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Traditional Views On Stranger Rape Criminology Essay

“I prefer to characterize rape simply as a form of torture. Like the torturer, the rapist is motivated by the urge to dominate, humiliate, and destroy his victim. Like a torturer, he does so by using the most intimate acts available to humans — sexual ones.” Helen Benedict, Virgin or Vamp, 1992 Rape is the act of forced, unwanted sexual assault. It can be a form of sexual harassment or sexual intercourse. This can be done by a stranger, an acquaintance, or a family member. Globally, rape is an occurring crime that victimizes not only women but also children and men too (Starman, 2009).In 1997, according to the Worldwide Sexual Assault Statistics there is a large percentage of sexual assault victims that are less than 15 years old (2005). In 2000, there was a report that in seven different countries, 60% of sexual assault victims know their attackers. In 2001, 1 out of 3 women worldwide has experienced rape or sexual assault (Worldwide Sexual Assault Statistics, 2005). Also, in an intensive study, it was found that in eight different countries, 24.7% experienced sexual violence in dating relationships (Worldwide Sexual Assault Statistics, 2005). Also, the Worldwide Sexual Assault Statistics reported that studies showed that 5-10 percent of men experience sexual assault in their childhood days (2005). These statistics imply that rape is a very serious crime. Even family members cannot be excused out of it. According to Susan Estrich, there are two types of rape: “traditional” rape – described to be a violent rape committed by a stranger and “non-traditional” rape – described to be a less violent rape committed by an acquaintance of the victim (qtd. by Shanahan, 1999). Estrich suggested that “non-traditional” rape requires a less severe punishment compared to the “traditional” rape (qtd. by Shanahan, 1999). However, this is an unfair line of thinking. Rape is a crime. It is not dependent on who did it and who the victim is. In this paper, the first part will discuss rape and its history. The second part will discuss about and compare the two types of rape: “traditional” rape and “non-traditional” rape. Emphasis will be given to the “traditional” stranger rape case. The third part will discuss the current penalties that are given to the rapists. Emphasis will also be given to the “traditional” stranger rape case. A thorough evaluation of the penalties and its implications will be discussed. The last part will discuss about how this “traditional” stranger view fails to fairly and accurately represent the true nature of rape as an offence. Rape first appeared on historical texts in the form of early religious texts. Rape is commonly denoted both as abduction and in a sexual sense. In Greek Mythology, some famous stories depicted rape of women and male rape. First is the “rape” of Europa by Zues, It was written that Europa, a Phoenician princess, was abducted by Zues and they had sexual contact and had children (The Abduction of Europa, 2010). Second, the “rape” of Ganymede by Zues, the story tells that Zeus fell in love with a Trojan prince named Ganymede. Zues abducted the boy and made him his lover. This myth was even used by Greek philosopher Plato to justify his sexual feelings toward his male pupils (Gibson, 2004). Both of these myths were not treated in negative terms. These “rapes” went out unpunished because these sexual relationships were starting to be a part of the Greek society. Lastly, the famous “rape” of Chrysippus by the prince of Thebes named Laios (Atsma, 2008). In the story, Chrysippus killed himself because of his violation (Hubbard, 2006). It was also the first time that one called it a crime, namely the “crime of Laius” (Carter, 2006). This term is used today as one pertaining to male rape. This is the first depiction of rape as a negative thing. In the early states, mothers were being trapped into a situation wherein they have to stay in limited areas of their homes and stay with other females. This is called gynarchy. Also, women and children were separated from the men’s quarters. Thus, men use young boys for sexual intercourse preferably rather than their wives (Xenophon, cited in deMause, no date). Historians argue that in early states, matriarchy is the prevailing view. The state is governed by women. This is why at that time maternal incest was widely spread and common (deMause, n.d.). According to historians, child rape in early states is called “love” ,or “pedophelia” translated as “love of children”, or justifying it as an instance of “gay rights” – that children are not minors (deMause, n.d.). Furthermore, the children are being blamed for being raped. Early scholars, especially Greek scholars believe that children are “lonely” and needing sex, “seductive,” and as “routinely fellating older men [but] not abused despite ingesting their elders’ semen but ritually initiated into manhood.” (Rousseau, 2007). Also, It was reported that in many early states, boys would be dressed as girls by their mothers and they will work as prostitutes to be raped by priests during religious rituals (Spencer, 1996). Men could pick up boys to be raped at any barbershop, in any boy brothel, at the exit of any of the Roman games (McMullen, 1990 cited by deMause, n.d.). “Men regularly went into streets with “scissors to make a hole in the trousers of the boy and a small pillow to put in the boy’s mouth if he should scream.”” (Schild, 1997). Furthermore, Physicians were reportedly expected to provide lubricants for the anal penetration of boys and also treat the rectal tears that results from being raped (deMause, n.d.). According to Plutarch, boys should think of rape not as a pleasure, but as a duty (Cantarella, 2002, cited by deMause, n.d.). Moreover, in ancient Babylon and Hebrew cultures, raped women are either thrown into the river or are stoned to death in the cities (Brownmiller, cited by deMause, n.d.). It was also reported that in the early Roman Empire, “the castration of boys was a big business” used for raping by the aristocracy and by priests (Rousselle, 2009 cited by deMause, n.d.). In the time of the Nazis, rape was used as a political tool in war – to produce fear torture, and social control in the states. Examples are the Serbian “rape camps”, “comfort girls” in Japan, use of inmates for prostitution in Nazi concentration camps in WWII, mass rapes of Bengali women during the Pakistani/Bengali war, rapes of school girls in Kenya, ass rapes of women by armed forces in Somalia and Guatemala (A History of Sexual Assault, 2009: p. 1). These are facts that are very overwhelming if one thinks of the freedom of people today. These myths, actions and beliefs are very brute and terrifying. In recent years, rape and other forms of sexual assault is associated with harm for a male perpetrator who is related to the female victim. This means that if the rape victim is married, the crime is against her husband; also, if the victim is unmarried, the crime is against her father. Women were treated as property of men. They had no rights in legal and social definitions of rape. It was only in the 60’s that the women started to participate and given a chance to voice their opinions and beliefs – women’s movements (A History of Sexual Assault, 2009: p. 1).Today, rape is considered as a crime punishable by law. Although there are some countries are not very strict regarding their policies and laws such as in India or in Africa. Rape is defined as forced, unwanted sexual assault or sexual intercourse. Furthermore, it was argued that the reason behind the reformation and redefinition of rape, sexual assault, etc. was the feminist movements. Rape is about possession, power, and control (A History of Sexual Assault, 2009: p. 1). In the history of rape, several definitions and sanctions were very poor. Examples are: Rape was defined as forced sexual intercourse only, penile/vagina. If the victim does not acquire injuries, the case will not be prosecuted. All states do not acknowledge marital rape and date rape as serious rape cases. Males are only treated as suspects and cannot be victims, while females are victims only and not perpetrators. Only stranger rape was acknowledged and if no physical injuries or harm were sustained, it will not be acknowledged (A History of Sexual Assault, 2009: p. 2). Only in 2002 was there a big leap in the rape law definitions and sanctions. There are many different reasons behind these rapes. Study of why and where is the point of doing this criminal act will strengthen understanding about what rape is and why it is a crime. According to the GMU Sexual Assault Services (GMU-SAS), approximately 95 percent of reported rapes are committed by men. However, most men do not commit these kinds of crime (The Offender, 2009). GMU-SAS argued that there are many different factors that affect or boost the development of this deviant behavior. Some of these factors are: (One) the offender thinks of the victim as an object that can be manipulated and violated according to his will. (Two) The inability to empathize to other people had resulted from physical, sexual or emotional abuse from the past. According to a study, 70 percent of male sexual assault offenders were sexually and physically abused in their childhood (Lisak, 2002, cited in The Offender, 2009). (Three) The perpetrator believes that sex is equal to violence; that men should be dominant and aggressive, and that women should protect themselves until they take that virtue with the use of force. (Four) The perpetrator strongly holds on the beliefs of “dating ritual stereotypes”. An example is that sex is a “game”. The more you have it, whether by force or not, the more points you have. (Five) The perpetrator accepts violence as an act of dealing with conflicts. (Six) Excessive drinking of alcohol may affect the violent attitude of some men (The Offender, 2009). These are just some of the causes that may affect the development of a sexual assault perpetrator. Rape has a wide variety of cases. Rape, in the simplest categorization, is divided into two fields. One, non-stranger rape and two, stranger rape. These are two entirely different stories. Non-traditional rape is defined to be rape wherein the perpetrator is an acquaintance, a friend, a neighbor or even a spouse (Acquaintance or Non-Stranger Rape, 2009). According to the GMU Sexual Assault Services (GMU-SAS), a non-stranger rape is not considered to be a “true sexual assault” (2009). Most of the time, society today tends to blame the victim for these types of rape. However, GMU-SAS argued that the no woman is exempt from being raped. Any woman can be raped. Also, rape is a very “democratic” form of violence. Furthermore, rape attacks are 80% wholly and partially planned (Acquaintance or Non-Stranger Rape, 2009: p. 1). Also, studies show that 60-80% of all sexual assaults were done by someone who knows the victims. Also, men can be sexually assaulted too. Most of the male rape victims were abused in their childhood or in their teens. Rape is not dependent on the weapon used, gender, virginity and other matters. Rape is about unwanted, forced actions toward a victim (Acquaintance or Non-Stranger Rape, 2009: p. 2). Marital rape is another form of a non-traditional rape. In 1984, marital rapes were not prosecuted in Virginia. It was only in 1986 that a reformation of the law allows prosecution of marital rapes. In recent studies, one out of seven women is being sexually assaulted by their husbands (Marital Rape, 2009).In other words, marriages are not an exemption when it comes to rape. Gang rape can be another form of a non-traditional rape if the sexual perpetrators are known or have a relationship to the victim. This happens when two or more offenders sexually assault a victim. GMU-SAS described gang rape as very different from the traditional acquaintance rape in the sense that men who engage in rapes like these are the ones who cannot commit an individual rape. Furthermore, it was said that gang rape is a less perverted type of rape that usually associates the thing as a rite of passage or a proof of masculinity (Helen, cited by GMU-SAS, 2009).These types of rape involve an acquaintance or an existing relationship. Stranger rapes are the crimes that involve total strangers as perpetrators. A report from the Dublin Rape Crisis Centre (DRCC) show that stranger rape is increasing. “More than half” of all the rape victims are attacked by total complete strangers. The DRCC is alarmed and shocked because of this growing trend. Also, according to their statistics, out of the 51 percent of stranger rape victims, 38 percent said that they were also physically and psychologically abused (cited by Sherry, 2009). According to the Rape, Abuse, Incest National Network (RAINN), stranger rape has three major categories: Blitz sexual assault, Contact sexual assault, and Home invasion sexual assault. Blitz sexual assault is the type of sexual assault that happens rapidly and brutally. The perpetrator is a total stranger and this usually happens at night in public places. Contact sexual assault involves the sudden contact of a stranger perpetrator with the victim and tries to gain his confidence and trust before assaulting the victim. Usually, the perpetrators pick their victims from bars and restaurants; sexual coercion also is used for the initiation of sexual assault. Home invasion sexual assault is the situation wherein the stranger perpetrator breaks in the home of the victim and assaults the victim (Stranger Rape, 2009). Stranger rape is reported to happen in a lesser commonly and less possible to be repeated. Furthermore, it has been an argument that stranger rape is associated with violence and that non-stranger rapes have less violence when it comes to their nature (Shanahan, 1999). This is a rather unequal judgment on the true nature of rape as an offence. Rape is rape. Rape is a crime. It does not matter whether there was violence or less violence. It was further explained that a woman is “raped” whenever she has sex and feels violated (MacKinnon, cited by Shanahan, 1999). To further explain and evaluate the case of stranger rape, comparison of the harms and effects of both rapes will be discussed. There are many effects of being raped. These are very serious consequences that have lifetime effects on the victim. It was reported that stranger rape has far more complicated and devastating effects for the victim. Stranger rape often results in unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases which include HIV and AIDS. Furthermore, violent stranger rape can cause bruises and cuts to the victim, also the absence of condoms that make a larger probability of sexually transmitted diseases (Best, 2005). Raped women are traumatized and stigmatized. In some cultures, different kinds of punishments are given to raped women. Raped women are either abandoned, divorced or be declared as unmarriageable (Best, 2005). Furthermore, many raped women become impregnated; contract sexually transmitted infections, and suffers gynecological injuries that require reconstructive surgery (Best, 2005). These consequences are far more devastating that one can ever imagined. The mental, emotional, physical and psychological tortures for these women are worst. The effects and harms of non-stranger rape are also comparable to the effects of stranger rape. It is not right to say that non-stranger rape is not violent. There is also violence in what they do. Research reports that non-stranger rape or acquaintance rape survivors suffer from depression, anxiety, complications in subsequent relationships, and difficulty of attaining maximum level of sexual satisfaction (Koss
Assignment 1: UCR Performance Task.

CRJ 105 – Crime and Criminal Behavior© 2017 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.Page 3 of 14TaskYour task is to write a report for the Chief of Police Rodney Hurt. He will use the report for his news conference in regard to the public’s concern for the increase in crime over the past five years. In the report, you will include the following:1. A definition and description of the Uniform Crime Report.2. A description of the data-gathering strategy for your report and a rationale for why you chose this technique3. A discussion of the crime trends comparing Happy Town, Frown Town, Smooth Town, and Cool Town over the past five years.Your report should clearly describe all the details necessary for the Chief’s news conference. Your answers will be judged not only on the accuracy of the information you provide, but also on how thoroughly the information is covered, how effectively the report is organized, and how well your writing reflects the conventions of standard written English. While your personal values and experiences are important, please answer all the questions in this task solely on the basis of the information provided in the Document Library. (The Document Library is included in this assignment document.)Formatting Requirements:Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:● Be four pages typed, double-spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. All the information you need is in the Document Library. ● Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, your name, professor’s name, course title, and date. The cover page is not included in the required assignment page length.Self-Assessment Checklist:Use this to check your work before you submit your assignment: My paper defines and describes the Uniform Crime Report. My paper describes a data-gathering strategy and explains why I used this strategy. My paper discusses the crime trends comparing Happy Town, Frown Town, Smooth Town, and Cool Town over the past five years.
Assignment 1: UCR Performance Task

I need 1200-1500 words on the information listed below! NO PLAGIARISM

I need 1200-1500 words on the information listed below! NO PLAGIARISM.

Using the case study Jim’s Auto Body, prepare an audit program to audit revenue. You will use all of the relevant management assertions as the audit objectives, and you should include the following:Management assertions to be addressed (audit objectives) Internal control Test of controls Substantive test of transactionsPart 1After the audit program has been drafted, identify the type of report that will be produced as a result of the audit of revenue, and develop the audit report.Part 2The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) professional standards provide uniform wording and format for the audit report. The audit report should focus on the revenue cycle and Jim’s Auto Body. Write a 1-page audit report for Jim’s Auto Body that includes all seven parts of a standard audit report, as follows:Report title Audit report address Introductory paragraphs Scope paragraph Opinion paragraph Name of the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) firm Audit report date
I need 1200-1500 words on the information listed below! NO PLAGIARISM

Evaluating speeches

research paper help Evaluating speeches. I’m working on a Writing exercise and need support.

Evaluating speeches
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Now that we are done with the basics of communication as it applies to public speaking, this week we are getting into all the fine details … structure, outlining, delivery, presentation skills, word choices, language, etc. that can separate an okay speech from a great speech.
We refine our public speaking abilities through a mixture of instruction, practice, and imitation. As such, critically examining other speeches provides you another venue for thinking about how to adapt to different rhetorical situations. When we get into the persuasive and advocacy rounds, you will be required (and graded on) evaluating each other’s speeches (on paper and/or in a verbal critique after the speech – the ability to articulate a point in just a few seconds can be vital to surviving in the current employment market). So now is a great time to start practicing those evaluation skills.
For this assignment, we are going to start critically evaluating speeches. This will require 2 posts on your part (and watching at least 1 new TED talk).

#1 Your initial post (1.25pts): Since you’ve already watched the speech you posted, that one should be easy. Go back to the TEDtalk you posted in last week (if you missed last week’s homework, you will have to go back and read it to know what we did). In your post for this week, re-post the link to the TEDtalk you posted last week but this week, rather than summarize, you need to evaluate the speaker’s delivery/performance (evaluate the speech, not the message!). Remember to provide the title and a WORKING LINK to the talk you evaluate in your post. For evaluation criteria see below.
#2 Respond to one peer (0.75pts): Respond to one other person’s post, evaluating their posted TEDtalk (yes, you will need to watch their TEDtalk as well, you cannot evaluate the same speech that you responded to last week). Did you see things differently than they did in their evaluation? Do you agree or disagree with with their assessment of the speaker’s performance? Why or why not?

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Criteria for evaluating speeches:
For this week, we are going to keep it really open-ended…. in your responses, discuss the following (350-500 words total)

What the speaker did well:
Most of these speeches have been practiced and refined over and over and over. What do you think the speaker did well? Did you learn anything by watching this speech (not about the topic, but about giving speeches)? Any tips or tricks that you may want to emulate in your own speeches?
What the speaker could still work on:
Every individual audience member will see/hear/interpret a speech in their own way. And, there is almost always room for improvement. If you were hired to give the speaker tips, is there anything you would tell him/her to do differently? Did you find anything distracting about the speech and/or delivery that you felt distracted from the message?
Things you may want to consider during your evaluations (which we will be covering in class all week). You can’t possibly talk about all of this in 350-500 words, these are just some suggestions for things you may want to look for, think about, and/or evaluate:

IntroductionGained attention & interestIntroduced topic clearlyRelated topic directly to audienceEstablished credibility & goodwillPreviewed main pointsBodyMain points clear & fully supportedOrganization well-plannedLanguage clear & audience-focusedLanguage vividEffective connectivesConclusionPrepared audience for endingReinforced central ideaVivid ending (closure/finality)
DeliveryMaintained strong eye contactEffective posture, movement & gesturesAvoided distracting mannerismsArticulated words clearlyUsed pauses effectivelyEffective vocal variationCommunicated enthusiasm for topicEnded speech without rushingVisual AidsPrepared visual aids wellSmoothly integrated aidsOverall EvaluationTopic challengingSpecific purpose well-chosenClear audience adaptation

Evaluating speeches

Excelsior College Management Capstone African Americans

Excelsior College Management Capstone African Americans.

m3a11. select this group:African AmericansOutline Requirements:Clearly identify the group you selectedConstruct a clear, precise research question around the topic of education and improved socioeconomic statusProvide an outline that includes a clear idea of where you will be going in your essay and:IntroductionHistoric dataToday’s dataChange over timeBe sure you examine the multiple aspects of education, the various levels, etc. You may also want to include military service as an alternative to just school.Compare the group’s progress to others; how do they compare, and what is going on behind the scenes to impact these statistics?YOUR analysis and examination of possible solutions you have found, as well as your own ideas, and conclusion.m4a1please follow these guidelines:Start with the U.S. Census data and review Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and go as far back as you can to research your group. You will want to track change over time in: number of people identified as part of this group, income range, and education reported. Compare and contrast to “majority whites” (some groups have been followed for years or decades, but others have not, so you will need to do some digging). Visit Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015 – Detailed Tables (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to view other groups.Address these questions:How has education helped your group to improve over time, or has it? (research beyond the Census stats needed here)Are the promises made about education actually being fulfilled? Why or why not? (real sociology-type question)What other factors may be at play here?Discuss the facts you have located and the interplay of these to build to a logical and informed conclusion. Have you found any solutions in your research for the issue? If so, include them in your discussion/conclusion, along with your own ideas about how education can and cannot help people improve their socioeconomic status.Additional Requirements and Resources:A minimum of four resources from academic publications found in the Excelsior Library750 – 1250 words of writing. This does not include the title page or reference page. Please organize your paper based upon the approved outline and your faculty feedback.Grammatically correct sentences. If you need assistance, free tutoring is available through Smarthinking. You can link to it under “Free Tutoring” in your Table of Contents. To receive assistance on how to write essays, you can refer to the Excelsior OWL (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Use APA citation guidelines. If you need assistance, please refer to either of the following online writing labs:Purdue OWL (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Excelsior OWL (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Excelsior College Management Capstone African Americans

Research Paper on Domestic Violence

Research Paper on Domestic Violence.

Research the responsibility of a critical thinker in a contemporary society. You may choose any topic that deals with a contemporary social concern. Examine the principles of critical thought in relation to the chosen societal concern, and consider the importance of ethics, moral reasoning, a research-based process to search for truth, and the advantages of information technology in gathering data.Potential social concerns include, but are not limited to health (e.g., obesity, smoking, or underage drinking), poverty (e.g., homelessness, basic needs, or transportation issues), family relations and dynamics (e.g., teen violence, physical abuse, depression, or suicide), social media (e.g., privacy), immigration (e.g., illegal), and education (e.g., plagiarism and/or cheating).Your Final Research Paper should:Include a literature review of three scholarly sources based on the selected contemporary issue. Analyze the validity of the author’s arguments and/or biases.Explain how academic knowledge impacts the social elements and institutions of both local and global communities.Assess how the principles of active citizenship could impact the contemporary issue during the next five to ten years.Include at least one reference to a multimedia component (i.e., podcast, interactive website, blog, or video) and evaluate the relevance of this piece in relationship to academic knowledge and the selected issue.The paper must be 12 to 14 pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least 12 scholarly sources, six of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library.  Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.Writing the Final Research PaperThe Final Research Paper:Must be 12 to 14 double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least 12 scholarly sources, including a minimum of six from the Ashford Online Library.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.My Topic: Domestic Violence
Research Paper on Domestic Violence