing Reaction Paper 3, you should think in terms of providing a critical synthesis and overview, highlighting significant points and facts, and closing with a well-reasoned and informed conclusion. You must read, use, cite and reference the textbook(s) as assigned in this module even if you read, cite, and reference other sources. Remember no more than 25% of your paper may be quoted or paraphrased and must always be cited. Do not use “I”, “me”, “my”, etc. in your scholarly papers. It works to your advantage to exceed the minimum number of words required.
CRM 332 Saint Leo Universtiy Homeland Security and Terrorism Discussion