Object Oriented Technology java language
Object Oriented Technology java language.
Object Oriented Technology / java language Scenario: The Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs (MARA) is the governmental body in the Sultanate of Oman responsible for overseeing all matters related to endowments and religious affairs. The MARA is responsible for the pilgrimage beyond Oman. Every year millions of Muslims around the world visit Saudi Arabia for Umra & Hajj. The process of applying for Hajj starts with the submission of the application for Hajj to the Hajj Directorate a division of MARA. The Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs (MARA) is the governmental body in the Sultanate of Oman responsible for overseeing all matters related to endowments and religious affairs. The MARA is responsible for the pilgrimage beyond Oman. Every year millions of Muslims around the world visit Saudi Arabia for Umra & Hajj. The process of applying for Hajj starts with the submission of the application for Hajj to the Hajj Directorate a division of MARA. Initial documents are submitted to the directorate for registration. Documents are checked and verified by the Registration officer. A unique registration number is issued to each applicant by the registration officer. After the completion of registration process, each applicant is asked to submit the detailed documentation which includes passport, medical certificate, vaccination certificate, receipts of payments. Registration officer submits all the detailed documentation along with the registration form to the Hajj directorate manager for approval. The Hajj directorate manager approves the application and assigns the group to each applicant. The approved applications are passed to training officers for further actions. Account Officers at the Directorate are responsible for handling financial details of the travel of each applicant. The Hajj Directorate also organizes the free training session for the applicants before embarking on Hajj. The training officer prepares the schedule for the training session, traveling schedule and informs each applicant. The directorate prepares different types of reports about the Hajj each year and sends it requirement: Task 1: Identify behavior of the classes by adding different method in the class. Every class must have at least two functional methods in addition to the constructors. (35 Marks) Task 2: Implement custom exceptions handling in the solution created for different situations. Create at least two different exceptions in the solutions. Choose situations of your own. (20 Marks) Note: You coding must include a main class where object of each class are created. Coding must be properly commented for better understanding. (Comments must clearly be specified for the coding written for specific tasks.)
Object Oriented Technology java language
Adaptive Value Of Homosexual Behavior Sociology Essay
research paper help Adaptive Value Of Homosexual Behavior Sociology Essay. Studies into the evolution of humans and essentially any organism in the world clearly prove that the concepts and tenets of Evolutionary Theory are much more complicated than the common, simple idea of “survival of the fittest”. The subject of homosexuality is no different in this distinction; even into modern society, human behavior has been in heated debate to uncover whether it is more a result of heredity or environmental factors. Homosexuality as a biological concept and the definition I will be using refers to same-sex sexual behavior between members of the same gender. Understanding Evolution, and natural selection as an extension of it, will help to clarify and comprehend how homosexuality fits into this framework of ideas. Modern evolutionary theory incorporates both Charles Darwin’s observation that there is heritable variability in traits and that variants best suited to an environment are more likely to be passes on (natural selection) as well as Gregor Mendel’s work on how that variation is inherited to further generations. Most importantly natural selection acts on phenotypes which are observable and often measurable expressions of a trait (Stinson, Bogin and O’Rourke 824). Phenotypes are not purely a result of genes; they also include (most importantly) the influence and interaction with the environment. When individuals have a phenotype that is advantageous in an environment, often this results in an adaptation where their genes are most likely to survive and they are able to reproduce to contribute alleles to the next generation (Stinson, Bogin and O’Rourke 7). Behaviors, as we are seeing with the increasingly developing field of Sociobiology, are often a result of both biological and social components. As clinical psychologist Frank Muscarella points out when “behaviors commonly exhibited by humans can be expected to have contributed to survival and reproduction in the evolutionary past” those genes that influence the behavior will spread (Muscarella, Fink and Grammer 394). In regards to homosexuality, and male homosexuality specifically, this behavior fits well into this model because there is increasing evidence that there are both genetic and social aspects that predispose individuals to homosexual behavior. A common misconception about homosexual behavior is that it is both a rare occurrence and it is inherently deleterious because same-sex sexual acts do not result in offspring; yet the commonality of homosexual behavior in itself indicates that there is an evolutionary factor selecting for it. In reality homosexual behavior is and can be seen in countless species in the world. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl in his compilation of studies on animal homosexuality shows that “homosexual behavior occurs in more than 450 different kinds of animals worldwide, and is found in every major geographic region and every major animal group” (Bagemihl 12). Similarly biodiversity specialist R.C. Kirkpatrick in his research cataloged the geographical distribution of forms of homosexual behavior in a variety of human populations around the world (Kirkpatrick 387). So it is safe to presume that there are other factors that play into the adaptation of homosexual behavior, some may have more of a physical evolutionary basis, while others more related to social evolutionary mechanisms but many theories have become potential explanations of this seemingly paradox of evolution that occurs quite often within and between species. The important distinction is that homosexuality, like many traits, isn’t attributed to one model or theory. Multiple theories attempt to help to explain how a behavior attributed to something as seemingly ironic as nonreproductive sex contributes to an adaptive advantage in human evolution. One of the first and oldest hypotheses revolves around the theory of kin selection where selection is made for increasing inclusive fitness by increasing the reproductive fitness of kin (since parents and siblings share fifty percent of their genetic material). Another similar theory revolves around the ideas of reciprocal altruism and an adaptive advantage of homosocial behavior. Lastly, a more recent theory proposes a more physical genetic basis revolving around sexual antagonism, the theory being that the same genes that promote homosocial behavior in males is beneficial to the reproductive potential of relatives. II) Kin selection Theory Kin selection theory operates on the assumption that there is some genetic basis for homosexuality and genes for it are maintained in a population by homosexuals increasing their inclusive fitness by contributing to the reproductive success of relatives, in theory “these kin would then have a better chance of reproducing and of carrying foreword genes common to both the homosexual and his kin” (McKnight 129). Unfortunately I believe lack of data has led to this hypothesis being prematurely discredited by many researchers. On the other hand inconsistencies and the lack of data as I’ve seen is more due to the types on environments the studies are being done in. A study on the role of homosexuality in males using data from London residents found that “there were no significant differences between heterosexual and homosexual men in general familial affinity, generous feelings (willingness to provide financial and emotional resources), and benevolent tendencies” (Rahman and Hull 462). However modern western and industrial societies are vastly different than the historical environments where much of human evolution has taken place. Taking into account the length of time we can track homosexual behavior has persisted, it’s most likely that this adaptation is a result of a specific type of environment and cultures that are more representative of ancestral environments will likely give us a better case study. A great case study by evolutionary psychologists Paul Vasey and Doug VanderLaan also tested this theory Samoan Pacific Islanders; within Samoan culture there is a gender category of men called fa’afafine that tend to be exclusively attracted to other adult men, an excellent parallel to exclusive homosexual behavior (Association for Psychological Science). They found that “the fa’afafine are much more altruistically inclined toward their nieces and nephews than either Samoan women or heterosexual men” (Association for Psychological Science). On the surface it doesn’t seem like kin selection alone is enough to offset the costs of forgoing direct reproduction, yet more and more data is becoming evident that a combination of biological and social mechanisms may contribute to offset these costs. Again specialist Kirkpatrick helps us understand the forces that may be at work; kin selection operates on three basic assumptions “(1) that homosexual behavior reduces individual reproductive success, (2) that lineages with homosexuals have greater reproductive success than lineages without, and (3) that homosexual behavior is typically seen in individuals of low reproductive potential” (Kirkpatrick 391). The third observation that this behavior is seen in individuals with low reproductive potential is an important aspect of our next theory. III) Reciprocal Altruism and Homosocial Behavior Altruistic behavior is essentially any behavior of an individual that benefits another unrelated individual at a cost to its own reproductive fitness. As an extension of this, reciprocal altruism assumes that this cost is offset by the likelihood of the return benefit (Trivers 35). Applied with research on homosexual behavior there is strong evidence that this type of behavior is an evolutionary benefit for social relationships and is closely linked with survival. This theory has become known as the “Alliance Theory” and supposes that same-sex “sexual behavior may have reinforced same-sex alliances, which contributed directly to survival and indirectly to reproduction” (Muscarella, Cevallos and Siler-Knogl 771). An important and vital aspect of this theory is to recognize that homosexual behavior does not discount the occurrence of heterosexual behavior. In fact as Muscarella points out individuals in many species including humans both heteroerotic and homoerotic behavior have been important social aspects for most of our evolutionary history (Muscarella, The Evolution of Homoerotic Behavior in Humans 53). Same-sex sexual behavior in humans likely contributed to survival by reinforcing social alliances; by forming social ties, overall survival of members would be directly increased as well as lower status individuals increasing their reproductive fitness by gaining access to mates through a higher ranked member. Average reproductive success increases by adapting to include a moderate level of homosexual behavior (Kirkpatrick 389). This type of relationship can be seen in both chimpanzees and gorillas where lower status males that form same-sex alliances with higher status males both increase their survival potential and in many cases increase reproductive potential due to the higher status male allowing reproduction with female members ( (Muscarella, The Evolution of Homoerotic Behavior in Humans 61); (Kirkpatrick 397)). It’s likely that genes predisposing behaviors for altruistic behavior, which are a clear adaptive advantage especially in complex social species, are at least to a certain extent the same genes that influence homosexual behavior. IV) Antagonistic Pleiotropy Genetics in particular are a complicated study because in many cases genes have multiple effects, these can be based on stages of life and even have separate effects regarding different sexes of the same species. Regarding antagonistic pleiotropy, being the concept that a beneficial effect to one group can have detrimental effects in another, there are two situations that revolve around the same concept. In the first theory it assumes that there is some reproductive advantage to having ‘homosexual alleles’ in heterosexual or bisexual men, while at some point this becomes a disadvantage as reproductive potential passes the peak level. Likely this advantage relates to “an immediate reproductive advantage by directly enhancing sex drive or some other aspect of sexual performance” (McKnight 76). This creates a great environment for case studies and twin studies in particular are excellent to examine whether this is a plausible explanation. In a twin study carried out on a large number of participants “heterosexuals with a non-heterosexual twin tended to have more opposite-sex partners than do heterosexual twin pairs” indicating that genes responsible for homosexual predispositions likely have a reproductive benefit in heterosexuals (Zietsch, Morley and Shekar 424). Similarly, the next situation proposes that the same genes responsible for homosexual behavior in men are also responsible for higher fecundity in female relatives. Using pedigree demographics comparing both the maternal and paternal line of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives, evolutionary psychologist Andrea Camperio-Ciani found that “female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives” (Ciani, Francesca and Capiluppi, Evidence for Maternally Inherited Factors Favouring Male Homosexuality and Promoting Female Fecundity 2217). This along with a second study that found this trend in even first time mothers supports the theory of homosexuality as antagonistic selection where the same genes selected for higher fecundity in females promote homosexual behavior in males (Iemmola and Camperio-Ciani 393). V) Conclusions It’s obvious that the evolution of male homosexuality as an adaptation has many facets, understandably it’s just as complicated as any human social behavior, but we are gaining ground on understanding the genetic and social implications of behavior and how evolution has shaped these in humans. Overall however it’s becoming more a more evident that “the survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a trait that is influenced by a number of pleitropic genes” (Miller 45). For this reason a singular theory is highly unlikely to be sufficient to explain something as complex as homosexuality; multiple theories then likely contribute to the overall model. A gene for altruism, and as an extension homosexuality, likely plays a very important role in Kin selection theory; and it is also probable that sexual antagonism helps offset the cost of non reproductive behavior. No one theory will be sufficient, but with the combined perspectives and research of genetics, sociobiology, psychology and other disciplines the adaptive benefit of this behavior will become more understandable. Adaptive Value Of Homosexual Behavior Sociology Essay
ASPP Racial Treatment to Minorities Discussion
ASPP Racial Treatment to Minorities Discussion.
The proposal is a 300-500 description of your final project; include your purpose/argument, intended audience, along with your plan for how you imagine you will rhetorically achieve your purpose. If you have questions or uncertainties about your final project, you are welcome to include them in the proposal document.Options:Professional (Links to an external site.)/Educational (Links to an external site.) Website Research Article (Links to an external site.)with hyperlinks and citationsAll projects must have a clear rhetorical purpose and/or argumentLength and detail of your specific project must reflect similar texts in the digital public sphereAll projects must also include a separate rhetorical reflection document300-500 words
ASPP Racial Treatment to Minorities Discussion
Political Science homework help
Political Science homework help. 1.1. Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?A) a. 1 millionB) b. 2.3 millionC) c. 3 millionD) d. 4.3 million2.2. Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity?A) a. Emile DurkheimB) b. Cesare BeccariaC) c. Travis HirshchiD) d. Cesare Lombroso3.3. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.A) a. Political conservativesB) b. independentsC) c. religious groupsD) d. political liberals4.4. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?A) a. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.B) b. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.C) c. Punishment needs to be proportionate.D) d. All of these5.5. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They includeA) a. secure and sanitary conditions.B) b. nonsystematic inspections.C) c. fees for inmates.D) d. a continued regimen.6.6. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?A) a. People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections.B) b. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged, with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment.C) c. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations on the government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.D) d. All of these7.7. The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.A) a. congregate systemB) b. assemble systemC) c. separate confinement systemD) d. segregated confinement system8.8. During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________.A) a. feeding inmates better food.B) b. ensuring prisoners were not in solitude.C) c. reintegrating inmates into society.D) d. rehabilitating individual offenders.9.9. The Military Commissions Act (MCA) __________ the ability of ?unlawful enemy combatants? to file a writ of habeas corpus.A) a. permitsB) b. fostersC) c. enhancesD) d. eliminates10.10. Which court decision held the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?A) a. Wolff v. McDonnellB) b. Holt v. SarverC) c. Estelle v. GambleD) d. Pugh v. Locke11.11. Which case allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality, inadequate medical care and nutrition, theft of personal property and the denial of basic rights:A) a. Cooper v. PateB) b. Terry v. OhioC) c. Carroll v USD) d. Gregg v GA12.12. In Boumediene v. Bush, the Court ruled the detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to:A) a. a lawyer.B) b. challenge the conditions of their confinement.C) c. one hour of exercise a day.D) d. file writs of habeas corpus.13.13. According to the Supreme Court, the term ?totality of conditions? may be legally interpreted as:A) a. cruel and unusual punishment.B) b. unfairC) c. unreasonable.D) d. irrational.14.14. The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in which Amendment?A) a. FirstB) b. FourthC) c. EighthD) d. Fourteenth15.15. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.A) a. plea-bargaining pressuresB) b. community pressureC) c. eyewitness errorD) d. all of these16.16. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community.A) a. employmentB) b. educational attainmentC) c. supervisionD) d. family connectivity17.17. In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:A) a. mandatory.B) b. discretionary.C) c. ridiculous.D) d. binding.18.18. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?A) a. Victim and communityB) b. Offender and the stateC) c. Law and justiceD) d. Fairness and equity19.19. Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?A) a. Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the timesB) b. It is able to train staff for a variety of rolesC) c. It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and servicesD) d. All of these.20.20. Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?A) a. ProbationB) b. Supervision conditionsC) c. Home detentionD) d. Presentence investigation21.21. Between 1200 and 1827, English law:A) a. discriminated against the upper social classes.B) b. strove for equality in all matters.C) c. discriminated against monks, nuns, and priests.D) d. discriminated in favor of the upper social classes.22.22. Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded ___________to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community.A) a. indebtednessB) b. obligationC) c. appreciationD) d. debt23.23. Judges may use a range of ________________ sanctions from those exerting a low level of control to those exerting a high level of control.A) a. truth in sentencingB) b. determinateC) c. intermediateD) d. mandatory24.24. The concept of community corrections is best understood as a goal. That goal clearly is to:A) a. save money.B) b. reduce reliance on prisons.C) c. reduce crime.D) d. both save money and reduce reliance on prisons.25.25. The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called:A) a. penal sanctions.B) b. probation.C) c. primary sanctions.D) d. intermediate sanctions.26.26. A major criticism of probation, as traditionally practiced, is that:A) a. it is too impersonal.B) b. the probation officers don?t really care about the client.C) c. it is inadequate for a large number of offenders.D) d. there aren?t enough offenders to make it work.27.27. Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:A) a. intensive supervision programB) b. presentence investigationC) c. supervision intensive programD) d. individual program supervision28.28. According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:A) a. the limited personal space provided in jail facilities.B) b. the crisis nature of arrest and detention.C) c. emotional instability, which is exacerbated by the jail experience.D) d. both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.29.29. By far the most successful pretrial release program is:A) a. unsecured bail.B) b. percentage bail.C) c. forfeit bail.D) d. release on recognizance (ROR).30.30. __________ is a drug that inhibits drinking.A) a. MethadoneB) b. CocaineC) c. AntabuseD) d. Malabuse31.31. America?s oldest prison was built in 1798. This prison was located in what city in New Jersey:A) a. DaltonB) b. TrentonC) c. WilmingtonD) d. Wilbur32.32. The prison design most often used for female and juvenile inmates is:A) a. Radial designB) b. telephone pole designC) c. campus styleD) d. courtyard style33.33. The __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s.A) a. retributionB) b. incapacitationC) c. rehabilitationD) d. reintegration34.34. At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to:A) a. crime control.B) b. rehabilitation.C) c. treatment.D) d. restitution.35.35. Most prisons employ a __________ model.A) a. rehabilitativeB) b. reintegrationC) c. retributiveD) d. custodial36.36. According to sociologists, the ?big house? image of the American prison has:A) a. ceased to show a limited understanding of the contemporary prison.B) b. provided us with a deeper understanding of the modern prison.C) c. spawned a great deal of humanitarian reform in the eyes of the public.D) d. created interest in the operations of the modern prison among the general public.37.37. A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in __________ prisons.A) a. maximum securityB) b. medium securityC) c. minimum securityD) d. super max38.38. With the correctional focus shifting to crime control, some believe offenders have had it too soft, resulting in:A) a. the institution of strict regimes in prisons.B) b. the removal of educational and recreational amenities from prisons.C) c. an increase in the number of people in prison.D) d. all of these.39.39. Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to:A) a. the FBI.B) b. the Secret Service.C) c. the Marshal?s Service.D) d. none of these.40.40. Prisons designed to hold the ?toughest of the tough? are called:A) a. maximum security prisons.B) b. solitary confinement.C) c. custodial confinement.D) d. super-max prisons.41.41. In prison, gangs are organized primarily to:A) a. control an institution?s drug trade.B) b. control gambling and extortion within the institution.C) c. control debt-collection rackets within the institution.D) d. all of these.42.42. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the:A) a. institutional code.B) b. informal code.C) c. prison code.D) d. inmate code.43.43. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career, their adaptive role is known as:A) a. jailing.B) b. gleaning.C) c. hustling.D) d. doing time.44.44. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency, the primary method of exchange in prison is:A) a. narcotics.B) b. cigarettes.C) c. ?bug juice.?D) d. sex.45.45. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to:A) a. negotiate between gang members.B) b. place gang members in solitary confinement.C) c. transfer gang members to another institution.D) d. all of these.46.46. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison?A) a. protectionB) b. extortionC) c. religionD) d. camaraderie47.47. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be:A) a. a gang leaderB) b. correction officerC) c. elderlyD) d. not affiliated with a gang48.48. In prison terminology the ?fish? is a(n):A) a. career criminal.B) b. newcomer.C) c. gang member.D) d. elderly inmate.49.49. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as:A) a. cable TV.B) b. programming.C) c. the yard.D) d. an underground economy.50.50. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:A) a. gather national statistics on prison rape.B) b. make prison rape illegal.C) c. honor a rape victim.D) d. support prisoner?s rights.Ecological ServicesIn a 2-3 page paper, using APA-style formatting, define and discuss the concept of ecological services. Then, review the ?Ecological Services of Rivers? outlined in Mini Lecture: Water Resources and Water Pollution. From the list, identify two services you believe are the most important and cite at least 3 reasons why. Also, choose two services that you think are most likely to decline due to human influence and cite at least 3 examples of the result of decline of those services.Grading Criteria AssignmentsMaximum PointsMeets or exceeds established assignment criteria0-50Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts0-20Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts0-30Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, APA formatting.Up to -10Total100Political Science homework help