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Traditional and Electronic Delivery Methods 1

Traditional and Electronic Delivery Methods 1.

· Provide an example of when a lecture based training would be the most beneficial. Using your example explain if another delivery method would be possible. What method and how would you deliver it?  · How has technology changed training? What are the benefits technologies bring to a training department? What are the challenges? 
Traditional and Electronic Delivery Methods 1

Impact and Development of Change UK

Introduction Change UK: who they are Change UK is a UK, centrist, pro-EU political party founded in March 2019. The party was formed with the defection of seven MPs who left the Labour party in response to the Labour party’s push to the far-left, poor handling of allegations of anti-semitism, and the facilitation of Brexit. The party declares that their aim is to pursue evidence-based policies, rather than ideological policies, done through healthy debate and tolerance towards different opinions, in order to bridge between social and political divides in order to build a consensus to wrestle Britain’s problems. Change UK ran in the 2019 European elections, and despite polling at 20%, won zero seats, gaining only 3% of the overall vote. They currently have 5 sitting MPs after 6 party members defecting in June 2019 and standing as independents and with Chuka Umunna joining the Liberal Democrats (BBC, 2019). Their future goals are to run in the next UK General Election and to win X seats (or at least regain their current MPs seats). The professionalism of politics In the last fifty years, Marien and Quintelier (2011) have shown that membership of political parties has dramatically reduced in all European countries, both in the percentage of the electorate and in absolute terms. The traditional organisational structure of modern political parties is changing, with party politics becoming less vocational and more professional. Parties are no longer a link between citizens and the state (Katz and Mair, 1995). Rather than representing a specific social group or class, political parties started to broaden their appeal to the electorate at large through simple electoral persuasion, with political parties shifting from a ‘bottom-up’ to a ‘top-down’ party structure and the political elite playing a more incremental role in the intra-party decisions, such as party policies and party organisation. Parties have shifted from representing the interests of citizens to the state, to representing the interests of the state to its citizens (Mair, 2009: 6). As a consequence, party politics has become less about the mobilisation of social groups and more about a race for seats between elite professionalised parties, with voters being more as free-agents uncommitted to a specific party or ideology (van Biezen and Poguntke, 2014). There is an apparent ‘democratic deficit’ in the running of political parties (Hopkin, 1999). The party’s problem Given this shift to a more professional politics, Change UK have to decide whether it is worth their time and effort to attract party members in order to achieve their objective of winning electoral seats and establishing itself as a legitimate alternative party to the already established elite parties. To see change you have to be different: Change UK moving away from professionalism Contents of this section: Given Change UK’s principles they should build a membership base in order to secure a democratic party for the people and to maintain democratic legitimacy. To produce a long-standing party, and to avoid the problems of the Social Democratic Party in the 1980s, Change UK need a core membership base in order for those members to climb the party’s leadership ladder, establish party infrastructure and cohesion in order to win seats in the next general election. One potential problem of a democratic party base is that a membership base with a lot of intra-party power can split a party and overturn it from the inside out. Moving away from professionalism and towards democracy Change UK state that they aim ‘to recognise the value of healthy debate, show tolerance towards different opinions and seek to reach across outdated divides and build consensus to tackle Britain’s problems’ and they declare that British politics must devolve power to the most appropriate level by involving local communities more, with more power and representation given to local government in order to act in the community’s best interests (Change UK, 2019). Rather than being ‘locked in the old party-political interests’ Change UK want to move towards a parliamentary democracy that is held more accountable by their whole electorate in order to represent the views of the British people (ibid.). As such, the party must be inherently democratic in its party structure (Kittilson and Scarrow, 2003). It is clear that the party wants to move away from the professionalism of politics, moving towards a more democratic politics, with political parties being a point of contact between citizens and government and allowing citizens to be able to influence politics through respectful public spheres of debate and dialogue. Without a membership base Change UK would be no different to the current established elite parties that they are declaring to be different from. If Change UK want a higher standard of deliberative democracy and to move away from the out-of-touch elite political parties then they must create a membership base that can influence party politics, as a lack of a membership base would call into question the democratic legitimacy of Change UK as a democratic party (Gibson et al., 2017). Therefore, in order for Change UK to be understood as a legitimate democratic political party, that will contest for electoral seats, they must build a membership base that has intra-party democratic power. Problems with a membership base: fear of factions One potential problem with a membership base with a lot of intra-party democratic power is that the membership can more easily split the party and overturn the party from the inside. As was seen in June 2019, with six MPs – including the interim leader Heidi Allen – quitting, Change UK have a particular vulnerability to a party split in the higher ranks of party leadership, which would hope to be avoided on the grass-roots level (BBC, 2019). As Bennie (2013) acknowledges, being a formal member gives you the rights and ability to dictate party policies. By limiting the access to membership, or by limiting members’ access to intra-party power, Change UK can potentially prevent further internal factions, which can cause the party to permanently disband (Johansson, 2014). The party is internally susceptible to a party split to form due to its centrist nature. Change UK is a party made up of Labour and Conservative party defectors. If all members have internal power then the more right-leaning members will want to push the party further to the right, whilst the more left-leaning members will want to pull the party to the left. This too-ing and fro-ing could cause significant structural and policy issues for the longevity of the party’s survival. There must be measures taken in order to prevent the party from completely disbanding due to factions in policy preference. Avoiding the problems of the SDP: Creating a long-standing party Change UK should wish to avoid the fate of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), which has enormous similarities with Change UK. The SDP was a centrist party formed in 1981, established by the ‘gang of four’ – four senior Labour party MPs, dissatisfied with how far to the left Labour had shifted and offered themselves as a middle position to the extremes of the Labour Party and Thatcherism promising to ‘break the political mould’. In 1987, after a disappointing UK general election, the party fizzled out and merged with a more established small party, the Liberal party forming the Liberal Democrats (Adonis, 2018). With the party splitting in June 2019 and Chukka Umuna joining the Liberal Democrats soon after his defection, Change UK need to ensure that they learn from the SDP’s mistakes in order to create an independent long-standing party and avoid a merger with the Liberal Democrats. There are two important factors that led to the SDP’s failure that Change UK can learn from (Crewe and King, 1995): The SDP only had twenty-nine MPs turn up for their first general election, which is problematic for a new party. Under First Past the Post, a new party needs more than twenty-nine candidates up for election to make an immediate impact. They failed to build the infrastructure that demonstrated to people on the local level of the competence of the party, which led to a failure of winning elections. By having a strong core membership base Change UK can attempt to rectify these problems. Firstly, a cohesive party structure built from the ‘bottom-up’ will provide the party with a pool of members who can climb the leadership ladder and run as candidates in local, regional and national elections, allowing for more immediate electoral success in the next round of elections, as well as solidifying a supply chain of candidates, party officials and leaders for the long-run of the party (Bennie, 2013). Secondly, by securing a strong organisational capacity through a strong membership base, the party will therefore secure a strong electoral campaign (Ponce

Aviation Spare Parts Supply Chain Optimization

custom writing service Cathay Pacific Airways Limited is a very profitable airline and has its business all over the world. They receive many awards for their operational efficiency and it has contributed a lot to their success. Behind all this success there are many tedious tasks of aircraft maintenance, repairs and services. Each and every airline requires usual maintenance to ensure operational smoothness and safety. This maintenance process can include regular servicing of aircrafts, change of damaged parts, repair of damaged parts, etc. And to allow this process of maintenance, Cathay Pacific requires a sophisticated spare parts management process. They have one spare parts management process but it has some drawbacks and certain issues need to be addressed to refine the process and to increase its efficiency. First main point is that these aviation spare parts is very expensive and thus has very adverse effect on Cathay Pacific’s balance sheet. They have sufficient inventory of these spare parts but of which significant percentage of parts are dead and inactive stock. They can’t simply get rid of these parts because for aircraft safety certain parts are necessary and can be required at any time. They can’t ground the plane for long time as costs of aircraft delays and grounding the plane are very high. The usage pattern of these spare parts is highly unpredictable and thus, future demand forecasting is one of the challenging tasks for Cathay Pacific. Aviation spare parts are mainly divided into two categories Critical and non-critical. Critical spare parts market is mainly dominated by the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) suppliers where as there are many suppliers for non-critical spare parts and the switching option is available. However, this switching option is not recommended as these switching costs are very high. Robert and Paul have to be addressed the above mentioned issues but there are other issues and factors they have to consider. First of all for critical parts they need to consider the option of outsourcing the maintenance of rotatables or getting service packs where the OEM gives the option of overhauling. For non critical parts, they need to think about cutting down their suppliers. Cathay Pacific has around 2300 suppliers. Cathay Pacific use IT system for spare parts management but they don’t have collaborative IT system which facilitates communication between Cathay Pacific and their suppliers. They also need to consider this new green movement. They need to reduce their carbon footprint to reduce new environmental taxes and also save thousands of kilometres and thus, fuel costs. Some of the options they have are to do tipping point analysis ( [1] ). It is an end-to-end assessment of the supply chain management process. It is very helpful to determine at what point certain parts are needed to make available or to keep forward to reduce the time and transportation costs. This action of making the parts available closer to demand helps reducing transport and carbon emissions but only at the increased inventory costs. They already have increased inventory costs thus this can’t be very difficult for them. However, there are other options available to further reduce high inventory costs. Other options are global sourcing. This means reducing the number of suppliers and the selection of suppliers which are spread across the world. Cathay Pacific already has its hubs in different continents. Selecting the suppliers’ close to these hubs will be a good move in the process of amelioration of supply chain. This will help to reduce the links in the existing supply chain and to reduce the length of the journey. As Mr. Wall of Jaguar Land Rover explains, “Now you can’t just look at the purchase price of parts, but you have to look at the total landed costs including freight, packaging, customs and the cost of returning any unique containers.” Selection of few suppliers with long term relationship will help to extend the IT systems and develop a collaborative system which will be beneficial for all and will result into minimum transportation costs and transportation time to the place of demand. The alliance of different airlines will also be useful to reduce the suppliers’ power in case of critical parts and also help to share the inventory of spare parts. They are already doing this and have to continue to promote such types of activities. As Judy Blackburn, head of the UK logistics team at Kurt Salmon Associates (consultancy firm) explains that when two or more competitors come together and merge their logistics operations and transport systems, they can save approximately 15-20 percent in transportation costs. Third party logistics can be a good option as they can use the expertise of other company for these spare parts management and can focus on their core business. 2. What is Cathay Pacific purchasing power in aviation spare parts procurement? What are the possible alternatives for improvements in the procurement process? There are two categories of spare parts of the airplane. First one is critical parts and second is non-critical parts. As far as purchasing power is concerned, for critical parts i.e. aircraft engines, etc. Cathay Pacific has very low purchasing power. The main reason behind this is strict air authority restrictions and the critical parts manufacturers hold an expertise in their parts. When it comes to non-critical part, Cathay Pacific has certain purchasing power as there are many suppliers. But they should take an account that switching costs from one supplier to another. The best practice they can do is to form an alliance for aircraft spare parts procurement. They already have an alliance, so if all airlines come together and try to unify their procurement process, they will have more purchasing power. Also they don’t need to keep much buffer stock or single airline doesn’t need to keep a buffer stock which indeed costs more and has a considerable effect on the balance sheet. If they don’t want to form an alliance, they should decrease their number of suppliers. But while doing this, they can use global sourcing strategy. This means to select the suppliers around the world and close to Cathay Pacific hubs. In this way, they can cut down the travelling time of spare parts from their supplier to Cathay Pacific hubs and save costs on transport and CO2 emissions. When it comes to buffer stock, there are not many options available to cut down the expenses. However, using proper analysis tools and proper IT system, which collaborates with their suppliers too, they can estimate the demand time and place and make available required spare parts. Procurement process is indeed very important process to ensure the proper availability of spare parts at the very right time and the place where the part is required. Cathay Pacific has an IT system but the use of collaborative IT systems where Cathay Pacific and their suppliers use one single platform to communicate with each other and to trade is imperative to cut down buffer stock. They should reduce the number of suppliers and extend this collaborative It system which will deliver positive results. The reduced number of suppliers and the sharing of IT systems will help to build the trust amongst them and to build the long term relationship. 3. What are the advantages

The Lasting Legacies of Modern and Social Imperialism Discussion

The Lasting Legacies of Modern and Social Imperialism Discussion.

I’m working on a global studies discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

1. Think about the lasting legacies of modern imperialism to answer the following question:What are three examples of the the impact(s) of modern imperialism on modern day nation states / peoples? Please use examples from the text to support your argument. (at least 100 words)2. Reply to one other people’s response (at least 50 words). I’ll show you after you answer, so give me your answer first.……
The Lasting Legacies of Modern and Social Imperialism Discussion

Deviance in the News Deonte Murray Case Discussion

Deviance in the News Deonte Murray Case Discussion.

Assignment: Deviance in the NewsSTEP 1: Find a current article about a crime that has been committed within the past three weeks. Look for language within the article that lends itself to a sociological explanation of the deviant behavior using one or more of the theories of deviance. You should not Google “crime” or “deviance” to find a current events article related to crime and deviance; rather, check reputable online news sources or an actual article about a crime or deviant behavior. There are always major deviant acts each week that make the national and local news.Articles should be a minimum of 500 words, recent (within three weeks), relevant (related to crime, deviance, and social control), and from a reputable * news source (many colleges provide free access to national news sources).* (STAY IN THE GREEN BOX)STEP 2: Write a thorough summary of the article.STEP 3: Using your sociological imagination, write an analysis of the article that connects the main idea/s of the article to specific key terms and theories from our chapter on Deviance, Crime and Social Control.STEP 4: Include the link to your article, check for any writing errors, and submit your article with your response paper.
Deviance in the News Deonte Murray Case Discussion

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