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Times When Two Cultures Come Together

Culture is defined as the historically transmitted and interrelated web of values, assumptions, norms, belief systems and behavioral patterns that differentiate one human group from another. Culture is manifested in music, painting, literature, theater, sculpture and films, shortly in all aspects of life. It influences the way we perceive the world, the way we attribute meaning to our environment. Therefore diversities and conflicts are commonly seen when people from different cultural backgrounds encounter each other. In this paper I would like to examine this cultural contact based on a movie called ‘My Big Fat Greek Wedding’. The 2002 romantic comedy ‘My Big Fat Greek Wedding’ is a great example for depicting cultural differences between the US and the Greek culture. It shows how differences in cultures may affect the lives of people through the main character of a 30 year old Greek girl Toula. Being brought up in the US by a traditional Greek family, Toula has to have a single purpose in life: to marry a Greek man and have as many Greek children as she can. Compared to her sister who has been married for a while and has 3 children, she is perceived to be seen unfortunate due to her reaching 30 and still being single. Her father continuously reminds her to marry soon because she started to look old. Toula is stuck with all of the Greek values in her life. She is working in the family-owned restaurant and has no free space for herself. From the time she was a child, decisions regarding which school she would attend or where she would work are all determined by her family. However; being raised in an American culture that is totally different from Greek culture resulted her to be unsatisfied with her life. The emphasis on individuality, being able to be autonomous affected her views as well. The realization of this uncontentment climaxed after meeting Ian while working at the restaurant. When Ian enters her life, she began to realize that she wanted to live her own life and she starts to make her own choices. With her mother’s help, she gets the permission for taking computer classes at college which she may later use for business. The approval of the father comes late because he thinks that city is a dangerous place to go. Even when her mother insists on this permission, he responds: ‘if a girl is enough intelligent, why bother going to school.’ This dilemma of acculturation process which Toula experienced is examined scientifically in Cigdem Kagitcibasi’s book of ‘Family, Self, and Human Development across Cultures’ as well. In her book, Kagitcibasi explains that the aspirations of adolescents have are influenced by the dominant society when there is a cultural contact between the culture of relatedness of ethnic minorities originating from collectivistic societies and the culture of separateness of the individualistic dominant society. In the culture of separateness, autonomy is highly valued because it is functional and adaptive in everyday situations. When these minority adolescents engage in a social comparison process, they see that their peers who belong to the culture of separateness enjoy more authority than they do. On the other hand, being related with their parents satisfies their need for warmth and security and it does not create a conflict. However; in some cases where parents lack enough education, parents see autonomy as a sign of disrespect or separation. Therefore they may not give autonomy to the child. Here we can talk about a ‘culture lag’ in which the traditional point of view in the family of interdependence still continues despite the fact that it is not functional in the urban, technological society. This culture lag creates a conflict where the autonomous-related self and the family model of psychological/emotional interdependence that adolescents favor collides with the heteronomous-related self and the family model of interdependence that parents value. Because the first one is more adaptive in an immigration context, it is likely that it will be the case (Kagitcibasi, p.324). However this transition would be tough just as it is observed in Toula’s struggle. As it is examined above, autonomus related self is more adaptive in an urban lifesetting as it is the case with Toula in the movie. Autonomous related self is a concept that is established by Kagitcibasi that satisfies two basic needs which are autonomy and relatedness. Although the mainstream psychology has always thought autonomy as being separate, Kagitcibasi notes that these two are distinct concepts which are independent from each other. Autonomy refers to willful agency, being governed from outside; whereas being separate or close is about the relationship with others. This type of self is more compatible with an immigration context where there is urban lifestyle involving education and work. Because urban lifestyle requires individual decision making, in other words autonomy is needed for taking initiatives. However close self other and kinship relations continue to exist, too. Therefore it is more adaptive to have autonomous related self. But the process for migrant families with traditional lifestyle to accept the shift towards this type of self takes time. After getting the approval of her parents, Toula’s differentiation process towards the autonomous related self begins. She gets herself a new hairdo, abandons her glasses and starts to wear make-up. Moreover she manages to find new contacts and becomes more outgoing and social. She quits working in the family owned restaurant. Instead, she starts to work at the tourism agency bureau of her aunt. In her new job, she feels much better, especially after getting the attraction from the guy, Ian, whom she met at the restaurant. After a while, Ian and Toula starts to date secretly but as Toula finds out that the guy she was dreaming of is non-Greek, things began to be challenging for both of them. As Toula is struggling with how to make her family accept Ian who is a ‘foreigner’, Ian finds himself confronted with the family of his love where things are totally different from his own. As opposed to Ian who has only two cousins, Toula has twenty seven. When Ian asks her what she does in her free times, she responds that there is no free time for her own because the extended family is together all the time. In addition to that, Toula’s family is very proud of their Greek heritage. Her father constantly states that all of the words have roots from the Greek language and he overemphasizes that there are two types of people, firstly the ones who are Greek and secondly the ones who want to be Greek. Moreover, her family tries to preserve their Greek identity in all aspects. Their house is designed in Greek style and there were Greek statues and miniatures all over the place. They engage in every traditional practice that a Greek family might have. They celebrate festive days in Greek way; they dance and eat with Greek relatives. They send their kids to Greek schools so that they acquire the Greek culture. The family also has a patriarchal structure where the father is the head of the family and where the mother helps with the care and support of the household. Toula’s family fits into the model of interdependence as it is described in Kagitcibasi’s book. The model is associated with close family relations and is often characterized by patrilineal family structures (Kagitcibasi, p. 136). Toula’s family also has strong familial relations, they celebrate everything together with the extended family, cousins altogether work at a family owned restaurant in order to contribute household jointly. As it is expected from Toula, this type of family structure demands fertility as well. Moreover, the child’s dependence is ensured by obedience-oriented socialization and authoritarian parenting as it is the case with Toula. Even reaching her 30s is not enough to make decisions regarding herself alone. Still she needs the approval of her father, is strictly controlled when she comes home late. This type of socialization promotes ‘loyalty’ and ‘interdependence’ as it is seen in the movie. As opposed to Toula’s family which values interdependence, Ian’s family is characterized in the model of independence which is the typical model of the western individualistic, nuclear family that is found in the industrialized societies (Kagitcibasi, p. 139). This family model values interpersonal independence. The family exists in nuclear structure and low level of fertility is common. Socialization practices enhance the independent self where there is less control in childrearing. That’s why Ian’s family does allow the marriage at first sight and does not interfere with the process. Moreover, Ian lives alone and has no sibling or twenty seven cousins like Toula which is seen in family of interdependence. The differences regarding the values and beliefs are mostly seen through reaching the end of the film where the two families start to meet and interact. When Ian’s family comes for a dinner which was supposed to be a quiet dinner for meeting each side, they are shocked when they see the crowd which is waiting for them. Every single member of the extended family was invited for the dinner and the dinner turned out to be a party where everyone eat, dance and sing Greek songs which is common in Greek culture. As opposed to Toula’s crowded family, Ian’s family comes to dinner with only the nuclear members of the family composed of mother, father and Ian. As the wedding preparations accelerate, Toula’s relatives continue to intervene in every single detail. For example; Toula’s mother has already prepared the wedding invitations by herself and didn’t ask Toula’s opinion about whom to invite. Her wedding dress is already planned by her cousin and the place of the wedding is arranged by Toula’s family, despite of the fact that Ian’s family thought a club would be okay. As it can be predicted, marriage from the perspective of Toula’s Greek family is just not about uniting two people, but it is the joining of two clans. As opposed to this, marriage can just be a ‘consumer decision with utilitarian value shared with associates at a club’ (Denny Wayman
fixed income: case questions.

3 pages of technical appendices. 1. Create the two synthetic bonds described in the case. Explain the financial construction and motivate any assumptions you wish to make.2. Analyze the callables. What do they consist on in terms of financial instruments? How could you unbundle their cash flows?One synthetic bond is the one that is created by combining more than one noncallable bonds and as a result of this, the final product of this will be a synthetic bond that has a semi-annual interest payment and thus this means that the owner will not have to wait until the final day to get his profits or losses (Aquilina et al., 2020). If it reaches the middle of the year and the owner wants his money back then most definitely this particular synthetic bond the owner can call his bond and get away with his money rather than waiting for a long period that could most definitely lead to losses or even take a long duration before the owner witnesses his long-awaited interest.The second synthetic bond is the one that is established by combining noncallable bonds that mature in the year 2000 with additional STRIPS maturing in the same year. This kind of synthetic bond should be worth more than the original used callable bonds. The most important thing about this kind of synthetic bond is the fact that the investor who does not own the original callable bonds can still benefit and make profits from this particular synthetic bond but on the other hand, this particular synthetic bond can easily be manipulated and thus this means that the investor might end up not getting what they waited from their original investment.The financial construction in this particular case is made possible by combining either callable bonds or noncallable bonds depending on where the money. On the other hand, the most important thing to know is the fact that the financial construct that is established by combining callable bonds is the most satisfactory of all and the main reason for this is because an investor can easily withdraw his interest in the middle of the and thus this means that he does not have wait for a long period before getting his money unlike in a situation where noncallable bonds are used to establish the financial construct (Aquilina et al., 2020). As we see, the financial construct designed using noncallable bonds is vulnerable to manipulations that could easily make an investor incur losses and thus is the main reason why I believe callable bonds should always be used when it comes to financial construction.Callable BondsTreasury BondsThe treasury bonds are debt securities that are given by the US government and normally investors are given a period of 20 or more years to pay back the money (Schumacher, 2020). As we can see this is a kind of government-issued funds and thus this means that the government is the one that controls everything about it and as a result of this, the New Stock Exchange is normally the organization that deals with securing treasury bonds.Most of the times treasury bonds are vulnerable to manipulation mainly because an investor might invest his money only to find later that the government has changed some policies when it comes to debt security and thus this might affect the overall investment in a positive manner or a negative approach based of the updates.Municipal BondsMunicipal bonds are debt security that is given out by the local government and normally the main beneficiary of this kind of funds are local hospitals, schools, and even the community but most of the times the loans are offered for local development purposes whereby the amount can be used to construct such things as local parks, water distribution centers and also to construct damages on roads.Corporate BondsThe corporate bond if a kind of debt security or loan that is provided by a firm and then it is distributed to investors that are willing to take the money for investment purpose (Schumacher, 2020). In this particular case, we can take such kind of debt security as another investment opportunity for firms because they are offering the money to people and later on make some profits out of the investment. The distribution and all matters concerning the investment are left on the hand of the corporate company at hand.Callables/Financial InstrumentsCallables are debt security financial instruments in the sense that they are just loans that are given out to people, the community, investors, and firms for development purposes or investment purposes (Willer et al., 2020). As we all know, once you are given a loan, this is not your money. You take the money for investment purposes and repay the money to the owner by following the guidelines and deadlines given out to him and thus all the above-mentioned callables operate using this same principle.As we can see the Treasury bond is a form of callable that is given out by the US government and thus this means that the investor will have to adhere to all the policies given out by the US government when it comes to paying back the money given to out. This means that the Treasury bond is not the investor’s money but the US government’s money and thus the investor will have to pay the money to the US government.On the other hand, a municipal bond is a form of a callable that is offered by the local government which is a clear indication that the money given out is a form of investment for the local government (Willer et al., 2020). The investor will have to pay back the money to the local government by adhering t all the principles given out by the local government.Finally, corporate bonds are forms of callables that are debt security provided by a corporate organization and thus this means that an investor will have to pay back the amount of money given to them to the corporate organization. As we can see, it is clear that callables are just loans that are given out to communities and investors for investment purposes and we can appreciate them mainly because they normally come with a long duration of payment.Cash FlowsWhen it comes to unbundling the cash flow of callables, it mainly depends on the organization that has issued the money out. When it comes to the Treasury bond, then most definitely its cash flow will begin from the US government then it will be distributed to the other lower-level investors and after the investment period is over, most definitely it will be the time for the investors to pay back the money to the US government.When it comes to the municipal bonds then its cashflow will begin from the local government mainly because this kind of callable is offered by the local government of every region (Willer et al., 2020). The fund will then be distributed to the respective investors and then they will be given the duration of time they need to pay back the money given to them and once the duration is over the respective investors will have to pay back their money to the local government.Finally, when it comes to the corporate bond, the cashflow begins from the corporate companies that offer the money which will be distributed to the respective investors according to the agreement, and later on when the agreement has expired the investors will have to pay back the money.All in all, the point behind the distribution of callables is the fact that it normally begins with the organization that is responsible for providing the debt financial instrument which will later be distributed to the respective investors, and after term agreed term has expired each respective investor will have to pay back his debt with the required interest and at the end of the day this means that the cash flow will be returning to the original organization that gave out the investment (Willer et al., 2020). The cash flow is back to back kind of repetitive approach.
fixed income: case questions

Scenario: A company called Colony Nursery and Landscaping opened a new store located a few hundred miles away from its original location. The company wants to implement an award system that awards their customers with points whenever customers make a purchase, but the two stores are not able to share information. Colony Nursery and Landscaping will need to implement an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system that will solve the information silo problem by collecting and making this user data available. Colony Nursery and Landscaping is hoping that by providing customers with this award system, they will be able to maintain competitive advantage. Colony Nursery and Landscaping cannot afford to purchase, develop, or maintain this system on-site, so they are investigating cloud solutions. In addition, for many organizations, Colony Nursery and Landscaping included, information silos make it difficult to tap into needed information. Discuss whether or not the problem of information silos can be solved by using the cloud. Some organizations do not have the resources to construct or maintain their computer infrastructure, so they utilize cloud services instead to reduce costs and improve scalability. In this assignment, you will discuss whether or not the cloud offers solutions for Colony Nursery and Landscaping and identify an application that the ERP system could provide. Compose an essay that includes the elements listed below. Define what an information silo is. Explain why information silos are a problem for organizations. Discuss why organizations are moving to the cloud. Determine whether or not using cloud services, such as a cloud-based host for data storage, would solve the ERP information silo problem at Colony Nursery and Landscaping. Explain how using the ERP system and awards program would provide a competitive advantage for Colony Nursery and Landscaping. Discuss why the implementation of an ERP system might require business process reengineering for Colony Nursery and Landscaping. Be sure to explain the business processes that will be affected (e.g., the customer awards system). Use diagrams or tables as needed, but this is not required. Your essay must be a minimum of two pages in length (not counting the title and reference pages), and it must be formatted in APA style. You should include an introduction section that gives background and context to your reader. You must use at least two scholarly resources as references. Any information from these resources must be cited and referenced in APA format.

The Role Of Intermediary Devices In Networks Information Technology Essay

TCP/ IP model and OSI layers are the two network models used by the internet. In the OSI model, an Ethernet switch operates at the Data-Link layer to create a different collision domain for every single switch port. A multilayer switch though may work at more than one OSI layers, including physical, data link, network and even the transport layer. A router on the other hand is considered a layer 3- the Network layer of the TCP/IP model- device since it does most of its routing decisions according to information in the IP packet of layer 3. Role of Intermediary Devices in the network The switch, which is basically a modern and more efficient version of the outdated hub, is a network access device. The router is an internetworking device. They are both intermediary devices. The basic functionalities of the processes that run in them are to regenerate and re-transmit data, maintain information about the pathways that exist across the network and internet, inform other devices in case of errors and transmission failures, guide data along substitute pathways when there is a failure in the link, classify and direct messages according to Quality of Service (QoS) priorities and permit or deny data flow based on security settings. LANs AND WANs A Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network which typically covers one geographical area, delivering services and applications to those within a mutual organizational structure. A switch is used to connect these computers. Switches lack the capability of connecting multiple networks or distributing an internet connection. A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network of computers covering a broad area and is used in interconnecting two or multiple Local Area Networks. It is usually built using leased lines. A router connects two or more logical subnets and thus is usually connected to two or more LANs or WANs or also a LAN and its Internet Service Provider (ISP). Routers are also used to link segments of a LAN that has been sub-netted into smaller segments. Routers are located at gateways, the meeting point of two or more networks (Ilascu, 2007) Address Table Packet-switched computer networks employ a forwarding technique called bridging. Bridging is dependent on flooding and source address examination in received packet headers to establish the address location of unknown devices. Switches maintain a table of Ethernet MAC addresses referred to as a CAM Table also known as Bridge forwarding table using a method called Transparent Bridging involving learning, flooding, filtering, forwarding and aging. The switch records the source addresses in entries in the table, while destination addresses are looked up in the table and matched to the proper segment to send the frame. The show mac-address-table command can be used to show this table on a Cisco switch. Source route bridging is another form of bridging that was developed for token ring networks. Routers direct packets according to information stored in the IP routing table. A router looks inside each TCP/IP packet it has received to identify the IP addresses of the source and target, searches its own routing table for the best match between the destination IP address of the network and addresses in the routing table packet then forwards the packets as desired to ensure that data reaches its destination. The show ip route command can be used to show the table on a Cisco router. (Cisco, 2009) Security Switches and routers are often ignored as security devices because they were originally made to enhance network connectivity rather than network security. Consequently, they are conceptually less secure. An attack on the edge router can cut off the entire network from its users. Weak passwords, unneeded services, protocol and IOS vulnerabilities and IOS configuration errors can cause security breaches. Most routers nowadays have a hardware firewall integrated in their systems thus this has made routers an important component in fostering network security. There are several technical terms about switches and routers that one would encounter: Ports and interfaces A port is a point of physical access or physical interface between a circuit and a device or system at which signals are injected or extracted. It can also be a logical connection, identified by a protocol address in a packet header, associated with TCP or UDP service. The IP address and the port number identify a socket. An interface physically and logically interconnects two other devices or systems Broadcast, unicast and multicast Multicast is a transmission mode in which a signal or packet is sent to multiple devices or computers, but not all on a network, unicast is where a single packet or signal is sent to a single device and broadcast is where it is sent to all stations on a network in order to update the routing table. Gateway This is where one network meets another, for example where a LAN and a WAN are joined by a router. Protocols These are rules and conventions used to exchange information between computers or across computer internetworks. Their two major functions are handshaking and line discipline. Encapsulation and Decapsulation Different types of information are added as data from the Application layer passes down the protocol stack. A new header in each level and a new name is given to the data enclosed. Decapsulation is the reverse. As data goes up the protocol stack, the Data link layer takes it from the physical medium, does a Cyclic Redundancy Check, strips off the respective headers and the rest of the data is passed to an upper layer till it reaches the application layer. Packet switching LAN switches depend on packet-switching. A connection between two segments is established long enough to direct out the current packet. Inbound packets are stored in a temporary memory area, buffer; MAC address in the header is read and compared to those in the switch’s lookup table. An Ethernet frame comprises a normal packet as the payload of the frame, which has a special header including the MAC address information. Traffic-routing in a switch Three methods are used by packet-based switches for traffic-routing. As soon as the packet is detected by the switch, Cut-through switches read the MAC address. The 6 bytes that contain the address information are stored and instantly forwarding the packet to the destination node starts as the rest of the packet comes into the switch. In store-and-forward, the entire packet is saved by the switch, checked for CRC inaccuracies or any other problems before sending. The packet is discarded if it contains errors. The least common method is fragment-free. Its working is like that of cut-through but the first 64 bytes of the packet are stored before sending. This is because most errors and all collisions take place during the first 64 bytes of a packet. Switch configurations The physical design of LAN switches differ. Shared memory is one of the three common configurations in use. This brand of switch stores all entering packets in a common buffer memory shared by all switch ports (for input and output connections), subsequently sending them out through the correct port for the required destination node. In Matrix type of switch, there is an internal grid with input ports crossing output ports. Once a packet is identified on an input port, the MAC address is matched to the lookup table to get the suitable output port. A connection on the grid where these two ports intersect is then made by the switch. The third is Bus architecture, where instead of a grid; an internal transmission path (common bus) is shared by all ports using TDMA. There is a dedicated memory buffer for each port in a switch based on this configuration, with an ASIC to control the internal bus access. Router interfaces A router typically has multiple interfaces, as its main purpose is to interconnect several networks and send packets from one network to another. Every interface is a member or host belonging to a different IP network. The routing table comprises of network addresses for a router’s own interfaces, which are directly connected networks, and remote networks. Though routers make their major forwarding decisions at the Network layer, router interfaces do this in Layers 1, 2, and 3. IP packets at layer 1 are encapsulated into data link frame at layer 2 and encoded into bits at physical Layer 1. Router interfaces participate in processes associated with their encapsulation at layer 2. A router Ethernet interface, for example, takes part in the ARP process like other same LAN hosts. Router interfaces may vary, but Serial and FastEthernet interfaces are common. Static and Dynamic Routes Static routes are easily and manually configured. However, in large networks the manual operation can be quite cumbersome. Static routes have a default administrative distance of “1”. If there’s not a more specific match in the routing table, the default route, 0.0.0.0 network address and 0.0.0.0 subnet mask, is used to forward the packet to another router. Dynamic routing protocols require less administrative overhead. They do discovery of remote networks, maintaining up-to-date routing information, choosing the best path to destination networks and have ability to find a new best path if the current is no longer available or if there is a topology change. Static routing is still used nowadays, more often than not, in combination with dynamic routing. Conclusion As introduction of more industrial devices which have built-in Ethernet capabilities continues, networks keep becoming more complex and get crowded with signal traffic. This increases the necessity for Ethernet switches and routers with advanced technology which limits collisions, control bandwidth and have ability to craft virtual local area networks. Companies like Cisco, HP and IBM are racing to produce devices based on the new Energy Efficient Ethernet Standard (IEEE 802.3az). The announcement of CGR 2010 and CGS 2520 router and switch products by Cisco Systems recently designed to aid utility companies in supplying power to homes and businesses under the Smart grid project, a conglomeration of existing and technologies under development, hoped to ameliorate aging US power grid in the near future. As internet speeds get faster, through copper and fiber, switches and routers must possess features of high capacity and expandability. HOW THE INTERNET WORKS (incl. IPv4 and IPv6) Internet protocol suite It refers to a model architecture which divides methods into one layered system of protocols commonly known as TCP/IP, the two most important protocols in it. It is composed of the Link layer, Internet, Transport and Application layers. The link layer provides basic connectivity between computer networking hardware and associated interface-interface messaging management. The Internet layer facilitates interconnectivity between networks and has the Internet Protocol defining IPv4 and IPv6 used to locate hosts on the network. Transport layer provides a framework to convey data between hosts with the help of protocols like TCP and UDP. Application layer deals with application-based interaction between communicating Internet hosts on a process-to-process level. The Domain Name System (DNS) This is the whole network of programs and databases that cooperate to translate hostnames to IP addresses. Internet hostnames are composed of parts separated by dots. A domain is a collection of machines that share a common name suffix. Domains can also live inside other domains. Each domain is defined by an authoritative name server that knows the IP addresses of the other machines in the domain. The primary name server may have backups in case it goes down. The name-servers do not have to know the locations of all the machines in other domains including their own sub-domains, just the location of name-servers. Each top-level domain server knows where the name-servers for the domains directly beneath it are. Classful and classless routing IPv4 addresses were initially allocated based on classes A, B, C, D. Classful routing utilizes routing protocols which do not send subnet mask information if there is a sent out route update . All network devices must use a similar subnet mask e.g. RIPv1. In classless routing, the network portion of the address is determined by the network subnet mask, also known as the network prefix, or prefix length In Classless routing, subnet mask information is sent out in the routing updates. It allows VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Masking) e.g. RIP V2 EIGRP

Arguments For and Against Electorial Colleges

online homework help Arguments For and Against Electorial Colleges. Electoral College: Is It Right for America? Most Americans who cast a ballet to elect the president and vice president of the United States believe they are voting directly for their candidate. The reality is that the Electoral College elects both the president and in turn the vice president under Article II, Section 1, of the US Constitution. The framers of the Constitution did not want the president and vice president to be elected by the “excitable mass” (Bardes 253). At the time of the presidential election there are two election processes in motion. First, there is the nation-wide popular vote. This vote consists of all vote’s casts by eligible votes in all fifty states including the District of Columbia. The candidate with the most votes wins the popular vote, but the person with most popular votes may not win the election. Secondly, there is an election held by the Electoral College (EC). The EC is not an educational institution as one might think but consists of 538 electors from each state and the District of Columbia. Each state’s numbers of electors equal the states members in the House of Representatives and the two Senators from each state. Also included in the Electoral College are three electors from the District of Columbia which are equal to the least populist state which is Alaska (Bardes -253). To win the presidential election a candidate must secure a majority of the 538 votes, in this case 270. A major debate in America today revolves around the EC and at the center is whether the Electoral College system is democratic and fair. Proponents of the Electoral College say it should be kept in place, the opposing view is to do away with it and another’s wanting to see it modified. Tara Ross, a lawyer, writer and author of Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College,states: The Electoral College System Is a Brilliant Constitutional Device. (Ross- 117). She goes on to write America’s founding fathers believe pure democracies could allow inflamed majorities and mobs to rule, so they created constitutional devices to temper the momentary passions of the public and protect minority interests and small states. The electoral college is one of these devices, and it continues to serve a critical role in American democracy.(Ross – 3). According to Mary Frances Greene who is with the US National Archives and a EC supporter writes: Proponents of the Electoral College claim that critics exaggerate the risks in our present system, pointing to the very few small numbers of occasions where their concerns have come to fruition (Greene – 181). Due to a tie in the Electoral College there has only been two times when the US House of Representatives has had to vote on who was going to be president and none since 1825. A contention of supporters of the EC claim that it reduces voter fraud. Another argument is that the EC system protects smaller states that may be under-represented and ignored by presidential candidates. These EC advocates also contend that the winners in presidential elections are quickly indemnified and avoid the long process of recounts. Some Electoral College advocates believe that the EC is misunderstood and that many citizens do not have a full understanding of the system. In his article “A Republic, not a Democracy: A Defense of the Electoral College” John Hendrickson, research analyst with the Public Interest Institute at Iowa Wesleyan College writes : The Electoral College is one of the most misunderstood aspects of American government., and historically it has come under fire for being “un-democratic”. The first argument in favor of the Electoral College is that it works, but more importantly, it is a vital part of our constitutional structure. The Electoral College brings “stability and certainty” in presidential elections.(Hendrickson – 26, 28, 30) Hendrickson goes on to say: “The Electoral College, just as the United States Senate, provides protection and representation”(Hendrickson – 30). Within the realm of persons opposed to the Electoral College there is Richard Lempert who is the Eric Stein Distinguished University Professor of Law and Sociology Emeritus at the University of Michigan. According to Lempert “If democracy means the majority rules, the Electoral College is an undemocratic institution” (.Lempert – 18). In the last five presidential elections the highest office in the land went to the loser of the popular vote, in 2000 George W. Bush and most recently Donald J. Trump lost the popular vote to Hilary Clinton. The lost was by over two million votes. Critics of the EC claim that over two million voters were disenfranchised from the voting process. The arena of anti–Electoral College advocates is not limited to academics it also reaches into legislators. The Honorable Barbara Boxer, United States Senator from California has taken a stand on the EC. According to this quote: “This is an outdated system (EC) that does not reflect democracy, and it violates the principle of one person, one vote”(Boxer – 19). In modern day elections candidates save their time, energy and money for the states that have the largest member of electors and spend most of their time in those states campaigning. This leaves the smaller state voters feeling as though their votes are not important and some say this may be the reason for lower voter turnout. Although there is major disagreement between scholars, politicians, and ordinary citizens whether the Electoral College is good or bad for America, there is another group that believes in a common ground approach. In an article by Paul E. Godek, Senior Vice President of Economists Incorporated Godek explains the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact (VPVIC). The NPVIC is a group of states and the District of Columbia. “The NPVIC is an agreement, among the states that join, to award all of their electoral votes to the presidential candidate with the highest share of the national popular vote. The agreement goes into effect if enough states join the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact to account for 270 electoral votes, the number needed to win the election” (Godek-6). According to Mathew J. Franck, professor and chairman of the Political Science Department at Radford University the NPVIC is not workable. The National Popular Vote plan is a bad idea because the electoral college, with the winner-take-all rule is perfectly democratic in a federal system and has the advantage of confining recount contests within the bounds of states. And even under a popular vote plan, candidates would continue to devote resources to areas where they have the most impact (Franck-content page, 180) According to Nicholas R. Miller, Department of Political Science, University of Maryland Baltimore County writes: The framers of the Constitution expected- and certainly hoped that politics at the national level would be nonpartisan in nature. Accordingly, their presidential selection system was designed to choose a single broadly supported winner out of a potentially large field of candidates concerning whom voter preferences were likely to be widely dispersed.(Miller-1-2). Although this may have been the hope of the framers of the constitution the debate continues to this day, with wanting to maintain the Electoral College, many wanting to abolish it, and some wanting a compromise which would incorporate both the popular vote with the electoral college system. Works Cited Anderson, John B. “The Electoral College Flunks the Test in an Age of Democracy.” The Pros of the Electoral College, pp. 1-4. JSTOR, hh://www.jstor.org/stable/27880476. Accessed 11 Feb. 2020. Originally published in American Bar Association. —. “The Electoral College Flunks the Test in an Age of Democracy.” The Pros of the Electoral College, pp. 1-4. JSTOR, hh://www.jstor.org/stable/27880476. Accessed 11 Feb. 2020. Originally published in American Bar Association. Bardes, Barbara A. “We Elect the President by Popular Vote?” American Government and Politics Today, by Barbara A. Bardes et al., 2017-2018 ed., Boston, Cengage Learninh, 2018, p. 253. —. “We Elect the President by Popular Vote?” American Government and Politics Today, by Barbara A. Bardes et al., 2017-2018 ed., Boston, Cengage Learninh, 2018, p. 253. Boxer, Barbara, and Richard Lempert. “Is the Electoral College System Still the Best Mechanism for Electing U.S. Presidents?” Congressional Digest, Jan. 2017, pp. 19,21,23,18,20,22 . ProArguments For and Against Electorial Colleges

The Midwife: Promoting Normality In Childbirth

The aim of this essay is to discuss how the midwife is ‘the expert of normal’ and how she may promote normality in childbirth. The author will define ‘the midwife as the expert of the normal’. However, it may be impossible to accurately define as these differ between disciplines, organisations and individuals. However, the author will also define the concept of normal as it is an important factor in determining normality in childbirth. The author will focus on the role of the midwife in promoting normality also analysing ‘Woman Centred Care’ and how the principals may have a beneficial impact on the outcomes of care in the context of normality in childbirth. Finally the author will discuss the findings in detail using relevant literature and resources and make recommendations for future midwifery practice. Midwives are expert professionals skilled in supporting and maximising normal birth and these midwifery skills need to be promoted and valued. The role of the midwife is integral to models of care, which promote normality. Maternity Services can enhance midwifery skills and autonomous practice by providing appropriate practice settings RCM (2000). The author agrees that midwives are experts in normal. The underpinning for her practice is facilitating uncomplicated pregnancies and labour with successful delivery of a fetus with unnecessary medical interventions. The author questions what normal/normality in the context of childbirth. The author is of the opinion that the concept of normal is that health is a natural or usual a process. Childbirth is also a natural course of action, which focuses on natural responses of the woman’s body that constitutes suitability for giving birth. An exploration of the word normal suggests something usual, accepted as being the same, conforming to a standard Gould (2000). However in the context of midwifery, normality and childbirth need to explored as a whole concept so that a specific definition is agreed upon and accepted by all in midwifery practice Brown (1993). The midwife is an expert in normal childbirth she assists the woman in her natural process and in promoting normal birth assists in the normal physiological process of labour and birth. She is an educator, communicator and a clinician and a practitioner of normal. Offers support, protects the woman and empowers as she works autonomously in uncomplicated pregnancies that require no medical interventions. In order for her to achieve this qualification she would have spent several years of training on a recognised degree program. This would require her to demonstrate proficiency in providing midwifery care to women in line with all statutory guidelines. Illustrating sound knowledge, skills and capability to practice and provide midwifery care. (‘Standards of Proficiency for Pre-Registration Midwifery Education’ (NMC 2004a). As a qualified midwife she is expected to have an understanding of key policy directives which are relevant that influence her practice, develop and reflect on her interactions using critical analysis and research to facilitate the planning and delivery of midwifery care (REF THIS) The role midwife is very diverse as she provides health and parent education, gives support to the mother and family throughout the childbearing process and helps them adjust into parenthood. She also works in partnership with various multidisciplinary teams and health professionals in order to meet the needs and challenges of women from a variety of social and diverse backgrounds. This is supported in various published guidelines and legislations that define the midwife’s role and scope of practice which are all relevant to the midwife in promoting normality in childbirth (RCM 2004). In order to facilitate care given should be tailored towards the specific needs of the pregnant woman and the family. This involves examining the woman holistically taking into account the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of her pregnancy and childbirth thus carrying out full clinical assessment offering support and advice when appropriate (Robinson, 1989) When the midwife undertakes any such activity she is using her skills and knowledge and draws upon her nursing theories, which enables her to reduce the needs and solve the problem. In the case of the community setting a primagravida of 19 weeks gestation presents with upper oesophageal reflux, which is a minor disorder in pregnancy. Research suggests that as the fundus expands discomfort can be felt and is a common occurrence in pregnancy. Certain foods can exacerbate the condition. Advice given to avoid spicy foods, wear loose clothing or use extra pillows for support. However medication can be sort to reduce the symptoms. The advice helped to reduce the woman’s anxiety. The midwife was able to draw upon her practical nursing theories using reflection combined with her experience and knowledge. Agyris and Schon (1974). As the primary carer the midwife is involved in the first stage which is the booking in process. Research suggests that creating a relaxing environment is the key to promoting normality in midwifery care (Page

BIOL 332 WKU Contrast Direct and Indirect Management Models Questions

BIOL 332 WKU Contrast Direct and Indirect Management Models Questions.

1. Contrast the broadest definition of wildlife with the narrower, management-focused definition. Use examples. 2. How has our concept of ‘vermin’ changed over the last century? Use Kentucky examples. 3. Contrast direct and indirect management models, with examples. 4. Other than the examples I mentioned in lecture, provide an example of different countries that predominantly use each historical model of wildlife management, one country for each model. 5. Most of the principles of the N. American model of wildlife conservation are most aligned with modern democratic systems of government? Why? Be specific in your explanation. Use examples. 6. Contrast distribution and dispersion and dispersal and migration. What would be a reason for uniform dispersion? For natal dispersal? What are the mechanisms or routes of dispersal? 7. Compare AND contrast the modern roles of natural historian and scientist. 8. You have old, tough grass and other nutrient-poor forage. Who will do best on it, a cow-like species or a horse-like species (antelope or zebra)? Why? 9. Using USA.jobs, state employment job boards, and/or the TAMU wildlife jobs board (https://wfscjobs.tamu.edu/job- board/), find jobs that align with three of the careers in wildlife discussed in class. Paste the first few lines of the jobs here.
BIOL 332 WKU Contrast Direct and Indirect Management Models Questions

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