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Torsional, Axial and Lateral Bottom Hole Assembly Vibrations

Experimental investigation of torsional, axial and lateral bottom hole assembly vibrations 1. Introduction Introduction The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and the most globalized industry in the world. Petroleum products include plastics, fuels, ointments and many more. With increases in world population, consumption and demand of petroleum products have increased. Primarily petroleum products are used as energy sources. With an increase in demand, different, unconventional sources are being explored. Drilling in itself is a complex process due to the unknown formations in the earth. A hole is drilled in the earth with a bit, and tubulars are attached to it to provide axial force and rotation. The tubulars are hollow through which the drilling fluid is circulated to extract the cut rock. Once the hole is drilled, the bit and tubulars are taken out, and a larger tubular is pushed down the hole and cemented around the annulus to stop the hole from caving in. The process is the same as drilling a water well but with greater depth, pressures, temperatures and complexities. Some of the oil and gas sources are too deep or too complex to be explored, but with advanced technological development in drilling, extended reach, multilateral and horizontal wells, it is now possible to extract unconventional oil and gas. Vibrations When an entity oscillates around its equilibrium point, the entity is said to be in vibration. In most of the cases vibrations are undesirable, as they cause harm to the system and dissipate energy. When force or energy is imparted to a system, vibrations occur. In absence of external excitation, the vibrations are called free vibrations. Systems in state of free vibrations oscillate with natural frequencies, which are dependent on the properties of system. With the presence of external excitation, vibrations experienced by the system are called forced vibrations. Vibrations become increasingly large and are most damaging when the excitation frequency is close to one of the natural frequencies. This phenomenon is called resonance. When there is an energy dissipation from the system in terms of heat, sound, friction or any other method, the resulting vibrations are called damped vibrations. The drillstring assembly is a very long, slender system prone to excessive vibration due to the various forces acting on it. Primary forces on the BHA are torque due to rotation and bit rock interaction, axial forces due to gravity and lateral forces due to bending of the long pipe and hitting the walls of the borehole. Types of Drillstring Vibrations Drillstring vibrations are categorized based on the forces acting on it, which are Torsional, Axial and Lateral forces. These forces correspond to the three types of vibration: 1) Torsional vibrations, 2) Axial vibrations and 3) Lateral vibrations. Torsional Vibrations: Drillstring is rotated from the surface to provide torque or shear force to cut the rock. 3. Experimental Setup A lab-scale drilling rig was constructed for the purpose of competing in Drillbotics International Student Competition. OU Drillbotics team participated and won the competition in 2015. The budget restrictions limited the quality and quantity of sensors mounted on the rig. The rig was upgraded in 2016 with the additional budget. The following sections describe the rig setup and sensors installed, dividing them based on the systems: (i) Rig Structure, (ii) Hoisting System, (iii) Rotary System, (iv) Circulation System, (v) Measurement, Instrumentation and Control System and (vi) Drillstring Assembly. Rig Structure Rig Structure consists of three major parts: substructure, mast and travelling block. Rig Substructure In-house built structures have been found to be significantly cheaper than readymade structures in the market. Moreover, the former provides flexibility in the selection of dimensions, load ratings and design styles. This substructure was designed to pass through doors, so the rig could be used for future educational purposes. The rig substructure was constructed using 1½” square-iron tubing with overall dimensions of 84″ x 27″ x 36″. To allow rig mobility, five commercial grade caster wheels were installed, each with load capacity of 1000 lbs. A 47″ x 27″ shelf made of ¼” thick iron sheet was added for installation of circulation system and electrical box. This left the rig with a space of 37″ x 27″ x 36″ to accommodate the rock sample. 3.1.2 Mast A mast of cantilever design was constructed out of Aluminium, as shown in Fig. 3.1. Figure 3.1: Rig mast laid down on the substructure top Constructing the mast with aluminium reduced the weight by 2.5 times to that made by steel. A 10-inch-wide C-Channel was supported by two 90 angle bars. The base was attached to the table with hinges for reclining and easy transport of the rig. 3.1.3 Travelling Block The travelling block slides on a pair of linear guide rails attached to the mast. Linear roller bearings or pillow blocks attached to the back of the travelling block provide near smooth motion. Two horizontal plates were bolted on the vertical plate. The upper plate acted as a mount for the AC motor and lower plate supported the swivel. A torque sensor was placed in between motor shaft and swivel. The total weight of the travelling block was measured to be 77.72 lbs. Figure 3.2: Travelling Block Assembly 3.2 Hoisting System Hoisting system components include a double acting air cylinder, pneumatic lines, a couple of pneumatic convertors (Fig. A.1 and Fig. A.2) and a compressed air supply line. Regulated compressed air-line up to 130 psi was hooked up to the pneumatic convertors. Two pneumatic lines from the convertors of maximum capacity 120 psi controlled the air flow and connected to the inlet ports of the dual acting piston. Dual acting air piston has a 1.125 inch bore and a 36-inch stroke length. The system has a capacity to hoist a load of 119.28 lbs. 3.3 Rotary System A top drive system was installed with a 1 HP motor and a maximum RPM of 1170 on the motor mount of the travelling block. The motor shaft is connected to the omega torque sensor via a spring coupling. The torque sensor has a rotating shaft to shaft configuration with an operating speed of 5000 RPM. The torque sensor is connected to the swivel via another spring coupling. The swivel was designed and fabricated in-house with pressure rating of 300 psi and brass outer body for corrosion resistance. The chrome plated rod is wear-resistant to the abrasion of the seals. Swivel rod is attached to an adapter at the base of the bottom plate. A four bolt flange mounted ball bearing prevents any load from being transmitted to the rotary assembly. 3.4 Circulation System It is important to remove cuttings from the hole to drill further ahead. To accomplish this, water, oil and foam based drilling fluids were taken into consideration. Water from the city line without any additives was chosen as drilling fluid after taking cost of a closed loop system for recirculation and cost of additives and base fluids into account. It was also assumed that the effect of drilling fluid on drillstring vibrations was negligible. A roller pump with a pressure rating of 300 psi was installed to circulate the water down the drillstring assembly. A 1.5 HP 3-phase motor powers the pump. The Omega digital display flow meter, which was installed after the pump, can monitor flowrate up to 15 GPM. Pressure monitoring is done by a pressure transducer of rating 500 psi. Pressure fluctuation of up to 50 psi was observed due to intermittent flow supplied by the roller pump. A pressure dampener was built with spare couplings and installed upstream to the flow meter. This provided smooth and stable flow. An analog pressure gauge was mounted atop the dampener to monitor fluctuation. Rubber hose with a pressure rating of 300 psi connects the flow meter with the swivel. Drilling fluid from the swivel then flows into the drillstring and comes out of the bit nozzles and out of the hole through the annulus. As the drilling fluid is just water, it is passed down the sewer line along with the cuttings and not recirculated. 3.5 Measurement, Instrumentation and Control System The Measurement, Instrumentation and Control system is the most important system in the automated rig. The sensors are mounted on the rig at various places for different functions. They provide analog data to the data acquisition module Omega DAQ-3001. An electrical box is mounted at the bottom shelf for shielding the card and other signal conditioners from electrical interference. The data from the DAQ module transfers into the desktop computer, which is installed on the rig structure for control of the automated rig and storage and display of data. Excel-based VBA program is used for the operation of the rig. 3.5.1 Measurement Sensors Following are the sensors installed on the rig to monitor performance of the rig and drilling process. Displacement Laser Sensor An aluminum strip is attached to the top of the travelling block with a reflective tape stuck on it. A Banner laser sensor is mounted about 0.5 inches above the travelling block on the mast. It can measure maximum displacement up to 3.93 inches with an accuracy between 0.019 inch to 0.039 inch. Lateral Vibration Laser Sensor To measure lateral vibrations of the drillstring, an xyz laser sensor is used. It can measure distance from 1.57 inch to 6.29 inch with an accuracy of less than 20 micrometer. The sensor was earlier mounted on an aluminium plate attached to the travelling assembly. But the strip was long and excessive vibrations due to bit rock interaction caused the strip to vibrate at high amplitude, providing inconclusive and erroneous data. Hence the mounting structure was made of a square iron tubing to give a sturdier structure. The vibration amplitude was then reduced and could be observed only at excessive vibrations due to higher RPM and WOB. Optical RPM Sensor An LED-based, reflective type optical RPM sensor, which can measure up to 15000 RPM, is mounted on the cage of swivel. Reflective tape is stuck on the spring coupling between the swivel and torque sensor. The sensor is mounted at an angle so that the reflective area increases for better measurement. Torque Sensor It is assumed that torque measured by the torque sensor is the torque due to bit-rock interaction. An Omega rotating shaft to shaft torque sensor has been mounted above the swivel with a torque rating of 64 inch-pounds. Axial Vibration Sensor An axial vibration senor is installed at the bottom plate of the travelling block adjacent to the flange mounted ball bearing. The VBT-1 vibration sensor has a micro-electro-mechanical system which sends a voltage proportional to the vibration velocity to the data acquisition module. It measures vibration velocity from 0-25 mm/sec. 3.6 Drillstring Assembly The drillstring assembly comprises of 3 parts, Aluminum pipe, bit sub and bit. The pipe is made of Aluminum 6061 with an OD of 0.375 inch and a thickness of 0.035 inch. Both ends of the pipe have 3/8″ NPT male compression fittings attached on it. It is connected on one end to 3/8″ NPT female brass adapter which is connected to the swivel rod and other end is connected to 3/8″ NPT female bitsub. The bit sub is made out of stainless steel for corrosion resistance. It has 3/8″ female NPT threads on both ends. A roller sleeve with OD of 1.1 inch and ID of 0.9 inch is slide upon the bit sub to act as a stabilizer and provide smooth rotation. It has a counter bore to place constriction of various sizes to change pressure drop in the system. The bit is fabricated in house using stainless steel round bar and machined to replicate the baker huges bit provided for the competition. The cutters were bought from vendors and the OD of the cutters available was 0.5 inch. They are made out of carbide as opposed to the diamond cutters provided and also wears down faster. The cutters are screwed on the cutter faces and are replaceable. 4. Methodology This chapter describes the procedure of the experiments performed and the data collected. It also talks about some assumptions, sensor calibration and data analysis. 4.1 Experimental Procedure The rig and all its components are powered on and the Excel program initiated. The program has a separate sheet which takes the variables of the experimental run as an input. The only variables changed for the set of experiments are RPM and WOB. Another variable, which is the height at which the string starts to rotate was also been varied but it did not have any effect on the data. A pilot hole of 1.25-inch diameter and 1-inch depth was drilled into the rock sample using a coring bit and hammer-chisel to insert a guide shoe in the hole. The 6-inch long guide shoe acted as a borehole wall and prevented bit walking. Using a level indicator, the rock sample was adjusted to be horizontal. The drillstring was the attached to the swivel adapter and rig was then slid over the rock to align the drillstring and the guide shoe. Using the leveling screws the rig was jacked up to be horizontal. The inlet air pressure line and water line were opened up. Once all experimental variables were set, the program was initiated using the Start button. The first step of the program was to hoist the travelling block to the topmost position. At this point a safety bar used to keep the travelling block hoisted was taken away. The travelling block slowly lowered down and once the bit was inside the guide shoe, top-drive motor and pump motor got activated and string started to rotate along with water pressurized inside the pipe. The bit gradually touched the rock and drilling process began. A trial run was carried out to check if the systems were working properly and data was being collected. A couple of millimeters were drilled during the trial run so that the hole got initiated. After a trial run, experimental runs were carried out. Each experiment was run for 6 min and stopped using the Stop button in the program. The pump stopped pumping fluid and drillstring stopped rotation. Travelling block was gradually lifted up to the topmost position. After that new experimental variables were set and the next run was carried out. Experiments were performed on 2 different rock samples. First set on a very hard and compacted sandstone and the other on a very soft unconsolidated sandstone. UCS of the hard sandstone ranged from 6000 to 9500 psi while UCS for the soft sandstone ranged from 2000 to 5000 psi. 4.2 Data, Collection and Analysis Data was continuously collected by Omega data acquisition system module and stored in an excel sheet. The data of interest were WOB, RPM, Torque, Axial Vibrations, Lateral Vibrations and ROP. Different plots were generated against variables of interest to observe dependency and behavior of the variable under investigation. 4.2.1 WOB and RPM Data WOB is an independent variable with respect to our investigation. WOB was measured using a load cell attached to the back travelling block connecting the piston. The calibration of WOB was carried out in the following procedure. The rig was slid on a weighing scale. A set number of values were entered for voltage sent to the bottom pneumatic convertors. A constant voltage of 2 volts was sent to the top pneumatic convertor to provide a constant pressure of 20 psi resistance against erratic bouncing and to provide a constant friction between piston and cylinder walls in either direction. Reading on the weighing scale was recoded as WOB. Initially the WOB calibration was performed in a static condition. It was observed that WOB reading during the experiment was different than the expected values based on calibration. It was assumed that the change of conditions from static to dynamic was the cause of difference. Hence to simulate dynamic conditions while calibration, rig was constantly hammered down with a mallet to cause the rig to vibrate and negate static friction. The stabilized reading on the scale was used for calibration. But hammering still did not replicate the vibrations happening during the drilling process and hence the WOB measurement by the load cell was different from expected based on the calibration. Hence average value of the WOB was calculated for complete experimental run and considered as the WOB which is being exerted on the rock for cutting process. The average WOB observed had a change of 19.9 % to -20.6 % from the expected input values. In actual drilling process, the WOB is never constant. As the drilling proceeds the WOB decreases and driller lowers the drill string to increase and maintain the set WOB. Hence a ± 20 % change from the set point is acceptable. RPM data was obtained from the optical RPM sensor which was calibrated using a handheld RPM sensor. At lower RPM the error was around 8 % and at higher RPM it lowered down to 0.5 %. So at lower levels the set point was decreased by 4 to compensate for the error. 4.2.2 Torque, Axial and Lateral Vibration Data A rotating shaft to shaft torque sensor was placed in between the motor and swivel with a spring coupling on each end. Torque was calibrated using a torque wrench. When run at idle conditions without any drilling action, torque reading obtained was assumed to be friction. That extra torque of 1.114 inch pounds was assumed to be a side force or the friction inside the swivel and other rotating parts such as the flange mounted ball bearing. A laser displacement senor was attached to the mast to detect the magnitude of lateral vibrations. It was aimed at the center of the drillstring such the pipe was always in range of the laser. The laser sensor was kept 4 inches away from the center of pipe. NPT connections are inherently non concentric and causes non-alignment of pipe. The pipe wobbled due to non-alignment and it oscillated far and near to the sensor. Hence there was a negative and a positive value for displacement. The most negative value of the displacement was used as a reference zero and complete data was shifted towards positive with -0.24165 inch as a reference zero. Greater the magnitude, pipe travelled farther away from the sensor indicating higher lateral vibrations. An axial vibration sensor was attached to the bottom plate of the travelling block. It had micro-electro-mechanical system inside to detect the vibration speed and send a proportional voltage signal for measurement. The sensor came calibrated from the manufacturer and it had a direct vibration-velocity to voltage relationship provided by the manufacturer. 4.2.3 ROP data ROP was directly calculated by the program by dividing the depth drilled by the time it took to drill and stored in the Excel sheet. As the Hard sandstone was difficult to drill the sensor could not measure any significant change in drilled depth along with the vibrations of the assembly and the error in measurement. Hence ROP data for Hard sandstone is not taken into consideration. Soft sandstone data was collected and analyzed for effect of vibrations and other parameters. 4.3 Data Analysis Data was collected from the point where the bit touches the rock to the point when the program was stopped. All experiments were run for 6 minutes in which an average of 100 data points were collected in an excel sheet. An average of those data was calculated and stored. Average values of torque, axial vibrations and lateral vibrations were plotted against RPM and WOB separately. A trend of data was analyzed based on the plots. With increase of RPM, change of torque, axial and lateral vibration was observed. Same practice was carried out for WOB. The plots are shown in Appendix B. 5. Results and Discussions Torsional Vibrations Hard Sandstone: Looking at the plots (Fig. 5.1), with an increase in RPM at constant WOB, torque gradually increases. At around 300 RPM, there is a sudden increase in some cases which then decreases. This behavior is unexpected and no conclusion has been found for the reason for the abnormality. It can be assumed that there would be some abnormally hard layer during drilling due to which such an increase is observed as no such trend was observed in the uniform soft sandstone. But general trend is a gradual increase in torque with an increase of RPM at constant WOB. No oscillation of torque was observed indicating absence of stick-slip. Figure 5.1: Torque vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on hard sandstone At constant RPM, with increase in WOB there is a gradual increase in torque (Fig. 5.2). No specific trend for RPM is observed as some of the low RPM cases also have higher torque than high RPM cases. Figure 5.2: Torque vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on hard sandstone Soft sandstone: Observing the plot for soft sandstone (Fig. 5.3), a gradual increase in torque was observed with increase in ROM at constant WOB. No oscillation of torque was observed indicating absence of stick-slip. Figure 5.3: Torque vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on soft sandstone There is a clear and distinct trend for increase in torque with increase in WOB at constant RPM (Fig. 5.4). Figure 5.4: Torque vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on soft sandstone Lateral Vibrations Hard Sandstone: Plot (Fig. 5.5) shows that there is a gradual increase of torque with increase in RPM at constant WOB. Figure 5.5: Lateral Vibrations vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on hard sandstone No general trend is observed for initial low WOB experiments (Fig. 5.6). With increase in WOB the lateral vibrations decreased in low RPM case and increased in high RPM cases. Figure 5.6: Lateral Vibrations vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on hard sandstone Soft sandstone: There is a general trend of increase of lateral vibrations with increase in RPM (Fig. 5.7) but it is not as significant as in hard sandstone. Figure 5.7: Lateral Vibrations vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on soft sandstone The data is too scattered to find a general trend for effect of WOB on lateral vibrations at constant RPM (Fig. 5.8). However, the trend at higher WOB shows a decrease in lateral vibrations. This can be attributed to the stiffening of the pipe due to higher axial load OR the pipe is bent and misaligned is making it bend more on the sensor side decreasing the deflection. Figure 5.8: Lateral Vibrations vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on soft sandstone Axial Vibrations Hard Sandstone: Axial vibrations follow a similar trend to torque (Fig. 5.9). With an increase in RPM, axial vibrations increased. Similar to the trend for torque, some cases have abnormally high vibration magnitude at 300 RPM which can be attributed to abnormally hard layer of formation. Figure 5.9: Axial Vibrations vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on hard sandstone Following the general trend axial vibrations increased with an increase in WOB at constant RPM (Fig. 5.10). Figure 5.10: Axial Vibrations vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on hard sandstone Soft sandstone: With increase in RPM, axial vibrations increased (Fig. 5.11). However for soft sandstone the trend do not resemble the trend in torque. In fact, it resembles more to the trend in ROP (Fig. B.10). There is a sudden increase in axial vibrations at 700 rpm and then it decreases gradually. Figure 5.11: Axial Vibrations vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on soft sandstone The data is too scattered to find a general trend for relationship between WOB and axial vibrations (Fig. 5.12). Figure 5.12: Axial Vibrations vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on soft sandstone 5.4 Effect on ROP Hard Sandstone: No significant data available for any analysis. Soft sandstone: ROP increases with an increase in RPM at constant WOB (Fig. 5.13). It peaks at around 700 RPM and then it decreases. Figure 5.13: ROP vs. RPM plot at constant WOB for experiments on soft sandstone At higher RPM, higher WOB has an increased effect on ROP (Fig. 5.14). But no dependence of WOB can be seen at lower values of RPM. Figure 5.14: ROP vs. WOB plot at constant RPM for experiments on soft sandstone 6. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions At constant WOB, with increase in RPM, increase in lateral vibrations in hard sandstone is higher than in soft sandstone which indicates that lateral vibrations also depend on type of formation. Axial vibrations are highly dependent on torque. No matter what RPM, WOB or the formation type is taken into account if there a change in torque, corresponding change will be observed in axial vibrations. WOB has less effect on excitation of axial vibrations in soft rocks and more effect in hard rocks. Hence the setpoint WOB should be decreased for drilling into hard rocks. RPM of 700 is the highest RPM which can be used to obtain highest ROP without taking the increased vibrations into account. Increase of RPM further lowers the ROP which can be attributed to such increased vibrations and velocities that the bit does not get enough time to contact and drag the rock surface. 6.2 Recommendations and Future Work Although the design of the rig was optimized, there is always room for improvement. With an increase in budget and limited design constraints, the rig can be constructed better. Following are the recommendations for upgrading the rig. The software program used for the control algorithm can be upgraded to Labview or Dasylab which are more user friendly for programming the automation and control architechture. Using Labview or Dasy lab will allow to operate on a faster computer with a recent operating system which will help in faster data collection and storage. A vibrating element can be attached to the travelling block when WOB calibration is performed so that error due to change in friction values can be negated. The spring couplings attached to the torque can be upgraded with a higher torque rating to prevent failure at higher vibrations. A stable support structure for the torque sensor and laser deflection sensor can be provided. If the bit can be obtained or manufactured with diamond coated cutters, then a set of experiments can be designed where relationship could be examined between RPM, WOB and the depth of cut. Forward and backward whirl characterization experiments could be performed with improved sensors for detection of whirl rates. Hammering action can be included in the drilling action and its effect on ROP, lateral vibrations, torque and axial vibrations could be analyzed. References Braun, Simon G. Ewins, David J. Rao, Singiresu S.. (2002). Encyclopedia of Vibration, Volumes 1-

Object Oriented Technology java language

Object Oriented Technology java language.

Object Oriented Technology / java language Scenario: The Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs (MARA) is the governmental body in the Sultanate of Oman responsible for overseeing all matters related to endowments and religious affairs. The MARA is responsible for the pilgrimage beyond Oman. Every year millions of Muslims around the world visit Saudi Arabia for Umra & Hajj. The process of applying for Hajj starts with the submission of the application for Hajj to the Hajj Directorate a division of MARA. The Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs (MARA) is the governmental body in the Sultanate of Oman responsible for overseeing all matters related to endowments and religious affairs. The MARA is responsible for the pilgrimage beyond Oman. Every year millions of Muslims around the world visit Saudi Arabia for Umra & Hajj. The process of applying for Hajj starts with the submission of the application for Hajj to the Hajj Directorate a division of MARA. Initial documents are submitted to the directorate for registration. Documents are checked and verified by the Registration officer. A unique registration number is issued to each applicant by the registration officer. After the completion of registration process, each applicant is asked to submit the detailed documentation which includes passport, medical certificate, vaccination certificate, receipts of payments. Registration officer submits all the detailed documentation along with the registration form to the Hajj directorate manager for approval. The Hajj directorate manager approves the application and assigns the group to each applicant. The approved applications are passed to training officers for further actions. Account Officers at the Directorate are responsible for handling financial details of the travel of each applicant. The Hajj Directorate also organizes the free training session for the applicants before embarking on Hajj. The training officer prepares the schedule for the training session, traveling schedule and informs each applicant. The directorate prepares different types of reports about the Hajj each year and sends it requirement: Task 1: Identify behavior of the classes by adding different method in the class. Every class must have at least two functional methods in addition to the constructors. (35 Marks) Task 2: Implement custom exceptions handling in the solution created for different situations. Create at least two different exceptions in the solutions. Choose situations of your own. (20 Marks) Note: You coding must include a main class where object of each class are created. Coding must be properly commented for better understanding. (Comments must clearly be specified for the coding written for specific tasks.)
Object Oriented Technology java language

Adaptive Value Of Homosexual Behavior Sociology Essay

research paper help Adaptive Value Of Homosexual Behavior Sociology Essay. Studies into the evolution of humans and essentially any organism in the world clearly prove that the concepts and tenets of Evolutionary Theory are much more complicated than the common, simple idea of “survival of the fittest”. The subject of homosexuality is no different in this distinction; even into modern society, human behavior has been in heated debate to uncover whether it is more a result of heredity or environmental factors. Homosexuality as a biological concept and the definition I will be using refers to same-sex sexual behavior between members of the same gender. Understanding Evolution, and natural selection as an extension of it, will help to clarify and comprehend how homosexuality fits into this framework of ideas. Modern evolutionary theory incorporates both Charles Darwin’s observation that there is heritable variability in traits and that variants best suited to an environment are more likely to be passes on (natural selection) as well as Gregor Mendel’s work on how that variation is inherited to further generations. Most importantly natural selection acts on phenotypes which are observable and often measurable expressions of a trait (Stinson, Bogin and O’Rourke 824). Phenotypes are not purely a result of genes; they also include (most importantly) the influence and interaction with the environment. When individuals have a phenotype that is advantageous in an environment, often this results in an adaptation where their genes are most likely to survive and they are able to reproduce to contribute alleles to the next generation (Stinson, Bogin and O’Rourke 7). Behaviors, as we are seeing with the increasingly developing field of Sociobiology, are often a result of both biological and social components. As clinical psychologist Frank Muscarella points out when “behaviors commonly exhibited by humans can be expected to have contributed to survival and reproduction in the evolutionary past” those genes that influence the behavior will spread (Muscarella, Fink and Grammer 394). In regards to homosexuality, and male homosexuality specifically, this behavior fits well into this model because there is increasing evidence that there are both genetic and social aspects that predispose individuals to homosexual behavior. A common misconception about homosexual behavior is that it is both a rare occurrence and it is inherently deleterious because same-sex sexual acts do not result in offspring; yet the commonality of homosexual behavior in itself indicates that there is an evolutionary factor selecting for it. In reality homosexual behavior is and can be seen in countless species in the world. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl in his compilation of studies on animal homosexuality shows that “homosexual behavior occurs in more than 450 different kinds of animals worldwide, and is found in every major geographic region and every major animal group” (Bagemihl 12). Similarly biodiversity specialist R.C. Kirkpatrick in his research cataloged the geographical distribution of forms of homosexual behavior in a variety of human populations around the world (Kirkpatrick 387). So it is safe to presume that there are other factors that play into the adaptation of homosexual behavior, some may have more of a physical evolutionary basis, while others more related to social evolutionary mechanisms but many theories have become potential explanations of this seemingly paradox of evolution that occurs quite often within and between species. The important distinction is that homosexuality, like many traits, isn’t attributed to one model or theory. Multiple theories attempt to help to explain how a behavior attributed to something as seemingly ironic as nonreproductive sex contributes to an adaptive advantage in human evolution. One of the first and oldest hypotheses revolves around the theory of kin selection where selection is made for increasing inclusive fitness by increasing the reproductive fitness of kin (since parents and siblings share fifty percent of their genetic material). Another similar theory revolves around the ideas of reciprocal altruism and an adaptive advantage of homosocial behavior. Lastly, a more recent theory proposes a more physical genetic basis revolving around sexual antagonism, the theory being that the same genes that promote homosocial behavior in males is beneficial to the reproductive potential of relatives. II) Kin selection Theory Kin selection theory operates on the assumption that there is some genetic basis for homosexuality and genes for it are maintained in a population by homosexuals increasing their inclusive fitness by contributing to the reproductive success of relatives, in theory “these kin would then have a better chance of reproducing and of carrying foreword genes common to both the homosexual and his kin” (McKnight 129). Unfortunately I believe lack of data has led to this hypothesis being prematurely discredited by many researchers. On the other hand inconsistencies and the lack of data as I’ve seen is more due to the types on environments the studies are being done in. A study on the role of homosexuality in males using data from London residents found that “there were no significant differences between heterosexual and homosexual men in general familial affinity, generous feelings (willingness to provide financial and emotional resources), and benevolent tendencies” (Rahman and Hull 462). However modern western and industrial societies are vastly different than the historical environments where much of human evolution has taken place. Taking into account the length of time we can track homosexual behavior has persisted, it’s most likely that this adaptation is a result of a specific type of environment and cultures that are more representative of ancestral environments will likely give us a better case study. A great case study by evolutionary psychologists Paul Vasey and Doug VanderLaan also tested this theory Samoan Pacific Islanders; within Samoan culture there is a gender category of men called fa’afafine that tend to be exclusively attracted to other adult men, an excellent parallel to exclusive homosexual behavior (Association for Psychological Science). They found that “the fa’afafine are much more altruistically inclined toward their nieces and nephews than either Samoan women or heterosexual men” (Association for Psychological Science). On the surface it doesn’t seem like kin selection alone is enough to offset the costs of forgoing direct reproduction, yet more and more data is becoming evident that a combination of biological and social mechanisms may contribute to offset these costs. Again specialist Kirkpatrick helps us understand the forces that may be at work; kin selection operates on three basic assumptions “(1) that homosexual behavior reduces individual reproductive success, (2) that lineages with homosexuals have greater reproductive success than lineages without, and (3) that homosexual behavior is typically seen in individuals of low reproductive potential” (Kirkpatrick 391). The third observation that this behavior is seen in individuals with low reproductive potential is an important aspect of our next theory. III) Reciprocal Altruism and Homosocial Behavior Altruistic behavior is essentially any behavior of an individual that benefits another unrelated individual at a cost to its own reproductive fitness. As an extension of this, reciprocal altruism assumes that this cost is offset by the likelihood of the return benefit (Trivers 35). Applied with research on homosexual behavior there is strong evidence that this type of behavior is an evolutionary benefit for social relationships and is closely linked with survival. This theory has become known as the “Alliance Theory” and supposes that same-sex “sexual behavior may have reinforced same-sex alliances, which contributed directly to survival and indirectly to reproduction” (Muscarella, Cevallos and Siler-Knogl 771). An important and vital aspect of this theory is to recognize that homosexual behavior does not discount the occurrence of heterosexual behavior. In fact as Muscarella points out individuals in many species including humans both heteroerotic and homoerotic behavior have been important social aspects for most of our evolutionary history (Muscarella, The Evolution of Homoerotic Behavior in Humans 53). Same-sex sexual behavior in humans likely contributed to survival by reinforcing social alliances; by forming social ties, overall survival of members would be directly increased as well as lower status individuals increasing their reproductive fitness by gaining access to mates through a higher ranked member. Average reproductive success increases by adapting to include a moderate level of homosexual behavior (Kirkpatrick 389). This type of relationship can be seen in both chimpanzees and gorillas where lower status males that form same-sex alliances with higher status males both increase their survival potential and in many cases increase reproductive potential due to the higher status male allowing reproduction with female members ( (Muscarella, The Evolution of Homoerotic Behavior in Humans 61); (Kirkpatrick 397)). It’s likely that genes predisposing behaviors for altruistic behavior, which are a clear adaptive advantage especially in complex social species, are at least to a certain extent the same genes that influence homosexual behavior. IV) Antagonistic Pleiotropy Genetics in particular are a complicated study because in many cases genes have multiple effects, these can be based on stages of life and even have separate effects regarding different sexes of the same species. Regarding antagonistic pleiotropy, being the concept that a beneficial effect to one group can have detrimental effects in another, there are two situations that revolve around the same concept. In the first theory it assumes that there is some reproductive advantage to having ‘homosexual alleles’ in heterosexual or bisexual men, while at some point this becomes a disadvantage as reproductive potential passes the peak level. Likely this advantage relates to “an immediate reproductive advantage by directly enhancing sex drive or some other aspect of sexual performance” (McKnight 76). This creates a great environment for case studies and twin studies in particular are excellent to examine whether this is a plausible explanation. In a twin study carried out on a large number of participants “heterosexuals with a non-heterosexual twin tended to have more opposite-sex partners than do heterosexual twin pairs” indicating that genes responsible for homosexual predispositions likely have a reproductive benefit in heterosexuals (Zietsch, Morley and Shekar 424). Similarly, the next situation proposes that the same genes responsible for homosexual behavior in men are also responsible for higher fecundity in female relatives. Using pedigree demographics comparing both the maternal and paternal line of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives, evolutionary psychologist Andrea Camperio-Ciani found that “female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives” (Ciani, Francesca and Capiluppi, Evidence for Maternally Inherited Factors Favouring Male Homosexuality and Promoting Female Fecundity 2217). This along with a second study that found this trend in even first time mothers supports the theory of homosexuality as antagonistic selection where the same genes selected for higher fecundity in females promote homosexual behavior in males (Iemmola and Camperio-Ciani 393). V) Conclusions It’s obvious that the evolution of male homosexuality as an adaptation has many facets, understandably it’s just as complicated as any human social behavior, but we are gaining ground on understanding the genetic and social implications of behavior and how evolution has shaped these in humans. Overall however it’s becoming more a more evident that “the survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a trait that is influenced by a number of pleitropic genes” (Miller 45). For this reason a singular theory is highly unlikely to be sufficient to explain something as complex as homosexuality; multiple theories then likely contribute to the overall model. A gene for altruism, and as an extension homosexuality, likely plays a very important role in Kin selection theory; and it is also probable that sexual antagonism helps offset the cost of non reproductive behavior. No one theory will be sufficient, but with the combined perspectives and research of genetics, sociobiology, psychology and other disciplines the adaptive benefit of this behavior will become more understandable. Adaptive Value Of Homosexual Behavior Sociology Essay

ASPP Racial Treatment to Minorities Discussion

ASPP Racial Treatment to Minorities Discussion.

The proposal is a 300-500 description of your final project; include your purpose/argument, intended audience, along with your plan for how you imagine you will rhetorically achieve your purpose. If you have questions or uncertainties about your final project, you are welcome to include them in the proposal document.Options:Professional (Links to an external site.)/Educational (Links to an external site.) Website Research Article (Links to an external site.)with hyperlinks and citationsAll projects must have a clear rhetorical purpose and/or argumentLength and detail of your specific project must reflect similar texts in the digital public sphereAll projects must also include a separate rhetorical reflection document300-500 words
ASPP Racial Treatment to Minorities Discussion

Political Science homework help

Political Science homework help. 1.1. Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?A) a. 1 millionB) b. 2.3 millionC) c. 3 millionD) d. 4.3 million2.2. Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity?A) a. Emile DurkheimB) b. Cesare BeccariaC) c. Travis HirshchiD) d. Cesare Lombroso3.3. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.A) a. Political conservativesB) b. independentsC) c. religious groupsD) d. political liberals4.4. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?A) a. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.B) b. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.C) c. Punishment needs to be proportionate.D) d. All of these5.5. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They includeA) a. secure and sanitary conditions.B) b. nonsystematic inspections.C) c. fees for inmates.D) d. a continued regimen.6.6. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?A) a. People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections.B) b. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged, with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment.C) c. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations on the government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.D) d. All of these7.7. The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.A) a. congregate systemB) b. assemble systemC) c. separate confinement systemD) d. segregated confinement system8.8. During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________.A) a. feeding inmates better food.B) b. ensuring prisoners were not in solitude.C) c. reintegrating inmates into society.D) d. rehabilitating individual offenders.9.9. The Military Commissions Act (MCA) __________ the ability of ?unlawful enemy combatants? to file a writ of habeas corpus.A) a. permitsB) b. fostersC) c. enhancesD) d. eliminates10.10. Which court decision held the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?A) a. Wolff v. McDonnellB) b. Holt v. SarverC) c. Estelle v. GambleD) d. Pugh v. Locke11.11. Which case allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality, inadequate medical care and nutrition, theft of personal property and the denial of basic rights:A) a. Cooper v. PateB) b. Terry v. OhioC) c. Carroll v USD) d. Gregg v GA12.12. In Boumediene v. Bush, the Court ruled the detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to:A) a. a lawyer.B) b. challenge the conditions of their confinement.C) c. one hour of exercise a day.D) d. file writs of habeas corpus.13.13. According to the Supreme Court, the term ?totality of conditions? may be legally interpreted as:A) a. cruel and unusual punishment.B) b. unfairC) c. unreasonable.D) d. irrational.14.14. The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in which Amendment?A) a. FirstB) b. FourthC) c. EighthD) d. Fourteenth15.15. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.A) a. plea-bargaining pressuresB) b. community pressureC) c. eyewitness errorD) d. all of these16.16. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community.A) a. employmentB) b. educational attainmentC) c. supervisionD) d. family connectivity17.17. In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:A) a. mandatory.B) b. discretionary.C) c. ridiculous.D) d. binding.18.18. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?A) a. Victim and communityB) b. Offender and the stateC) c. Law and justiceD) d. Fairness and equity19.19. Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?A) a. Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the timesB) b. It is able to train staff for a variety of rolesC) c. It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and servicesD) d. All of these.20.20. Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?A) a. ProbationB) b. Supervision conditionsC) c. Home detentionD) d. Presentence investigation21.21. Between 1200 and 1827, English law:A) a. discriminated against the upper social classes.B) b. strove for equality in all matters.C) c. discriminated against monks, nuns, and priests.D) d. discriminated in favor of the upper social classes.22.22. Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded ___________to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community.A) a. indebtednessB) b. obligationC) c. appreciationD) d. debt23.23. Judges may use a range of ________________ sanctions from those exerting a low level of control to those exerting a high level of control.A) a. truth in sentencingB) b. determinateC) c. intermediateD) d. mandatory24.24. The concept of community corrections is best understood as a goal. That goal clearly is to:A) a. save money.B) b. reduce reliance on prisons.C) c. reduce crime.D) d. both save money and reduce reliance on prisons.25.25. The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called:A) a. penal sanctions.B) b. probation.C) c. primary sanctions.D) d. intermediate sanctions.26.26. A major criticism of probation, as traditionally practiced, is that:A) a. it is too impersonal.B) b. the probation officers don?t really care about the client.C) c. it is inadequate for a large number of offenders.D) d. there aren?t enough offenders to make it work.27.27. Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:A) a. intensive supervision programB) b. presentence investigationC) c. supervision intensive programD) d. individual program supervision28.28. According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:A) a. the limited personal space provided in jail facilities.B) b. the crisis nature of arrest and detention.C) c. emotional instability, which is exacerbated by the jail experience.D) d. both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.29.29. By far the most successful pretrial release program is:A) a. unsecured bail.B) b. percentage bail.C) c. forfeit bail.D) d. release on recognizance (ROR).30.30. __________ is a drug that inhibits drinking.A) a. MethadoneB) b. CocaineC) c. AntabuseD) d. Malabuse31.31. America?s oldest prison was built in 1798. This prison was located in what city in New Jersey:A) a. DaltonB) b. TrentonC) c. WilmingtonD) d. Wilbur32.32. The prison design most often used for female and juvenile inmates is:A) a. Radial designB) b. telephone pole designC) c. campus styleD) d. courtyard style33.33. The __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s.A) a. retributionB) b. incapacitationC) c. rehabilitationD) d. reintegration34.34. At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to:A) a. crime control.B) b. rehabilitation.C) c. treatment.D) d. restitution.35.35. Most prisons employ a __________ model.A) a. rehabilitativeB) b. reintegrationC) c. retributiveD) d. custodial36.36. According to sociologists, the ?big house? image of the American prison has:A) a. ceased to show a limited understanding of the contemporary prison.B) b. provided us with a deeper understanding of the modern prison.C) c. spawned a great deal of humanitarian reform in the eyes of the public.D) d. created interest in the operations of the modern prison among the general public.37.37. A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in __________ prisons.A) a. maximum securityB) b. medium securityC) c. minimum securityD) d. super max38.38. With the correctional focus shifting to crime control, some believe offenders have had it too soft, resulting in:A) a. the institution of strict regimes in prisons.B) b. the removal of educational and recreational amenities from prisons.C) c. an increase in the number of people in prison.D) d. all of these.39.39. Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to:A) a. the FBI.B) b. the Secret Service.C) c. the Marshal?s Service.D) d. none of these.40.40. Prisons designed to hold the ?toughest of the tough? are called:A) a. maximum security prisons.B) b. solitary confinement.C) c. custodial confinement.D) d. super-max prisons.41.41. In prison, gangs are organized primarily to:A) a. control an institution?s drug trade.B) b. control gambling and extortion within the institution.C) c. control debt-collection rackets within the institution.D) d. all of these.42.42. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the:A) a. institutional code.B) b. informal code.C) c. prison code.D) d. inmate code.43.43. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career, their adaptive role is known as:A) a. jailing.B) b. gleaning.C) c. hustling.D) d. doing time.44.44. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency, the primary method of exchange in prison is:A) a. narcotics.B) b. cigarettes.C) c. ?bug juice.?D) d. sex.45.45. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to:A) a. negotiate between gang members.B) b. place gang members in solitary confinement.C) c. transfer gang members to another institution.D) d. all of these.46.46. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison?A) a. protectionB) b. extortionC) c. religionD) d. camaraderie47.47. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be:A) a. a gang leaderB) b. correction officerC) c. elderlyD) d. not affiliated with a gang48.48. In prison terminology the ?fish? is a(n):A) a. career criminal.B) b. newcomer.C) c. gang member.D) d. elderly inmate.49.49. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as:A) a. cable TV.B) b. programming.C) c. the yard.D) d. an underground economy.50.50. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:A) a. gather national statistics on prison rape.B) b. make prison rape illegal.C) c. honor a rape victim.D) d. support prisoner?s rights.Ecological ServicesIn a 2-3 page paper, using APA-style formatting, define and discuss the concept of ecological services. Then, review the ?Ecological Services of Rivers? outlined in Mini Lecture: Water Resources and Water Pollution. From the list, identify two services you believe are the most important and cite at least 3 reasons why. Also, choose two services that you think are most likely to decline due to human influence and cite at least 3 examples of the result of decline of those services.Grading Criteria AssignmentsMaximum PointsMeets or exceeds established assignment criteria0-50Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts0-20Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts0-30Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, APA formatting.Up to -10Total100Political Science homework help