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Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Estimation Experiment

Total cholesterol and triglyceride estimation using the Randox Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Assay Kits and the comparison and evaluation of the class results for Controls 1 and 3, using both of these assays. Results The following are the absorbances (A) and lipid profile results comprising of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentration all given in mmol/L, obtained for the controls, calibrator and patient’s 1 to 5. These results were obtained using the Total Cholesterol Kit and Triglyceride Kit, both by Randox. The class results for Control 1 and Control 3 for both the total cholesterol and triglyceride assays are also given. Table 1: First absorbance reading (A), second absorbance reading (A), average absorbance (A) for Patients 1 to 5, control 1, control 3, the calibrator and the blank, using the Triglyceride Assay Kit by Randox. The absorbances were read on a spectrophotometer at 500nm. Sample First absorbance reading (A) Second absorbance reading (A) Average absorbance (A) Blank 0.000 / 0.000 Patient 1 0.125 0.117 0.121 Patient 2 0.246 0.247 0.247 Patient 3 0.214 / 0.214 Control 1 0.081 / 0.081 Patient 4 0.284 / 0.284 Calibrator 0.320 0.313 0.317 Patient 5 0.167 0.142 0.155 Control 3 0.279 0.299 0.289 Note: Not all samples were tested in duplicate as there was not enough of the Randox Triglyceride Reagent for all 17 tubes. Table 2: First absorbance reading (A), second absorbance reading (A), average absorbance (A) for Patients 1 to 5, control 1, control 3, the calibrator and the blank, using the Total Cholesterol Assay Kit by Randox.The absorbances were read on a spectrophotometer at 500nm. Sample First absorbance reading (A) Second absorbance reading (A) Average absorbance (A) Blank 0.000 / / Patient 1 0.324 0.302 0.313 Patient 2 0.228 0.246 0.237 Patient 3 0.485 0.522 0.504 Control 1 0.205 0.193 0.199 Patient 4 0.395 0.432 0.414 Calibrator 0.342 0.334 0.338 Patient 5 0.430 0.400 0.415 Control 3 0.306 0.406 0.356 Table 3: Triglyceride concentration (mmol/L), using the Triglyceride Assay Kit by Randox, total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L), using the Total cholesterol Assay Kit by Randox LDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L), calculated using the Friedewald equation and HDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L), which was given in each case study, for patients 1 to 5. The target values are given below each of the lipid types. Triglyceride concentration (mmol/L) <2 mmol/L Total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) < 5 mmol/L LDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) < 3mmol/L HDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) > 1.5 mmol/L Patient 1 0.82 4.88 3.30 1.25 Patient 2 1.68 3.70 1.80 1.10 Patient 3 1.45 7.86 3.90 3.30 Patient 4 1.93 6.45 2.40 3.20 Patient 5 1.05 6.28 2.70 3.10 Control 1 0.55 3.10 / / Control 3 1.96 5.55 / / Calibrator 2.15 5.27 / / Results highlighted in red are above the target value and results in yellow are below the target value. Calculation of triglyceride concentration (mmol/L): Average absorbance (A) of the sample / Average absorbance (A) of the calibrator x concentration of the calibrator E.g. Patient 1 – 0.121A / 0.317A x 2.15 mmol/L = 0.82 mmol/L Calculation of total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L): Average absorbance (A) of the sample / Average absorbance (A) of the calibrator x concentration of the calibrator E.g. Patient 2 – 0.237A / 0.338A x 5.27 mmol/L = 3.70 mmol/L Friedewald equation calculation for LDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L): Total cholesterol (mmol/L) – HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) – Triglycerides / 2.2 E.g. Patient 3: 7.86 (mmol/L) – 3.30 (mmol/L) – 1.45 (mmol/L) / 2.2 = 3.90 (mmol/L) Table 4: Class results for the triglyceride concentration (mmol/L), using the Randox Triglyceride Assay Kit and total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L), using the Randox Total Cholesterol Assay Kit of Control 1 and Control 3. Included also in this table are the mean (mmol/L), standard deviation and % Coefficient of variation (%CV) for each of the samples, with and without the outliers. These results are to be evaluated in terms of between-run precision to give an indication of the overall precision of both assays. Result number Triglyceride concentration (mmol/L) Total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) Control 1 Control 3 Control 1 Control 3 1 1.08 0.66 4.86 8.25 13.65 2 0.54 2.42 3.77 6.51 3 0.61 2.46 3.52 6.26 4 0.55 *1.96 3.38 5.81 5 0.68 3.05 3.10 5.55 6 0.63 2.46 5.90 5.36 7 0.60 2.38 / 6.24 6.27 8 0.63 2.43 3.62 6.32 9 0.58 2.24 3.15 5.40 10 0.59 2.30 3.45 6.39 11 0.67 2.59 3.45 6.85 12 1.01 2.99 3.20 5.47 13 0.65 2.38 3.53 5.87 14 0.62 3.75 7.78 10.18 10.37 13.60 15 0.58 / 3.24 6.94 Mean (mmol/L) including outliers 0.67 2.70 4.63 7.23 Standard deviation including outliers 0.1533 0.7345 2.2756 2.6623 %CV including outliers 22.88 27.20 49.15 36.82 Mean (mmol/L) without outliers 0.61 2.47 3.40 6.09 Standard deviation without outliers 0.0431 0.2073 0.2097 0.5200 %CV without outliers 7.07 8.39 6.17 8.54 The two triglyceride concentration (mmol/L) results for the first class result are the two separate control 1 results obtained by the same person showing poor duplicates. The two total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) results for the seventh class result and fourteenth class results are the two separate control results obtained by each person, these results show poor duplicates. No control 1 result was obtained for the seventh class result in the total cholesterol assay. The individual results are highlighted in green and the result highlighted red and with an asterisk is the other own result that was also an outlier. Results highlighted in red are outliers. The mean and standard deviation of the pooled plasma replicates was carried out on a Casio fx-83GT Plus calculation in the STAT mode. %CV calculation: Standard deviation / Mean (mmol/L) x100 = %CV. Table 5: Summary table of the lipid profile results obtained for patient’s 2 and 5, which are to be discussed in conjunction with the accompanying case study in the discussion section. The target value (mmol/L) for each lipid profile component is given also in this table. Triglyceride concentration (mmol/L) <2 mmol/L Total cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) < 5 mmol/L LDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) < 3mmol/L HDL cholesterol concentration (mmol/L) > 1.5 mmol/L Patient 2 1.68 3.70 1.80 1.10 Patient 5 1.05 6.28 2.70 3.10 Results highlighted in red are above the target value and results in yellow are below the target value. Discussion A lipid profile consists of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol measurement. These measurements are used to diagnose and guide the treatment of disorders of lipid metabolism and endocrine disorders namely, diabetes mellitus and kidney disease. Lipids play a pivotal role in most aspects of bodily function. They provide energy and insulation in the body to prevent heat loss and to allow the conduction of nerve signals and are also involved in metabolic and hormonal pathways and are the structural components of cells. Patient 2 was referred to the lipid clinic by her GP. This patient has a family history of coronary artery disease and so, is at higher risk of developing the disease. She presented to her GP with tendon xanthomata, which is a fatty deposition of cholesterol in the tendons. This is characteristic in patients who have familial hypercholesterolaemia, which this patient was diagnosed with on presentation. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a lipid disorder that is autosomal dominant. It is caused by a defect in the receptor that is responsible for recognising and removing LDL from the circulation. This defect can either be due to ineffective internalisation of the LDL cholesterol or due to the receptor being defective or absent, resulting in decreased LDL binding. The clinical characteristics of familial hypercholestrolaemia include xanthomata in the elbows, knees, feet or hands. This is the subcutaneous deposition of lipids. An LDL cholesterol concentration that is increased, a slightly decreased HDL cholesterol, along with a moderately triglyceride concentration are all seen in this lipid disorder. In most individuals who have familial hypercholesterolaemia, hypercholesterolaemia will be present at birth. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is the most common form of the disorder and is seen in 1 in 500 people in the United States, while homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia occurs in 1 in 1 million people. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is treated with statin therapy and or sequestrants of bile salts. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia does not respond to therapy and often times, liver transplantation is required. Those who are homozygous for the disorder have a 4 to 6 increase of LDL cholesterol than normal, while heterozygotes show a 2 to 3 LDL increase. The fasting sample that was tested for the patient in this practical is from a routine check-up appointment. Her triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration were all within the target values. However, her HDL cholesterol concentration was less than the target value. HDL cholesterol gathers up and carries excess cholesterol back to the liver. It partakes in reverse cholesterol transport and because of this, HDL is anti-atherogenic. Since her levels of this cholesterol are low, she is at greater risk of developing atherosclerosis. The LDL result obtained for this patient was below the target value. LDL cholesterol is rich in cholesterol, delivers this cholesterol to peripheral cells and facilitates the build- up of fatty deposition in arteries, in a process known as atherosclerosis. The patient was put on statin therapy as she is a high risk patient for coronary artery disease. Statins are lipid lowering medication. They are also known as HMG-coA reductase inhibitors. HMG-coA reductase is an enzyme that controls the rate at which cholesterol is synthesized in the liver. HMG-coA reductase inhibitors are a medication that blocks the rate at which cholesterol is endogenously synthesized in the liver. This inhibitor also causes the LDL receptors to be expressed in the liver, increasing plasma LDL catabolism and lowering the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma and thus, reduces the risk of atherosclerosis. As this patient’s LDL concentration was below the target value, it is clear that the statin therapy is causing the patient’s cholesterol levels to be decreased. Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in high risk patients. As this patient has been started on statin therapy, this indicates that she is heterozygous for the disorder. She has also presented with tendon xanthomata, which manifests by 20 years of age in heterozygous individuals (Varghese, 2014). Patient 5 has just recently been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and was described as being a smoker, overweight and drinking greater than 20 units of alcohol per week, which are all risk factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of free fatty acids in the plasma play a principal role in insulin resistance. Dyslipidaemia is secondary to diabetes mellitus. Insulin plays a pivotal role in controlling lipid metabolism. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have an association with plasma lipid abnormalities. Hypertriglyceridaemia due to an increase in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is seen in type 1 diabetes, upon presentation or when glycaemic control begins to deteriorate. Chylomicronaemia may also be present due to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity being decreased. LPL is stimulated by insulin. Hormone sensitive lipase is increased, which insulin would normally inhibit, facilitating free fatty acids to be released from adipose tissue. This occurs due to poor insulin activity. These fatty acids are involved in the synthesis of triglyceride in the liver, where they act as a substrate. This is commonly seen in type 2 insulin resistance diabetes, causing an increase in the secretion of VLDL, which this patient has. Insulin treatment reverses both of these effects. Good glycaemic control reduces the occurrence of hypertriglyceridaemia. Hypertriglyceridaemia is also seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increased hepatic synthesis is the cause of the hypertriglyceridaemia, but is less severe than that in type 1 diabetes mellitus. LDL cholesterol concentration is not greatly increased. However, the LDL particles tend to be more atherogenic, small and dense. The concentration of HDL is also decreased in this type of diabetes. Lipids regulate the production of apolipoprotein B. Increased synthesis of apolipoprotein B is seen when there is insulin resistance. Apolipoprotein B may become glycated in both types of diabetes mellitus, enhancing the atherogenic characteristic of the lipoprotein. This occurs by LDL having a reduced affinity for the receptors of LDL. The LDL then begins to be increasingly taken up by the scavenger receptors of macrophages, which lead to the accumulation of fatty streaks in damaged epithelial tissue in arteries, facilitating atherosclerosis. Even with good glycaemic control, the lipid abnormalities may still persist. Lipid lowering drugs should be used to treat these abnormalities due to the significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease due to diabetes. There is increased synthesis of apolipoprotein B, which is the major constituent of VLDL. This patient’s total cholesterol is elevated and is greater than the target value. While the LDL, HDL and triglyceride concentration for this patient are all below the target values. The treatment options that are beneficial for this patient is firstly dietary intervention. The patient should reduce their alcohol consumption, give up smoking, exercise regularly, reduce their fat intake per day and aim for their total fat intake to be less than 30% of their total daily calorie intake. Drug therapy could also be administered to this patient. Drugs such as statins, fibrates and nicotinic acid could be taken by this patient to lower their total cholesterol, VLDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonists that target the PPAR to lower triglyceride and raise HDL concentrations. They target lipid pathways by reducing the synthesis of VLDL and ApoC3, which inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), increasing the activity of LPL, causing the VLDL and chylomicron remnants to be removed quickly from the circulation and increasing the synthesis of apoA1, which is associated with HDL. Nicotinic acid reduces LDL concentration and the secretion of VLDL. These forms of drug therapy will aid in the control of treating this patient’s hypertriglyceridaemia and lower the risk of them developing cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis formation by increased LDL cholesterol concentration (Schofield et al., 2016). Table 4 displays the class results for the triglyceride assay. The between-run precision of these results was evaluated to measure the random error in the two assays carried out. For control 1, two outliers were identified. These are highlighted red in this table. The first class result had two values obtained for control 1. The first result obtained by this person was significantly higher than the other class results, while the other result was in line with class results. The reason for their first result being elevated is perhaps that twice the required volume of 20µl of the control was pipetted into the eppendorf rather than just the required 10µl. All other class results for this control were similar in value. For control 3 in this same assay, three outliers were identified. The first class result again was twice the triglyceride concentration of the rest of the class. The reason for this most likely being that double the control volume was pipetted into the eppendorf. The fourth class result, being the individual result, was also an outlier and is highlighted in red. It is lower compared to the rest of the class results. A reason for this may be that the sample was not vortexed sufficiently, causing a non-homogenous solution of control and reagent, resulting in the absorbance reading to be low and thus, the triglyceride concentration to be low Another reason could be that not the exact 10µl was added to the eppendorf, leading to a low absorbance reading as this is such a minute volume to be pipetted accurately. Control 1 for this individual result was within that of the class results and is highlighted green. The fifth class result for this control was also higher than the other class results. It again, is almost double of the other results, indicating that more than 10µl was added to the eppendorf. The mean, standard deviation and % coefficient of variation (%CV) was calculated for the class results including and without the outliers. A significant difference is seen with both the standard deviation and %CV for these results. The mean is the average of the results obtained. The standard deviation gives an indication of the variation within the results obtained and how spread out they are from the mean of the results. A standard deviation that is low signifies that the results are close to the mean obtained. The %CV gives the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean of the results obtained. A %CV less than 5% indicates good precision. The %CV obtained for both controls with the outliers is almost twice that of the %CV without the outliers. Both %CV’s calculated without the outliers are greater than the ideal %CV of 5, showing imprecision of the replicates. In a clinical setting if the controls were not within the target range, they cannot be accepted and the assay would have to be again repeated. The patient results, as a result of this can also not be released. Table 4 also displays the class results for controls 1 and 3 used in the total cholesterol assay. There are many outliers for both controls 1 and 3 in this assay. Again, the first class result for both of these controls is significantly higher than the other class results. These results are greater than double the value of the other class results, emphasising that perhaps they added twice the required volume of control to each eppendorf, causing the total cholesterol concentration to be so high. Similarly the sixth class result for control 1 is double the concentration of the other class results, indicating they made the same error as the previous person. The fourteenth class result shows poor duplicate samples for both controls that are again a result of twice the volume of control being added to the eppendorfs, due to poor adherence to the assay procedure. The %CV including the outliers showed an extremely high level of imprecision. The ideal %CV of 5 was greatly exceeded due to a high mean and standard deviation. Without the outliers, a vast difference was seen in the %CV. However, they were still above 5 for both controls. The precision of both of the control results could have been improved if the class adhered to the procedure of each assay correctly and added the correct volume of control to each eppendorf and vortexed the eppendorf’s sufficiently prior to the incubation period. The precision for these results could be increased if each of the controls were read 20 to 50 times as this amount of repeatability is a good estimate of precision. The variables such as different students reading the controls, the two different reagents used and difference in adherence to procedure all contributed to the imprecision of the control results (Westgard and Westgard, 2013). In all, the lipid profile consisting of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were carried out on both control 1 and 3 and the five patient samples. Both patient’s 2 and 5 were discussed in terms of the case studies given and the lipid profile results obtained for each. The cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations obtained for controls 1 and 3 by the class and the individual results were discussed and compared to each other in terms of precision. References Schofield, J., Liu, Y., Rao-Balakrishna, P., Malik, R. and Soran, H. (2016). Diabetes Dyslipidemia. Diabetes Therapy [Online] 7, pp.203–219. Available at: [Accessed on: 2nd November 2018] Varghese, M. (2014). Familial hypercholesterolemia: A review. Annals of Pediatric Cardiology [Online] 7(2), pp.107–117. Available at: [Accessed on: 1st November 2018] Westgard, J. and Westgard, S. (2013). Total Analytic Error. AACC. [Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 2nd November 2018] Practical Risk Assessment Form Practical title: Total cholesterol and triglyceride estimation using the Randox Assay Kits and the comparison and evaluation of the class results for Controls 1 and 3, using both of these assays. Practical description: Give a brief description of work to be undertaken and the nature of the materials and techniques to be used. Pipetting reagent and patient plasma, controls and calibrator samples. Vortexing samples. Using a spectrophotometer to read the absorbance of each sample. Hazard High Medium Low Current control measures for this hazard Options for improved controls Chemical: Randox Triglyceride Reagent Randox Cholesterol Reagent Both of these reagents contain sodium azide. These controls are skin irritants. They may cause irritation to respiratory tract if inhaled or ingested. X X Wearing gloves Wearing lab coat Having the lab coat buttoned up properly Not touching skin etc., while reagent may be spilled on gloves to avoid skin contact and ingestion. Cleaning up any spills of the reagents. Electrical: VMK lab dancer vortex. UV spectrophotometer. If the wires come in contact with liquid or if wires are exposed, the vortex and spectrophotometer may catch fire. X X Correct use of vortex. Cleaning up spills. Not damaging plug or wires Keeping the wires away from the vortex itself when in operation. Cleaning up all liquid spills on the workbench.
Modernist Disillusionment in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” Unlike the romantic period that preceded it, the modernist literary movement reflected the feelings of a Lost Generation affected by industrialization and war trauma. As such, modernist literature often employs cynical or detached worldviews in angsty tones. The most famous writer of the movement, T.S Eliot, explored modernist themes of disillusionment through poetry. One of his poems,”The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” focuses on the theme of indecisiveness as a symptom of modernization in society. T.S Eliot’s “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” is representative of the modernist literary canon through its exploration of the speaker’s personal feelings of anxiety and stagnation. The repetition of questions and refrains in “The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock” is used to express the speaker’s self-doubt and insecurity in a modernized, changing society. The poem primarily focuses on the speaker’s inability to talk to women, and how this relates to his fragile self-esteem as a whole. Throughout the poem, the speaker repeats,”In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo” (lines 13-14). This repeated observation of the women coming and going serves as a disruption to the speaker’s hypothetical dialogue with the woman he loves. He is unable to approach women because they intimidate him, especially in a new society where women are more educated and independent. The speaker also uses repetition by questioning himself ,”How should I presume?” (line 54). The question follows his memories of past rejections, wavering his resolve to pursue a woman romantically. He is so paralyzed by his insecurity that he cannot even hold a conversation. This repetition is significant because it shows the speaker questioning his place in society, a common theme in modernist writing. Eliot’s poem also incorporates multiple allusions to classic literary works, which are indicative of modernist skepticism of tradition. The references come from varied texts, including the Bible, Dante, Chaucer, and Greek philosophers, but Eliot especially focuses on Shakespeare. In one stanza, the speaker laments “No! I am not Prince Hamlet, nor was meant to be; Am an attendant lord, one that will do To swell a progress, start a scene or two” (lines 111-113). Here, the speaker feels a lack of personal agency, and only sees himself as an extension of others; he will only ever be in a supporting role for those who lead. J. Alfred Prufrock will never lead a progress like Chaucer, or woo a coy mistress like Marvell, just like he will never be the Hamlet or Lazarus he wishes he was. He is too scared to even try. Classical allusions like this are a signature of the modernist writing, where the traditional is used as a framework for contemplating the contemporary. These allusions are meant to show the speaker’s weakness, of what he can never attain.They are not used for glorifying the past, but for questioning the present. In the poem, the speaker’s fear of inadequacy with women is connected to his larger fear of aging and mortality, and shows his existential crisis. When trying to gather the courage to pursue his romantic interest, the speaker resigns “I am no prophet – and here’s no great matter; I have seen the moment of my greatness flicker, And I have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and snicker, And in short, I was afraid” (lines 83-86). The speaker sees his social awkwardness as more than just situational; it is the story of his life, the only thing that defines his character. In every small failed interaction, he feels that his life has no importance, and that any instance of success is fleeting. He imagines Death, the “eternal Footman,” mocking him, just as he imagines women mocking him. Through this imagery, the speaker imagines his failure to win over the woman he loves as the literal death of him. By connecting romantic insecurity with existential insecurity, T.S. Eliot explores both the small- and large-scale implications of modernist thought. Modernist literature differed from previous literary movements in its exploration of the internal mind, rather than the external world. Although deeply affected by external societal issues (industrialization, imperialism, war), modernist style primarily focuses on personal psyche. Modernist literary works often take the form of stream-of-consciousness, or in the case of “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” dramatic monologue, rarely with any input of interpersonal dialogue. By turning the narrative inward, modernism sought to expose how the world at large can impact the individual body and mind. “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” remains a primary example of modernism because of its ability to make the reader connect so personally with the speaker’s internal conflicts, and consequently understand the external conflicts of the early 20th century. Works Cited Eliot, T. S. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. N.p.: n.p., 1915. Print.
Table of Contents Literature review Arguments Factors that influence the success of positive reinforcers Withdrawal of positive reinforcement References Literature review Over the years a lot of research has been conducted on the identification modification and evaluation of variables that affect changes in human behaviour. As it were there is a great history associated to the quest for a solution to this all too common problem that cuts across the cultural regional, societal and social divide. However, little progress has been made in the management and control of incidences of behavioral changes among young people. Few if any of behavioral scientists have engaged their energies in the search for an ideal behavioral management scheme for the young people. This has exposed the needy society of a host of speculative untested measures which often lead to negative or no results. It is rather ironical that there is little information on behavioral change in young people at a time when behavioral sciences are increasingly broadening and expanding to provide answers to societal questions such as delinquency. A lot of the little interest in the subject, many has been on delinquency its causes and effects. The rest has been left to humanitarians seeking to assist children in marginalized areas or disadvantaged situations. School conditions have been said to contribute to the motivated change in young people. These conditions highly influence the productivity of a student and their tendency to engage in social or antisocial behaviour. For instance, lack of clarity of school rules, ineffective instruction as well as in relaxed enforcement of rules provides an opportunity for the student to engage in reproachable behavior as a way of expressing dissatisfaction. The challenge becomes even greater with students studying English for speakers of other languages due to their diverse cultural backgrounds and conceptions of life. They come with different talents and experiences leaving the responsibility to their supervisors to create a harmonious and conducive reading and learning environment. Arguments Behavioral research indicates that the most appropriate way to manage behavioral problems is by employment of positive reinforcement. Behavioral scientists have narrowed down the concept by defining a positive reinforcer as any circumstance or event that heightens with a measurable amount, the subsequent recurrence of certain behaviour. The most common of these reinforces include the following Material reinforcers Social reinforcers Activity reinforcers Token reinforcers Material reinforcers are the material objects and items presented to the individual once they engage in a positive act or behaviour. They are the tangible benefits that accrue to the individual after they undertake appropriate behaviour. Such reinforcers include food, water (soda, juice) or even skill. These can be categorized into primary and contingent reinforcers. Primary reinforces necessarily include those that are basic biological needs. Contingent material reinforcers include pencils toys and awards Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social reinforcers on the other hand are a representation of the mental fulfillment derived from the undertaking of appropriate behaviour. The potency of this toll of reinforcement has been voucher for effectiveness especially in the teacher student relationship in the influencing of a broad variety of behaviors. They take the form of verbal praise, approval (a smile, a hug) or being noticed. Activity reinforces are the choices available to a youngster in the undertaking of an activity. The freedom to choose is granted to the teenager once they engage in appropriate behaviour. The individual cloud be allowed for instance to choose between doing their assignments or homework or playing video games for a certain period. Even though the latter is a compulsory activity the individual is allowed to choose when to undertake the activity. The behaviour manager however limits the length of time that the individual undertakes each activity. Token reinforces on the other hand are employed as a last resort of social activity and material reinforcers. They take the form of symbolic items such as stars points or chips that are earned each time the individual engages in appropriate behaviour. These fall in the place of the above three tools and can be used to reinforce a wide range of activities at once. Of these tools the social reinforcers are the easiest to use and implement. They require little costs and can be repeated more than once without causing monotony. It however is less effective as a beginning strategy in the behaviour influence process. The use of material reinforcers proves more effective at the preliminary stages when the behaviour is aggressive and disruptive Token reinforcement also proves fruitful at the initial stage since the child is able to make a record of their progress of desirable behaviour. It also provides a basis for justification to the child and by the behavioral manager of the benefit and need to adopt desirable behaviour. Kaplan and Carter (1995) suggest that before the behaviour manager can choose tokens as a reinforcement tool they should consider among other things the following. We will write a custom Essay on Aspect of intervention relating to behavior in Esl, Esol elementary students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The criteria to be followed in evaluating a child for the award of a token. There should be a set list of the specific behaviors that if successfully undertaken will equal to a certain number of points. The type of tokens should also be ascertained. The behavioral manager should indicate to the child, what the token will be. For instance the token should be relevant to the age of the child. They should not be easy to forge or implicate. The manager should also set the number of tokens to be awarded for certain behaviors. The amount should be achievable and not too easy to ensure that the child recognizes the challenge. Proponents of the token economy suggest that the teenager may simply be asked what it is that they wish to be awarded as a token. It is arguable that this limits the choices available to the child since they are not going to choose from what they don’t know. They suggest a solution to this problem by providing three guidelines to assisting the child make a choice (Carr, 1981). The teacher evaluates the effectiveness of an event as a reinforcer. This is done by documenting the effects of the event in question on the child. This is achieved by requiring that the event be repeated over and over during which times thee reactions and reflections of the youngster in so far as happiness or sadness at the beginning and end of the event is concerned (Kendall, 1993). The freedom of choice gives a teenager a sense of control and reduces the chances of rejection of the reinforcement approach as a way to influence the youngster’s behavior. It is important that he be allowed access to the available options even those that are not viable. The behavior manager then explains the reasons that make these choices not viable. Evaluation of behavior is difficult especially in measurable terms. The behavior manager can therefore go round this problem by issuing small questioners (Tharp and Wetzel 1969)which in substance comprise of incomplete sentences which the teenager responds to in accordance with their view of the reinforces availed to them. Factors that influence the success of positive reinforcers As opposed to negative reinforcement, positive reinforcements object is to motivate the repetition of certain behaviors in a child. They increase the chances that the behavior will be repeated by the teenager. There are several factors that influence the success of the execution of this cause (Harris, 1988). Contingency- straight forward as it is this rule escapes the actual importance that should be awarded to it. The youngster should have an explicit view of the connection between the desirable behavior that the reinforcement seeks to encourage and the reward that accrues to that obedience. There should be an indefinite connection between the overall concept of good behavior and the contingency management efforts. Immediacy- the ability of a child to connect the reinforcement and the good behavior runs on a short span of concentration that depends on the length of time between the behavior and the reinforcement. The shorter the time, the higher the chances that the child will connect the relationship between these two events. Immediacy reduces the ambiguity as to which specific behavior preceding the reinforcement is actually being condoned. Lack of immediacy could send the wrong impression especially if the good behavior is immediately followed by reproachable behavior. Not sure if you can write a paper on Aspect of intervention relating to behavior in Esl, Esol elementary students by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consistency– the prescription of positive reinforcement delivers results gradually and with little dramatic showdown. It is therefore important that the reinforcement be done regularly and consistently. Consistency goes to the ends of ensuring that the reinforcement remains objective to a specific positive behavior. Frequency- The teenager’s behavioral repertoire will only be ascertained at the preliminary stage of reinforcement by ensuring that there is a high frequency in the contingency management efforts by the behavioral manager. During this phase there is no specific objectified behavior that the teacher will be addressing the complement to. However after the establishment of the repeated good behavior he will focus on the encouragement of this behavior in future. Amount- the distinction and association between learning and performance by the child lies in the amount o reinforcement they are issued with. However the influence of this rule tends to bend more on the performance rather than the learning aspect. As it were the chances that the teenager learns a new behavior with the promise of a high reward are virtually equal to chances that they will learn the behavior with a promise of a lower reward. On the contrary they are less likely to perform such behavior with the promise of a lesser reward than if they were promised a greater on e. Variety- Like all other contingency management measures, positive reinforcement is prone to monotony. Monotony extinguishes the challenge and makes the teenager less interested in the reinforcement mechanism. It is therefore important that the teacher maintains a reasonable selection of reinforcement options to encourage and stimulate interest in the teenager. It also ensures that the effect of the reinforcement and the subsequent responsiveness are maintained at progressive levels. This means varying the content of the reinforcement comments. They could even be adjusted to gain the context of the specific event for instance, “you actually listened” Withdrawal of positive reinforcement The ultimate goal of the contingency management efforts embodied in positive reinforcenet goes to the instruction and control of the child’s behavior. They are an attempt at adjusting the youngsters’ behavior to meet the social moral societal and legal standards and prescriptions of good and acceptable behavior. Reinforcements seek to rearrange and re-evaluate the teenagers behavioral repertoire to reduce if not eliminate the occurrences of antisocial and undesirable behaviors that appear in the form of aggression negative and disruptive character. The above mentioned procedures amount to a prescriptive process that drives the teenager towards this course. Upon achievement of this goal raises the need to withdraw the support offered by reinforcement to give war for maturity and adoption of the new behavioral repertoire. Research indicates that the most effective way to withdraw positive reinforcement is through extinction. It embodies the withdrawal of reinforcement of certain behaviors that would in normal circumstances, be reinforced. The question as to when withdrawal or extinction will occur is purely a matter of the teacher’s management philosophy and his stretch of tolerance to deviance. Depending on the extent of the variables such as the age, sex and status of the child the teacher decides the leeway which the child will be allowed in as far as deviance is concerned (Barry
Table of Contents Executive Summary Company Summary Airports in Muscat Opportunity Description Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Execution Plan Financial Plan Conclusions Executive Summary Oman Air is a four-star international airline company operating largely in the GCC and the Middle East. It is the largest air company in the Oman Sultanate and the second-largest carrier in the region. As it stands, it sports a fleet of 47 air carriers and operates 50 flight routes. The Qatar-GCC crisis of 2016 presents a major opportunity to claim leadership over the region, as Qatar Airlines, Oman Air’s primary competitor and the current largest airline company in the Middle East, is suffering from sanctions imposed by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt, which prevents it from crossing their airspace and significantly limits the company’s operating capabilities. Facing no such restrictions, Oman Air has the opportunity to greatly expand its operations in Qatar to cater to thousands of potential customers now unable to freely leave their country. This business proposal suggests renting or purchasing seven additional airliners and establishing a branch office at Hamad International Airport in Doha to support the operation. Estimated revenues from the first operational year are at 300 million dollars and are expected to grow the longer Oman Air maintains its dominant position in the existing political climate. Company Summary Oman Air is a four-star international airline operating from Muscat International Airport in Seeb since 1993. The company is the primary air service in the Sultanate of Oman and a second-tier carrier in the region, right after Qatar Airlines, which, until recently, held a dominant position in most aspects of commercial flights. Oman Air’s aircraft fleet currently accounts at 47 individual carriers outfitted for passenger and cargo flights. Oman Air provides timely and quality services to its customers at an affordable price. Some of the services offered by Oman Air are scheduled regional and international flights, charter flights, and air taxi services. The company receives governmental support, as the Omani government owns over 80% of the company’s shares since 2007, which increased to 99.8% by 2010. Ever since, Oman Air had seen perpetual growth, increasing the number of destinations served up to 50, and growing its air fleet with an end goal of 50 – one per destination. To accomplish that goal, the company purchased new Airbus and Boeing models as well as leased several planes from Kenya Airlines to increase the volume passenger transports and to renovate some of the remnants of the old carrier fleet. Oman Air values quality and comfort and seeks to deliver a seamless passenger experience, which reflects the number of awards that the company received over the past 8 years. Some of the include Best Business Destinations Awards of 2011-2013 and 2015-2016, Best Business Class Airline of 2016, and Best Inflight Connectivity and Communications Award of 2011. As a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization, the company provides various offers to its customers, which include frequent flyer programs and Islamic in-flight services. Airports in Muscat The current hub for Oman Air is located in Muscat International Airport, which was known as Seeb International Airport before being renamed in 2008. The airport has existed since 1974 and has a total area of 5250 sq. acres. As the importance of the region grew, the airport was expanded several times to accommodate the increased numbers of passengers. In 2008, the estimated airport capacity was 4 million passengers per year. It has been steadily growing by 1 million per year ever since 2009. The airport’s yearly passenger capacity is 14 million passengers as of 2017. The current configuration of Muscat International Airport features a T-shaped terminal, 56 counters, 23 departure gates, and four baggage belts. Due to Muscat becoming an international transportation hub, the construction of a new terminal was in order. Estimated to be completed in the first half of 2018, the new Muscat airport terminal is going to become the main terminal due to its state-of-the-art features and increased passenger capacity. It will be able to accommodate 12 million passengers and extra-large air carriers such as the Airbus A-380. The old terminal would be outfitted to accommodate low-cost flyers. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new terminal building will cover the area of 580,000 sq. meters and provide double the number of check-in counters (96 in total) and 30 aircraft remote stands. The terminal will have the capacity for potential expansions to 20, 26, 40, and 56 million passengers per year, should the necessity arise. After the airport terminal is completed, Oman Air will likely move its hub activities to the new terminal and leave a functioning group to handle its low-cost carrier operations in the old terminal. Opportunity Description The opportunity for Oman Air arises from the current political situation surrounding Qatar. As it stands, it is experiencing a territorial and economic blockade from Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the UAE, and Egypt. Some of the sanctions have severely limited the capabilities of Qatar Airlines, the primary carrier in the region, to conduct its operation in these countries. Qatar Airlines is forbidden to make charter flights and even enter the airspace of the countries mentioned above. Its international flights are currently conducted through Iranian airspace, which increased the costs and duration of the flights, making them less attractive for foreign and domestic customers. This crisis faced by Oman Air’s primary competitor allows the company to claim a larger market share and fill in the power vacuum that was left after Qatar Airlines had its wings cut by various sanctions. As Oman Air is free to fly wherever it wants, the company has the opportunity to increase its transportation services both in and out of Qatar. Doing so, however, would require increasing the number of routes and establishing a secondary base within one of Qatar’s major airports. Thus, the opportunity presented in this proposal is related to growing the company’s service capabilities and establishing a branch in Hamad International Airport, which is one of the largest airports in Qatar, located in Doha. Such a move would ensure Oman Air’s long-term presence in the country and increase its market share by taking customers away from sanctioned Qatar Airlines. Market Analysis As it stands, the market conditions for Oman Air are favorable. According to Owler, the main competitors of the company are American Airlines, British Airways, and Qatar Airlines. American and British companies represent a threat only when it comes to international transportation, their market share in GCC countries, and the Middle East is relatively small. Qatar Airlines, as it was already stated, is the largest airline company in the GCC, but with the current political climate, it is unable to live up to its full potential, leaving many customers that want to fly to or from Qatar in relative isolation. The largest Saudi Arabian air companies, such as Air Arabia, Emirates, and Etihad Airways have joined the blockade and quit all air routes to or from Qatar. This represents a unique situation for Oman Air in the Qatari air transportation market since a good portion of it is left without a reliable air operator. According to Forbes, the ongoing crisis leftover 100,000 Egyptians living and working in Qatar without any reliable means of traveling home. With the ongoing political crisis promising to last for an undetermined amount of time due to repetitive diplomatic failures on the part of Qatar and Kuwait, which tries to play the role of the mediator in this conflict, Oman Air faces virtually no competition in claiming the Qatari market. It is a well-established and respected company in GCC and the Middle East, whereas its foreign competitors do not have the same reputation. At the same time, smaller domestic airlines do not have the logistical network, and the air fleet required to address the needs of Qatari customers. We will write a custom Proposal on Oman Air Company: Business Proposal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT Analysis SWOT is a classic marketing analysis framework that helps underline the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with any business venture. It is popular due to its intuitiveness and simplicity of use. This proposal provides a SWOT analysis of the existing plan to help address its potential weaknesses and provide contingency plans. Strengths: The plan is within Oman Air’s capability to execute, as it has a large air fleet and Qatar has the infrastructure capable of supporting the company’s expansion into the region. A lack of opposition in the market. A large customer base in need of reliable transportation. High demand. Weaknesses: The necessity to expand the company’s air fleet to preserve the existing airlines and schedules. The necessity of opening a branch in Qatar. Opportunities: Oman Air has a chance of becoming the region’s new primary air company. Significant expansion of the customer base. Getting a foothold in Qatar. Elimination of the company’s prime competitor. Significant income increase in the long-term perspective. Threats: An abrupt end of the existing political crisis. The event of the crisis escalating to include Oman and bringing an end to its freedom of maneuver. The Qatari government imposing sanctions against Oman Air to protect its leading air company. The economic crisis hurting Qatari ability to travel. As it is possible to see from the analysis provided above, the main threats to the expansion of Oman Air into Qatar are external in that they lie outside of the company’s control. However, due to the nature of the crisis and Qatar’s need to provide transportation for its citizens, the threats presented here are unlikely to present themselves before Oman Air manages to establish a firm grip on the Qatari air market, after which its position as the country’s dominant air company would be relatively secure. Execution Plan The execution plan for the proposed business venture involves two steps. The first step is purchasing or renting passenger aircraft to accommodate the additional influx of customers from Qatar. The estimated number of planes required to comfortably handle the initial load of customers is seven. While purchasing the planes is the most reliable way, the construction of seven planes by any plane manufacturer would take time and money. Renting aircraft from other companies would provide a faster way of expanding the air fleet at lesser initial costs. At the same time, should the political tides shift, and it would become unprofitable for Oman Air to maintain the expanded fleet, the aircraft could be returned to their original owners to save costs. Several companies are readily available to rent aircraft to Oman Air. One is Kenyan Airlines, which Oman Air already rents two airships from on a regular basis. Since it is a reliable partner, they would be given first priority when establishing a rent contract. The other company that could provide the required planes is Intrepid Aviation – an American company with offices located in Ireland and the USA. The company specializes in leasing modern and fuel-efficient wide-body and narrow-body aircraft. Their air fleet consists of Airbus, Boeing, and Dreamliner models. Should there be a necessity to purchase additional aircraft, Oman Air could always contact either Boeing or Airbus – the primary aircraft manufacturers in the world. Bombardier, Dreamliner, and Sukhoi companies may present additional options. At the same time with the purchasing of planes, negotiations must be made with the Qatari government and airport officials to allow Oman Air to open its representative post at Hamad International Airport in Doha. Once that is done, the additional aircraft should be moved to Doha in order to resume operations on a daily basis and open airlines to Egypt, Turkey, Europe, and other countries that would see the most demand. The expansion plan will likely mirror the most profitable routes ran by Qatar Airlines before the crisis. Financial Plan The following financial plan includes the potential expense estimations for renting and maintaining additional aircraft, maintaining an office in Hamad International Airport, as well as various additional expenses associated with personnel, counseling, and document issues that may arise. They are presented in table form for ease of use: No. Position Name Estimated Costs (dollars, per year) 1 Renting aircraft 22 million * 7 = 154 mil. 2 Renting office space 12.000 3 Pilot and crew salaries 1.458 mil. 4 Office personnel 540.000 5 Communications and supportive personnel 1.425 mil. 6 Administrative personnel 460.000 7 Fuel and materials 50 mil. 8 Maintenance 25 mil. 9 Sales Forecast Circa 300 mil. Sales forecasts for the first year are estimated at 300 million dollars, which is more than enough to cover the expenses for renting aircraft and paying for all and any associated expenses. Sales are expected to grow during the second and third years, as more and more customers would elect Oman airlines over any other company due to availability, quality, and swiftness of transfers when compared to smaller companies and Qatar airlines. Conclusions Oman Air possesses a one-of-a-kind opportunity to dethrone its competitor, which is Qatar Airlines, on its own turf, and turn the unstable and difficult political situation surrounding Qatar into a financial victory. Potential revenues during the first year are enough to cover the expenses of the venture, and are likely to continue to grow the longer this crisis continues. Given the nature of the conflict, it is estimated that the political and economic blockade would be maintained for at least 3 to 5 more years, which gives time for the company to establish itself as the new leader in regional air transfers. In terms of risk-reward, this venture offers significant rewards at relatively low risks, as the following business proposal outlines a plan with relatively high returns in the event of an early bailout. Not sure if you can write a paper on Oman Air Company: Business Proposal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

MGT 401 Saudi Electronic University Samsung Strategic Management Discussion

MGT 401 Saudi Electronic University Samsung Strategic Management Discussion.

I’m working on a management multi-part question and need support to help me understand better.

The 3 assignments of this course will be parts of a project
– Part 1 ( Done )
– Part 2 ( Done )
– Part 3 ( I want you to solve this part )
I will attach the file for the first and second parts, so that you can read it and complete the solution of the third part
hope that you read my instructions here and the instructions in the file well

MGT 401 Saudi Electronic University Samsung Strategic Management Discussion

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As of March 2018, Macy’s, Inc. operates 690 department stores in 45 states, Washington DC, and outside the USA in Colombia, Guam, Puerto Rico, China, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait with third party license agreements. Headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, the company’s brands include Macy’s, Bloomingdales, and Bluemercury. Most stores are located in urban or suburban areas and include a mix of apparel, accessories, cosmetics, home furnishings and various other consumer goods. Macy’s reported revenues in excess of $25 billion in the year ending January 2017 deriving from 382 company-owned stores and the rest being leasedProvide the situational analysis of Macy’s along with background information about the company. Include following information The Environment – PESTLE AnalysisPolitical environmentEconomic environmentSocial environmentTechnological environmentLegal/Regulatory environmentEnvironmental environment The Industry – Porter’s Five Forces AnalysisBargaining power of suppliersThreat of new entrantRivalry among existing competitorsBargaining power of competitorsThreat of substitutes
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help answer this questions.

s part of a districtwide initiative to address a bullying problem, a middle school counselor was asked to implement a new bully prevention program at the middle school. The counselor was tasked with selecting the “right” program for her school. Part of the program involved teaching group guidance lessons to large groups (20-25), as well as some targeted group counseling interventions with a select population. The school board also asked that data be provided upon completion in order to determine program effectiveness.How would you go about choosing a bully prevention program? What specific factors would you look for in a program? Would you utilize consultation in the process and if so, who would you consult with and how would you approach the consultation process? What are two important goals of group guidance and group counseling for the participating students? What are some things to consider when selecting members for the targeted group counseling intervention? Describe one developmentally appropriate technique or strategy the counselor could use to achieve each goal you have identified.What assessments and assessment procedures (both formal and informal) would you consider using for this project to evaluate program effectiveness? In other words, how will you collect data to determine program effectiveness? How would you communicate the results to the students and staff at your school, the school board and the community?What multicultural, developmental and ethical considerations need to be made? Utilize the ASCA and ACA Code of Ethics as well as federal and state laws as needed.
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Grossmont College Does The USA Need More Immigrants or Less Immigrants Essay

Grossmont College Does The USA Need More Immigrants or Less Immigrants Essay.

Immigrants (Graded Assignment)Write a minimum of 2 paragraphs answering the following question:Does the USA need more immigrants or less immigrants? Be sure that in your answers you demonstrate that you have read the following articles:Essential Workers (Links to an external site.)Does the USA need more immigrants? (Links to an external site.)Comparing USA, Canada and Australia immigration policy. (Links to an external site.)Language and Immigrants (Links to an external site.)Your answers to the questions must be of substantial quality in order to get points. Substantial quality includes a demonstration that you have completed the required readings and videos and thought critically about them. Your answers must be original, use your own ideas and words. Do not copy from any website or written material from another person. RubricWriting Assignment (1)Writing Assignment (1)CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCompletion2 pts3 well written paragraphs focused on the topic1 ptsMissing paragraphMissing one or more paragraphs.0 ptsNo paragraphs or paragraphs do not answer the questions.2 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRequired readings4 ptsDemonstrates comprehension of readings1 ptsDemonstrate partial comprehension of readings.0 ptsNo comprehension of readings.4 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOriginality4 ptsOriginal ideas using student’s own words.2 ptsIdeas or words presented are common knowledge.0 ptsNo originality in words and ideas.4 ptsTotal Points: 10
Grossmont College Does The USA Need More Immigrants or Less Immigrants Essay