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To What Degree Is the Modern State Defined by Bureaucracy?

To What Degree Is the Modern State Defined by Bureaucracy?. To what degree is the modern state defined by bureaucracy? A pivotal role in the modern state is played by the set of administrative tools employed to govern its territory and the population within that territory, namely what Weber famously defined as ‘bureaucracy’. Clearly, governmental administrative bodies are at the core of a state bureaucratic system; but it must be recognised that many non-governmental entities are also involved in the administration of people’s everyday lives. This essay will argue that, while not specifically tied to the phenomenon of the state, bureaucracy is indeed a direct product of it. Moreover, it arrived to greatly define people’s lives and the state itself. In making this argument, it will be necessary to evaluate historical, political and societal aspects of the interplay between the development of the bureaucratic system and the rise of the modern state. Therefore, the essay will firstly investigate the shift from pre-modern administrations to rationalised bureaucracy. In analysing these historical changes, it will be become clear that the modern state provides the perfect conditions for bureaucratic expansion. Specifically, as Weber argues, the state comes to be defined by a ‘legal-rational’ bureaucracy, which – although perfectly fitting the reality of modernity – also presents a significant threat to civic and political liberties. To conclude, the Foucauldian concept of ‘panopticism’ will show how rationalisation permeated state’s institutions, in order to form easily governable ‘docile bodies’ Although far from being bureaucratised, pre-modern political organisations presented indeed forms of administrative apparatuses and institutions. These were particularly common in large empires which – to prevent disintegration – required to efficiently and effectively disperse their authority (Pierson, 2004). For instance, the Chinese empire firstly established an organised civil service, composed by several officials and emperor’s advisors. Likewise, an administrative culture was developed in Ancient Egypt as well as in the Roman Empire and in the Byzantine Empire: administrative operators were appointed to collect taxes and tithes, to maintain tallies of money, to write laws and to mobilise the population in order to undertake important projects and constructions. Throughout the Middle Ages, feudalism also employed several administrative practices as it required to maintain extensive records concerning nobles’ rights and obligation over lands (Pierson, 2004; Riggs, 1997; Weber, 1991; du Gay, 2005). These historical examples show how for centuries, administrative practices and institutions have been crucial in societies’ advance and upholding. Nevertheless, in many aspects they do differ from modern bureaucracies, which – as Weber argues – are primarily and essentially a phenomenon originating from – and going hand-in-hand with – the rise of the modern state (Weber, 1991; 1978). As Spruyt argues, modern statehood began to take shape around the 11th century, at the wake of feudalism breakdown (Spruyt, 2002). Modern European states uniquely started to evolve as governments developed institutional capacities far beyond those of pre-modern political organisations, becoming synonymous with sovereign territorial rule (Spruyt, 2002). From the 15th century onwards, endorsed by the Reformation ethos, monarchs of individual territorial-political units increasingly asserted their independence from the imperial power. With Peace of Westphalia (1648), legal and spiritual authority – which were once shared and divided among serval political players – were centralised in the sovereign’s authority (Burns, 1980; Dusza, 1989; Hirst, 1997). This was the climax of the process engaged to consolidate sovereign’s powers. At the same time, other several political and economic transformation took place and governments gradually expanded, taking over many aspects of social life through taxation, administration and policing of society (Spruyt, 2002). These changes cannot be considered revolutions, neither they can be located within the boundaries of a precise century or historical period. Rather, they should be appreciated as part of a broader process of ‘rationalisation’ (Weber, 1991). As Weber argues, modern states were essentially undergoing a process of cultural, political and societal rationalisation that led to ‘universally applied rules, laws and regulations […] particularly in the economic, legal and scientific institutions, as well as in the bureaucratic form of domination’ (Ritzer, 1996, p. 123). Weber describes this rationalisation process as the practical application of knowledge in attaining a desired end. This, in return, leads to efficiency, coordination, calculability of results and control over the social environment (Turner, 2002; Elwell, 1999). Therefore, the shift from inefficient and disordered administrative realities defined by patrimonialism (i.e. office-holding based on personal relationships and loyalties) and prebendalism (i.e. individuals’ self-financing through revenues collection), to modern organised forms of bureaucracy (Spruyt, 2002; Pierson, 2004; Weber, 1991, pp. 208) Likewise, as new military technologies revolutionised warfare, the army was also hierarchically arranged, based on different levels of authority. People were now called to commit to state military service, as mercenaries’ armies were abandoned, and soldiers training and drilling practices were introduced (Downing, 1992; Weber 1991). Moreover, as governance was homogenised, well-defined written legal codes were formalised. Royal authority was de facto legitimised through laws and monarchy effectively became a public office. New legal codes also promoted the expansion of a capitalistic economy in which possessions were replaced by private properties (Spruyt, 2002; Poggi, 1990; Strayer, 1980). Capitalism was also promoted by the increase in trades and the growth of money economy based on the reinvestment of profit into the system of production and, most of all, into governmental bodies – i.e. the army (Spruyt, 2002; Poggi, 1990; Strayer, 1980). These political, economic and legal changes – as well as improvements in agricultural production, new means of communication and transportation, growth in education and taxation and rise in states’ territorial space and in population size – are defining features of the rise, establishment and upkeep of the modern state as such. Clearly, these several practices and institutions can be successfully exploited and maintained only by a coherent and rational form of administration (Pierson, 2004; Weber, 1991). Hence, this demonstrates that the modern state has been both ‘perfect soil’ for bureaucratisation and a product in itself of bureaucracy. Ultimately, bureaucracy came to define not only the modern state, but also the apparatuses that sustain state and society: legal systems, armies, political parties, education, fields of knowledges, economy are all subject of rationalisation and bureaucratisation processes (Weber, 1991, 1947, 1978). Weber maintains that modern state administration is essentially characterised by ‘legal-rational bureaucracy’, where ‘rational’ describes an instrumental process in which the best tools are adopted to achieve specific objectives (Pierson, 2004; du Gay, 2005; Weber, 1991). In ‘Economy and Society’ Weber provides an ‘ideal-type’ of bureaucracy, namely an exemplification of bureaucracy in its most ‘rational or pure form’ (du Gay, 2005; Weber, 1991). The Weberian ‘ideal-type’ bureaucratic model is defined by the presence of different, well-defined jurisdictional areas, hierarchically ordered by written laws and administrative regulations. The division of labour is also hierarchically organised based on office authority: lower offices are controlled, directed and disciplined by higher ones. Office holding is regarded a ‘vocation’ that offers a career path in which authoritative status is gained thorough training and specialised qualifications. Lower offices’ duty is fundamentally to fulfil the aims set out by the higher offices, represented by management in private corporations and by the ultimate legal authority in public organisations as governments. In achieving these aims, duties are to be delivered in an impersonal manner as roles are determined by laws and not by individuals’ personal qualities, hence placing the continuous and main source of authority in the ‘office’ itself, rather than in the individual undertaking a task (Pierson, 2004; du Gay, 2005; Weber, 1991, pp. 196-204). This type of bureaucracy emerged as technically superior to any other form of public agency organisation. As Weber writes: ‘precision, speed, unambiguity, knowledge of the files, continuity, discretion, unity, strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs – these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration’ (Weber, 1991, pp. 214). These inherent features of bureaucracy make it the most effective and rational mean to exercise authority over human beings and to maintain modern society civilisation. At the same time, however, the major extents to which the modern state – in all its expressions – has been bureaucratised worries Weber, who arrives to warn about the ‘iron cage of bureaucracy’ (du Gay, 2005; Weber, 1991, 1947, 1978). Division of labour, hierarchical order, impersonal rules, specialised knowledge, expertise and the legitimated functional rationality underlying decision-making processes form the life-blood of the bureaucratic organisation (Pierson, 2004; Weber, 1991, 1978). These elements, as Weber suggests, create a ‘virtually indestructible organisation mechanism’ expressing the main dynamic and drive underpinning the modern world: the constant search for power to control people’s lives (Weber, 1991). Above all else, exercising authority based on knowledge dismantled traditional social relations that held the community together in pre-modern societies, replacing them with more rational, instrumental, individualistic and competitive forms of social and political organisation. Moreover, bureaucracies’ legal-rational, value-free and knowledge-based character limits human protentional, dehumanising and alienating individuals which are increasingly brought to act ‘sine ira et studio’ (du Gay, 2005; Weber, 1991). In addition, bureaucracy has the inherent tendency to exceed its functions. According to Weber, this is empirically showed by the late 19th century Prussian circumstances as the state’s government was effectively controlled by its bureaucratic apparatuses. Although Prussian administration defined itself to be ‘above party’, Weber looks at this statement with scepticism. He believes that bureaucracies have their own values and interests, different indeed from those of the political parties which recruited them. This difference in values brings bureaucracies to act as autonomous bodies, concerned with their own preservation and expansion and therefore, risking failure in meeting the political order’s objectives (du Gay, 2005; Heper, 1985; Weber, 1991; 1978). Undoubtedly – bureaucracy is the organisational from of modernity as it allows the mechanisms required to respond to the incessantly changing demands of modern capitalist societies, polities and economies. Nevertheless, Weber remains extremely ambivalent about the value of bureaucracy and the inevitable advance of the ‘iron cage’ that threatens political and civic freedoms (du Gay, 2005; Weber, 1991, 1947, 1978; Wolin, 1961). Weber seems to be giving a compelling account of rationalisation, bureaucratisation and power. However, he partly fails, as he does not locate sources of power outside the State. Foucault’s research on disciplinary power seems to be complementary – at least in this sense – to Weber’s analysis and description of rationalisation and bureaucratisation processes. From the late 18th century, Foucault argues, as industrialisation advances, people are increasingly disconnected from the sovereign authority; however, they are governed through other, more subtle forms of power (Foucault, 1979). Society comes to be administered not directly by sovereign power, but through what Foucault calls ‘disciplinary power’. This kind of power works through several different institutions and practices to shape both people’s bodies and behaviours. Famously, in ‘Discipline and Punish’ (1979), Foucault genealogically analyses the transformations in the means of punishment and imprisonment of individuals in the modern world. He emphasises that the new modes of punishment are effectively models to control societies. He roots the reforms in the means of punishing and imprisoning in the principle of ‘panopticism’. Bentham’s Panopticon is the architectural model of a perfect prison, in which from a central observation tower guards are able to control prisoners, without being seen. Aware of the threat of surveillance, prisoners would ultimately internalise authority and regulate their behaviours (Foucault, 1979). According to Foucault, the model of ‘panopticism’ has effectively infused both private and state organisations, in the attempt to form a ‘docile’ society. As bureaucracy and rationalisation, the power of the panopticon is impersonal, organised, diffused and tied up with expert knowledge, as people are constantly observed. However, in contrast with Weber, Foucault argues that it is not only the state that came to govern people, with its forms or rational bureaucracy; rather, different types of government operate in people’s everyday lives, directing their behaviours. With its different institutions and practices, the bureaucratic organisation came to define the modern state, playing a pivotal role in its rise and expansion. Moreover, despite the ‘iron cage threat’, representing a possible threat to freedom and cause of alienation, bureaucracy and its legal-rational character successfully pervaded society, defining ultimately not only the state, but people’s lives. Bibliography Appleby, P. H. (1949), Policy and Administration. University: University of Alabama Press. Burns, T. (1980), ‘Sovereignty, Interests and Bureaucracy in the Modern State’, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 31, No. 4: pp. 491-506. Colliot-Thélène, C. (2009), ‘Modern Rationalities of the Political: From Foucault to Weber’, Max Weber Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1/2: pp. 165-187. Deacon, R. (1998), ‘Strategies of Governance Michel Foucault on Power’, Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory, Justice, Equality and Difference, No. 92: pp. 113-148. Denhardt, R. B. and Perkins, J. (1976), ‘The Coming Death of Administrative Man’, Public Administration Review, Vol. 36, No. 4: pp. 379-384. Downing, B. M. (1992), The Military Revolution and Political Change: Origins of Democracy and Autocracy in Early Modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press. du Gay, P. (2005), The Values of Bureaucracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dusza, K. (1989), ‘Max Weber’s Conception of the State Source’, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 3, No. 1: pp. 71-105. Foucault, M. (1979), ‘Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. (trans Alan Sheridan). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Heper, M. (1985), ‘The State and Public Bureaucracies: A Comparative and Historical Perspective’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 27, No. 1: pp. 86-110. Hilbert R. A. (1987), ‘Bureaucracy as Belief, Rationalization as Repair: Max Weber in a Post-Functionalist Age’, Sociological Theory, Vol. 5, No. 1: pp. 70-86. Hirst, P. (1997), ‘The international origins of national sovereignty’, In Politics and the ends of identity’, in K. Dean (ed). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. O’Neill, J. (1986), ‘The Disciplinary Society: From Weber to Foucault’, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 37, No. 1: pp. 42-60. Pierson, C. (2004), The Modern state, 2nd edn.. London: Routledge. Poggi, G. (1990), The State: Its Nature, Development, and Prospects.Cambridge: Polity Press. Power, M. (2011), ‘Foucault and Sociology’, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 37: pp. 35-56. Rehmann, J. (2015), Max Weber: Modernisation as Passive Revolution: a Gramscian Analysis. Chicago: Haymarket books. Riggs F. W. (1997), ‘Modernity and Bureaucracy’, Public Administration Review, Vol. 57, No. 4: pp. 347-353. Spruyt, H. (2002), ‘The Origins, Development, and Possible Decline of the Modern State’, Annual Review of Political Science. Vol. 5: pp. 127–149. Stone, D. (1988), Policy Paradox and Political Reason. Lempster, NH: HarperCollins. Strayer J. (1980), The Reign of Philip the Fair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press Weber, M. (1947), The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Oxford University Press. Weber, M. (1978), ‘Economy and Society’, in G. Roth and C. Wittich (eds), California: University of California Press.Weber, M. (1991), ‘Bureaucracy’, in H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds), From Max Weber – Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge. Weber, M. (1991), ‘Politics as a Vocation’, in H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds), From Max Weber – Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge. Wolin, S. (1961), Politics and Vision. London: Allen and Unwin. Logs ① What is the State? The state is the principal form of political organisation in the modern world, governing many aspects of people’s lives. ↳ The modern state has only been established recently: it emerges during the 16th century in Western Europe. ↳ In the 19th century it becomes the dominant form of political organisation in Europe and then the world.  Understanding how and why the modern state came to be the dominant form of political organisation in the world is important for understanding the nature of the state today and thinking about its future. ⇒ What is the modern state? The state’s main characteristics are: sovereignty, territoriality and administrative hierarchy (→ these should be considered ‘ideal types’ – i.e. useful abstractions that help to get a better grip on what the state is, but the claim is not that any state possesses all these features, or that these features cannot themselves be qualified in various ways).  What the state is, it is not a mystery. The state is a form of political organisation, made up of various institutions and practices. But the ‘state’ is also a concept that allows to make sense of the world, to understand it more clearly, and ask whether it should be changed and if so, how.  How from the system of politics characteristic of Medieval Europe we got to the international system of states that has its origins in Western Europe and that became by the early twentieth century the dominant form of political organisation in the world? ② Political Transformations How did the sovereign territorial state become the main form of political organisation in Europe between mid-16th and mid-18th century? ⇒ Pre-Modern State. Ancient Greece: cities and regions share similar “culture”, but there is not a centralised form of political power. Roman Empire: there is a centralised political authority that links up the several main cities of the empire. In the territories in between the main cities, the imperial authority does not apply as strictly. → It is more an imperial network, rather than a territorial integrated political organisation. Feudalism: economy and politics are effectively fused: political power is directly related to the power over land ownership. → The warlords and their armies are the most significant political unit, who aspire to gain as much territory as possible. ⇒ The emergence of the Sovereign Territorial State: in 15th – 16th century, besides the Holy Roman Empire, there are two kinds of powerful territorial states: Italian City-States: cities characterised by their power to exercise authority within the city itself, and on the surrounding hinterland. City-Leagues as The Hanseatic League: a commercial and defensive confederation of merchants and market cities.  Why, despite their power neither of these survive, being overruled by sovereign territorial states? Spruyt’s argument: sovereign territorial state system work because of factors both internal – i.e. states consolidating their internal power by defeating their internal enemies – and external – organisations mutually empowering one another and forcing out the last forms of pre-modern states. ↳ However, this tends to ignore the historical complexities that accompanied the rise of the modern state, which cannot be seen as ‘inevitable’, rather it needs to be approached as the result of the coincidence of several long-term trends and short-term episodes. ③ War War is an important factor in human history and changes in warfare have played a key role in shaping the success of the sovereign territorial states. ↳ State building involves the gradual monopolisation of the means of (legitimate) violence (see Weber’s definition of ‘state’). ↳ In early modern Europe, sovereigns aim to have the monopoly of the means of violence by defeating their internal and external enemies. ⇒ Changes in the character of warfare Feudalism: fighting in war is into the hands of private individual. → The knights perform military service for the higher nobility, in return receiving land, payments for their armour and horses, and the ability to call on a retinue. ↳ They lived in castles, and social prestige and status grew around the size and strength of one’s castle. ↳ No real distinction between ‘public’ and ‘private’ warfare. By the 15th century, several developments occur: The use of phalanxes of pikemen who are increasingly trained The use of gunpowder. The development of mercenary armies as product of a monetised economy. ↳ Positional warfare becomes popular and, in return, fortifications are improved (see trace italienne).  Early modern Europe changes in technological warfare favoured the sovereign territorial states, since smaller realities became less and less able to keep up, while, when competing with big empires, positional warfare allowed smaller states to better defend themselves. ↳ However, it is too simple to assert that the ‘military revolution’ was the main inter-state factor in promoting political change: in fact, the ‘revolution’ was not as quick as that term tends to suggest, and war remained an often haphazard and contingent affair in early modern Europe, with states still being defeated by non-state entities well into the 18th century. ④ The System of States ‘Sovereignty’ is not created only from within: the system of relationships among states also influenced the development of sovereign territorial states. → Two important historical factors: ⇒ The Peace of Westphalia in 1648. At the end of the Thirty Years War (1618-48) – political and religious struggle, involving the major powers of Europe outbroke from the Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther discipline) – the Peace of Westphalia is signed, establishing the principle of ‘cuius regio eius religio’ and declaring that no state can interfere in another state’s affairs. ↳ Realist international relations theory sees Westphalia as the starting point of the modern international system of states, marking the moment when already constituted sovereign states agree to respect each other’s internal authority. → However, as Hirst argues, Westphalia is central mainly because the principle ‘cuius regio, eius religio’ allows states to have greater control over their internal populations, and thus assert their sovereignty over them (→ Consolidation of internal power).  It is vital for the international system that sovereigns establish a monopoly of the means of violence within their territories, as well as it is crucial for them to control the external means of violence, so to have complete control over what their subjects do in relation to other states. ↳ Thomson argues that this process of controlling the external means of violence does not happen until well into the 19th century and it can only occur when the international system of states emerges, a system of nation-states. ⇒ The Congress of Vienna in 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. → They want to create peace and stability in Europe around the idea of powers’ balance (i.e. great powers should balance each other out) ↳ What they did in creating peace and stability around Europe was to provide the environment in which liberal nationalisms can emerge, driving eventually towards the development of the nation-state. To What Degree Is the Modern State Defined by Bureaucracy?
Table of Contents The Driving Force behind Personality according to Freud Elements of Freud’s Theory The Role of Society and Developmental Stages Individual Differences in Personality Conclusion References Psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud is traditionally discussed as the most popular personality theory. Freud’s theory was based on his observation and case study approaches according to which the patients’ experiences help in understanding the human personality. In his theory, Freud focuses on the role of unconscious motives, instincts, and drives in determining the human personality. The Driving Force behind Personality according to Freud Freud discusses instincts as the main driving forces to motivate people and affect their behaviors. People usually do not understand what instincts drive their life because instincts are the part of the human unconscious. Sex and aggression are two instincts which motivate the human behaviors (Feist
MKT 438 University of Phoenix W 4 Tactical Campaign Approaches Paper.

This week’s assignment deals with tactical campaign approaches. You will develop an implementation plan to execute on the strategy that you have developed for your campaign.Explain your rationale for each selection.Write a 350-word paper in which you outline your tactical plan for executing on the public relations campaign.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.1.Select up to six PR tools you will use to promote your client’s product or service. 2.For earned media, you might develop a publicity campaign for what is known as “third-party endorsement.” Refer to Ch. 9 of The Practice of Public Relations for more information on these tools.3.please do two examples for earned media.Resources: The Practice of Public Relations: Ch. 9 and Ch. 15, The Tactical Plan for the Public Relations Campaign-Paper Grading Guide
MKT 438 University of Phoenix W 4 Tactical Campaign Approaches Paper

CSUSB Funding or Fundraising Options Questions

CSUSB Funding or Fundraising Options Questions.

Directions: Answer both questions on the following page. Your answer to each question cannot exceed two handwritten pages (single-sided) per question. You may use the attached paper, although it is not required.Your goal is to demonstrate mastery of the material in a concise answer. Do not just do a brain dump. Construct a neat, organized answer that is easy to read. As in a job interview, an answer that reflects creativity based in facts will be better received then a response that just states facts. Keep in mind that there are no right or wrong answers to these questions.This exam will be graded anonymously. When finished, please scan your hand-written exam into three separate PDF files, using the following file names, and without your name on any pages and without this page on top:Question1.pdfQuestion2.pdfCoverpage.pdfQuestion 1: Should Lionsgate copy WarnerMedia’s strategy for 2021 and release all of their theatrical films to their Starz streaming service? See this for the latest subscriber numbers.Question 2: You are the producer of a thriller project called THE HITCHHIKER, that you would like to shoot in the Spring of 2021 in Los Angeles, where the script is set.Your line producer has created a budget for $6 million. You have received a $5 million offer from a private equity source to finance the feature.The financier has three conditions for funding:1)You must obtain a tax incentive to reduce her risk.2)She expects you to engage a sales company to reduce her risk. 3) You must cast her son in a compensated speaking role. Other Notes on the film:-The line producer has created a 32-day shooting schedule.-The deadline to apply for the California incentive in 2021 has passed.-The financier has said she will not agree to any dilution of her $5 million in equity. -The star is being paid $500,000.”Explain at least three different mechanisms to close the $1M gap in finance and satisfy her conditions, and then explain in as much depth as possible the process of completing the financing through each mechanism. Please be sure to discuss the pluses and minuses of each mechanism. Your analysis is as important as your solutions.Question # 1 2 ill attach the PDF please read it carefully ,
CSUSB Funding or Fundraising Options Questions

AdvHlth.Promotion

i need help writing an essay Discussion 2: World Health Organization (WHO) and “Your” Definition of Health Initial Post “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” (World Health Organization, 2005). This 1946 historical definition of health remains pertinent to this day, and it helps to guide not only our perception of health but also that of illness. For this week’s discussion, you should review the WHO’s definition of health and do an online search to see how others perceive the concept of health, then create your own definition. Consider that there are individuals who have physical abnormalities but do not feel “ill,” and those with no physical changes who yet report feeling “less than well.” How might these two statements affect the overall balance or well-being of an individual and their outlook on their total health? What is the role of the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) in terms of addressing the health of individuals and communities? Include the following in your initial post: Discuss your own personal definition of health. How does your definition compare to the WHO’s definition of health? What do you see as the role of the APRN in addressing not only the health of individuals but that of the community? Include a minimum of three scholarly references. Cite additional within 3 years sources

Glass Marketing in Turkey Essay

Introduction The successful marketing of a product or service requires an organization to understand the prevailing environment conditions in its target market. Specifically, a company needs to understand the external and internal factors present in the marketing environment. This writer worked in the marketing department of the Nilufer Company in Turkey. The company has multiple products, but this writer worked in the construction department marketing glass. The marketing experience was an eye-opener for this writer. Additionally, the internship experience challenged this writer to understand how a company like Nilufer perceives its target market and therefore, plans its marketing activities accordingly. This research paper will investigate external factors affecting glass marketing in Turkey. Research aim Identify the main external environmental factors that a company like Nilufer needs to consider when marketing its products. Research question What are the main external factors affecting the marketing of glass in Turkey? Methodology This paper will use a qualitative method of study, where evidence will be gathered from existing literature sources. From such sources, the paper gets an understanding of the demand, supply, and competitive forces in the market. Additionally, the paper will create an understanding of what Nilufer can do in order to successfully market its products. Literature review Turkey’s glass industry is discussed at length in the literature. It has been argued that the demand for glass is bolstered by the construction industry (Punt 6). The construction industry uses high quality glass, thus meaning that glass marketers who target the construction industry have to ensure that their products meet superior product quality standards. Literature sources further indicate that the glass industry in Turkey has shown significant improvement in the past decade. For example, production of glass has been enhanced by 285%, while the demand for glass has gone up by 226%. Glass exports have also marked a tenfold increase in the last decade (Turkey Company Laws 247). Interestingly, Turkey also imports glass even as some of its manufacturers of glass export their products to outside markets. The foregoing observation means that Nilufer Company faces competition from imported products. The largest producer and marketer of glass in Turkey is Sis ve Cam Fabrikalari Toplulugu (SISECAM) (Theoces 1). It is said that SISECAM produces 80% to 90% of all glass in Turkey (Theoces 1). To realize such a high production capacity, the company has invested in twenty manufacturing establishments. SISECAM has two marketing companies which handle the marketing of glass in and outside Turkey (Turkey Company Laws 247). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More SISECAM’s main competitive advantage is that it is the only producer and marketer of flat glass in Turkey. Additionally, it has wide sales services and an intensive glass production technology. Moreover, the company has accumulated glass technology knowledge over the years and as a result, it is rated as one of the best manufacturers of quality glass. For Nilufer and other emerging companies, the glass market in Turkey still has opportunities that can be effectively utilized. Major opportunities in Turkey’s glass industry are found in household items and glass containers (Turkey Company Laws 247). Glass household items include tumblers, shot glasses, beer mugs, and wine glasses among other products. Tinted, sand-blasted, enamelled and safety glasses are also niche glass product categories, which are facing a deficit in production (Turkey Company Laws 247). An analysis of external factors affecting the marketing of glass External factors in marketing include issues in both the microenvironment and macroenvironment (Curtis and Williams 242). The components of a microenvironment include those things that are in close proximity to the company. They include: suppliers, customers, competitors, resellers, government and the public (Curtis and Williams 242). The extent to which suppliers can bargain with the company has an effect on the production price and ultimately, on the sale price. Customer choice and behaviour can also affect marketing in that some customers are loyal to a product and cannot be convinced to purchase an alternative product. Others customers are trend setters and will embrace new and different products. Still, other consumers seek quality products that fit well into their tastes and preferences (Curtis and Williams 240). Competitors also affect marketing based on several things, which include market share, pricing, and marketing approaches. SISECAM is, for example, a formidable competitor to Nilufer. SISECAM accounts for 90% of Turkey’s glass production, and as such, has a larger market share compared to Nilufer. Consequently, Nilufer finds it hard to penetrate markets where SISECAM has already commanded a loyal consumer base. Additionally, SISECAM has been marketing glass for longer than Nilufer, and resultantly, has succeeded in obtaining a higher production capacity. Its enhanced marketing capacity is evident in its many product categories and marketing companies, which pose a major competitive challenge to Nilufer. Resellers/distributors also affect marketing because they act as the link between the manufacturer and the consumer. Resellers/distributors can use a price mark-up that makes the product costly compared to other competing products in the market (Curtis and Williams 240). They can also create delays whereby, consumers do not get products in good time. The foregoing situation would occur if resellers/distributors do not place product orders to the manufacturer in good time. Government policies are also a micro environment factor that affects the marketing of products such as glass (Curtis and Williams 240). Notably, Turkey allows glass imports into the country, and this poses additional competition to the local glass industry. In spite of the foregoing, the government supports the glass industry (e.g. by arranging for international and local fairs where manufacturers and consumers can meet). The foregoing support from the government creates new networks, which glass manufacturers and marketers use to get into new markets. We will write a custom Essay on Glass Marketing in Turkey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, the public also affects how marketing is done. In Turkey, companies have a responsibility not only to their customers and employees, but also to the larger public (Turkey Company Laws 249). Specifically, glass marketing companies are required to ensure that none of their production or marketing activities harm the environment, or the people at large. It is also perceived as a good corporate practice for companies to have corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, where the company is generally expected to ‘give back to the community’. Ideally, CSR is handled under public relations, and in marketing, CSR is supposed to ensure that the company’s actions and policies are perceived as ethical, morally acceptable and beneficial to all stakeholders involved. The components of a macroenvironment of a company like Nilufer, on the other hand consists of factors such as: Demographic, economic, technological, political, legal, social and cultural factors Demographic factors affect marketing because they determine the population size that is interested in a specific product or service (Curtis and Williams 242). If Nilufer, for example, targets the construction industry, its marketing would be affected by the percentage of developers who are willing to use glass in construction. If it targets selling utensils made from glass, its marketing strategy would be affected by the percentage of people in Turkey and other of its target markets, who are starting new families and thus equipping their kitchens for the first time, and/or existing families who want to buy new kitchen ware for their families’ use. Economic factors such as increases in fuel costs are likely to affect the production cost of glass, meaning that glass marketers may have to adjust their prices to cover for the increased costs of production (Yurdagul and Orcan 6). Price increases affect marketing because customers may decide to seek cheaper alternatives, or order less glass products. Technological factors also influence marketing in that manufacturers have to invest in technology in order to enhance the production of quality products (Curtis and Williams 242). It has been noted that SISECAM has technologically superior production facilities. Arguably, Nilufer has to use similar or better technology if it is to successfully compete with SISECAM. Political and legal factors also affect marketing in that sound marketing decisions have to be made in consideration of prevailing legal benchmarks (Curtis and Williams 242). Additionally, the political ideologies of the government have to be taken into consideration. For example, Nilufer and other glass manufacturers and marketers in Turkey have to consider the political position of the government on such issues as bilateral trade. Some bilateral trade agreements intend to enhance competitiveness in the local market by opening up the economy to new players from other countries. Finally, social and cultural factors affect the market’s macroenvironment, especially because modern marketing is expected to be socially and culturally responsible (Curtis and Williams 242). Ideally, such responsibilities mean that marketers need to promote products and services that provide value to the consumers, and which are culturally acceptable. Considering that nudity is not culturally or socially acceptable in Turkey for example, Nilufer would have to steer away from any expressions of nudity in their different glass products. Discussion From the literature review section above it would appear that marketing of glass by Nilufer Company is affected by multiple factors in the external environment. From a microenvironment perspective, marketing is affected by suppliers, customers, competitors, resellers, government and the public. From the macroenvironment perspective on the other hand, it appears that marketing is affected by factors such as social, cultural, political, economic, technological, and demographic factors. Ideally, the marketing department in Nilufer should be well aware of the aforementioned factors when developing its marketing strategy. This writer now understands why Nilufer did some of the things it did. For example, the company chose to concentrate on niche markets, with its unique product offers. Understandably, the foregoing might have been informed by the competitive pressure found in its macroenvironment. Not sure if you can write a paper on Glass Marketing in Turkey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion This paper investigates the external factors affecting marketing of glass in Turkey. The paper emphasizes the marketing of glass because this writer’s industrial attachment was in Nilufer Company, where the writer’s main responsibilities were related to marketing. From the paper, it is clear that the external environment contains factors that Nilufer and other glass manufacturing and marketing companies need to consider when developing their marketing strategies. Specifically, this paper provides insight into specific factors that glass marketing companies need to understand during marketing strategy development. Additionally, marketing companies need to constantly be updated on all factors during strategy implementation, since a change in any of those factors can affect the entire marketing environment. Works Cited Curtis, Tony and John Williams. CIM Course book 08/09 Marketing Management in Practice. New York: Routledge, 2012. Print. Punt, Trevor. Glass Market Intelligence Report. Bolton: ISPY Publishing, 2013. Print. Theoces, Larry. “Glass Industry in Turkey.” Study Mode. Feb. 2011. Turkey Company Laws. Turkey Company Laws and Regulations Handbook. London: Int’l Business Publications, 2008. Print. Yurdagul, Bulent and Cenk Orcan. “In It To Win It: Turkish Equities – Facing a New Competitive Landscape.” HSBC Global Research, 2011.

Euro note and euro commercial paper

Difference Between The Euro Note Market And The Euro Commercial Paper Market Introduction The Euromarkets are the single most important source of commercial loan funds for the developing countries. The development and operation of Eurocurrency markets have played a very significant role in the post war international financial system. Indeed the explosive growth in international banking and bank lending could not have come about but for the Eurocurrency markets. Simply stated, the term Eurocurrency refers to a currency deposited in a bank outside the home country of that currency. Therefore, Eurocurrencies and Eurocurrency markets are outside the regulatory framework of any monetary authority-the monetary authority of the place where the deposit is made is not concerned with non-residents depositing or borrowing foreign currencies, which does not affect the domestic money supply. It is also outside the control of the monetary authority of the home country of the currency concerned because the transaction takes place outside the country. Inter-Bank Markets Apart from customer transactions, there is an extremely active inter-bank market in Eurocurrencies. Banks acting in the market are continuously trading Eurodollar deposits in the inter-bank market. Such active banks would readily offer a two-way quote-the rate at which they are willing to take a deposit, and the rate at which they are willing to place deposits. The two rates are referred to as bid and offered rates-hence the terms, London inter-bank rate (LIBID) and London inter-bank offered rate (LIBOR)-and the differences between the two represents the trading margin of the bank. Generally, it is of the order 1/8 percent. For calculation of interest on currencies other than the British pound, Eurodollar deposits in particular, the year is reckoned to be of 360 days. Thus, the actual interest would be worked out on the actual number of days divided by 360. Note Issuance Facilities Note Issuance Facility (NIF) is a medium term commitment on the part of underwriting banks which obliges them to purchase any short term notes which the borrower is unable to sell in the market, at an agreed spread over a suitable benchmark. The benchmark could be LIBOR, the T-bill rate, etc. Once a note issuance facility is in place, the borrower can issue short term paper and sell it in the capital market. To the extent the borrower can sell notes at a spread lower than that at which the underwriters are committed to buy, this helps in reducing the cost of borrowing. Another major advantage of a note issuance facility is that, since the notes are short term, this may allow the borrower to access investors who may not be interested in committing medium term funds but may be quite happy to buy short-term paper. The NIF can thus be used to diversify the investor base. To an extent, the NIF is something of a halfway mark between syndicated loans on the one hand and bond issues on the other. With some marginal variations in the basic structure of the facility, NIFs are sometimes also referred to as revolving underwriting facilities (RUFs), note purchase facilities or Euro note facilities. Euro-Notes Euro notes are short term bonds sold by a borrower directly to the investors with or without the underwriting support of the commercial banks. Euro-Commercial Paper Like Euro notes under NIFs, CPs is also short term paper issued by non-bank borrowers. The principal distinguishing feature is that commercial papers are not underwritten by a bank and the issuer, therefore, is one with very high credentials. The paper is usually issued in higher denominations of the order of $ 100,000 and the market is dominated by large professional investors. Although these can be issued in interest -bearing form, they are usually issued at a discount to face-value and quoted in the secondary market on a yield basis. Euro Notes And Euro-Commercial Paper Markets A recent innovation in nonbank short-term credits that bears a strong resemblance to commercial paper is the so-called Euro note. Euro notes are short term notes usually denominated in dollars and issued by corporations and governments. The prefix”Euro” indicates that the notes are issued outside the country in whose currency they are denominated. The interest rates are adjusted each time the notes are rolled over. Euro notes are often called Euro-commercial paper. Typically, though, the name Euro-CP is reserved for those Euro notes that are not underwritten. There are some differences between the U.S. commercial paper and the Euro-CP markets. For one thing, the average maturity of Euro-CP is about twice as long as the average maturity of U.S. CP. Also Euro-CP is actively traded in secondary market, but most U.S. CP is held to maturity by the original investors. Central banks, commercial banks and corporations are important part of the investor base for particular segments of Euro-CP market; the most important holders of U.S. CP are money market funds, which are not very important in the Euro-CP market. In addition, the distribution of U.S. issuers in the Euro-CP market is of significantly lower than the distribution of U.S. issuers in the U.S. CP market. An explanation of this finding may lie in the importance of banks as buyer of less-than-prime paper in the Euro-CP market. Another important difference in practice between the two markets is in the area of ratings. Only about 45% of active Euro-CP issuers at year end 1986 were rated. Credit ratings in the United States, on the other hand are ubiquitous. This difference may prove transitory, however as investors become accustomed to the concept and the rating agencies facilitate the use of their services.

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