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This week, you learned about confidentiality and lethal crisis. Considering this knowledge, review the below case to Tom and Essay

This week, you learned about confidentiality and lethal crisis. Considering this knowledge, review the below case to Tom and then discuss the follow up questions: Scenario: Tom lives in a small town with his wife and seven-year-old daughter. He was an excellent high school athlete but instead of going to college, he works as a heavy equipment operator for his father and uncle. He owns a home with a large mortgage next to his parents. Tom begins to drink heavily, drive fast cars, take frequent risks on the highways, get into fights at taverns, come home late at night, and neglect his physical health. He feels remorseful, guilty, depressed, and suicidal following each fight at a tavern. His wife has tried to get him to call a counselor. One night, she walks in to find him preparing to shoot himself in the head. She convinces him to call a volunteer crisis worker. Tom explains that he feels like a nobody with mounting pressure to produce big things for everyone. Suppose a meeting is called with the crisis center staff and volunteer workers a week after Tom’s call. The purpose of the meeting is to deal with the death of Tom, who shot himself several days after the call, despite the best efforts of the center, support people, and other intervention and referral resources. Tasks: What points need to be addressed and what issues need to be brought up at the meeting? What actions might the center want to take as a result of the experience with Tom? Consider your ethical obligations regarding client confidentiality, What ethical issues may arise in the event of a client’s death? How would you address these dilemmas? If his family contacted your agency requesting information on his clinical record, what is our ethical obligation in this situation?
At the heart of social work lies the fundamental belief in human rights, citizenship and social justice (Fook, 2002). Indeed, social workers are ordinarily duty-bound to advocate the principles of empowerment through anti-oppressive practice whilst placing the wishes and needs of clients at the centre of delivery (General Social Care Council (GSCC), 2004; Dalrymple and Burke, 2006). Yet practice is complex not least because the success of any intervention is entwined with the phenomenological attributes of both clients and practitioners (Prynn, 2008). Thus, social work practitioners face significant challenges such as identifying what they contribute to a relationship, how this impacts on decisions and what individual and structural power imbalances influence practice (Fook, 2002). Critical practice is a conceptual tool which affords practitioners the opportunity to engage in transformational practice whilst recognising the value base and social justice agenda of social work (Fook, 2002). This paper will briefly provide a case study of an experience I encountered as a practitioner. This will then be explored through what Brechin (2000) identifies as the three interrelated domains of critical practice: critical analysis, critical reflexivity and critical action. In doing so it will demonstrate how I have engaged with my ‘self’ to identify what I took into practice and the implications this can have in being a transformational practitioner. On commencing my role as a project worker within a residential home for young people with behavioural difficulties I was introduced to John (pseudonym). John was fourteen and had a history of anti-social behaviour and a criminal history for burglary and assault although all cases were at least two years prior. John was in care because of a request from his parents who no longer felt they could control his behaviour because his reaction to discipline was often non-compliance and violence. His file illustrated him as mischievous, yet comical, with recent signs of improved behaviour. He enjoyed partaking in various hobbies; however, these were often short-lived with him becoming disinterested very quickly. I worked with John for several months and at a case-review meeting John’s parents informed the panel that he wished to take up boxing. His parents supported the idea, as did the Social Worker because it was thought it may inspire some discipline. I objected because of his criminal conviction of assault. However, the Social Worker dismissed this by indicating that John’s wishes were important and that our role was to empower him. Despite my objections it was agreed that John could attend. John soon attended a boxing club organised and operated by two retired policemen. Approximately one year later John was convicted of aggravated burglary with the victim being an elderly woman. The first domain of critical practice, critical analysis, is concerned with how practitioners evaluate evidence, policies, and knowledge to influence decisions (Brechin, 2000; Glaister, 2008). Furthermore, the practitioner becomes conscious of multiple perspectives and the contextual nature of them (Brechin, 2000; Fook, 2002). Chalmers (2003:22) claims that practitioners who intervene in people’s lives have a responsibility to be informed by ‘rigorous, transparent, up-to-date evaluations’. Yet Sheldon and MacDonald (2009) note the reliance on robust evidence being available and the practitioners having the time, resources and skill-base to adequately evaluate evidence. Indeed, Fook (2002) argues that it is often in the interests of agencies to prevent such approaches as it may lead to increased responsibilities and higher costs. Placing this experience in the context of critical analysis it is unsure at this point what informed the Social Workers knowledge; however, it was clear that he wished to respect John’s voice. The Social Worker believed John had personal agency and a fundamental right to choose his own life direction. The GSCC (2004) concurs with the Social Worker in-so-far as practitioners should promote independence and respect the client’s right to take risks. The Social Worker, as an agent of the state, was further supported by policies such as article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990:4) which stipulates that any child ‘capable of forming his or her own views has the right to express those views…[and this be] given due weight’. Indeed, his employer has signed up to this convention (Somerset County Council, 2009). However, practitioners also have an obligation to ensure that these risks are managed and necessary steps are taken to minimise the risk of harm to service users or others (GSCC, 2010). I held an alternative view to protect John, and others, from harm. It is clear that both the Social Worker and I had valid points, thus, being guided by knowledge, policies and theories on their own may result in conflicts about what actions to follow (Banks, 2006). The second domain of critical practice, critical reflexivity, originates from reflective practice and the concept that practitioners learn through experience (Schön, 1983). However, because reflective practice has limited criticalness (Fook and Askeland, 2006) it often fails to acknowledge deeper processes which impact practice (Fook, 2002). Furthermore, reflective practice can result in negative outcomes such as self-doubt or an acceptance of status quo’s (Eby, 2000). Critical reflexivity refers to a practitioner who engages in ‘self-criticism’ whilst being reflective. The practitioner becomes reflexive in questioning pre-established values, assumptions and prejudices (Taylor and White, 2001) and gains an understanding on how this influences negotiated understandings and interventions whilst working across difference (Glaister, 2008; Fook, 2002). Because critical reflexivity permits the practitioner to acknowledge the complex nature of the client’s circumstances and their perspectives there is an organic acknowledgement of cultural and social disparities (Fook, 2002). Indeed, Allport (1978:437) concurs and states how practitioners who engage in inwardness are generally less prejudice, are more tolerant in understanding others, and exhibit a ‘desire for personal autonomy rather than for external, institutional anchorage’. Critical reflexivity affords me the opportunity to contemplate on how my preformed values and assumptions influenced my perspective. Thus, I needed to consider the opposition I held to John’s participation. As a pre-adolescent child I was bullied in school with a particular individual being prevalent in my memory. This individual attended martial arts which he duly practised on me. Ultimately, this had a significant impact on my belief that violence is wrong. Indeed, in relation to John my assumption was that everyone who attended a power sport had the potential to bully. This was hyperbolised by John’s past and thus my opposition to his partaking. Adams (2009) supports my exploration by indicating how our experiences can have an implicit impact on our decisions and in this instance I can identify how my negotiated understanding had become manipulated by my self. The Social Worker adopted a Kantianistic approach by wanting to empower John to make his own life choices. Indeed, the Social Worker wanted to advocate Johns rights rather than impose carers perspectives which is understandable considering the current agenda toward person-centred planning (GSCC, 20100; Kellett, 2009). However, I felt that as professionals there was a justification in adopting utilitarianistic values because the risk of re-engaging in criminal activities was too high. Yet evidently apparent is neither the Social Worker or I respected each other’s perspective. However, notably the issues of the Social Workers claims that he wanted to empower John also become apparent. The very notion that the Social Worker wanted to empower John indicates that the Social Worker was actually the one with the power. Yet, the Social Worker has duties and responsibilities beyond the value of empowerment because of his legislated duty to protect John, and others, from harm (Banks, 2006). The final domain, critical action, is concerned with practitioners having a robust skill-base whilst being conscious of its contextual nature. A critical practitioner works across difference to promote empowerment whilst confronting structural oppressions (Brechin, 2000; Eby, 2000). A primary principle of critical practice is the notion that practitioners should be research-minded in understanding the contextual basis of empirical evidence (Shemmings and Shemmings, 2003). Utilisation of the best available evidence is essential to contemporary practice (Sheldon and MacDonald, 2009) and yet despite being a ‘self-evidently a good idea’ (Trinder, 2000:3), evidence-based practice has faced fierce opposition because there is a risk that practitioners may abandon reflexivity and personal agency for technical rationality (Taylor and White, 2006; Webb, 2001). However, this view has been adequately challenged by commentators who state that evidence-based practice, which actually means evidence-informed practice (MacDonald, 2003; Chalmers, 2003) has, when scrutinised, the potential to minimise the risk of harm to service users (Chalmers, 2003). Indeed, evidence-informed practice is the critically appraised synthesis of empirical and experiential evidence (Fook, 2002; Sheldon and MacDonald, 2009). In linking this to my experience with John, it becomes clear that I could not knowingly offer any definitive empirical evidence to support my perspective. However, neither could the Social Worker. In this sense both the Social Worker and I failed to be research-minded. Thus, in opposition to anti-evidence-based advocates, this experience indicates how practitioners can make mistakes when acting on instinct alone. Indeed, a brief search for empirical evidence found a longitudinal study by Endersen and Olweus (2005) which identified how participation in power sports for adolescents with a previous history of anti-social behaviours is likely to result in re-engagement. As John had a previous history of theft, this evidence may well have helped me, the Social Worker, and even John, come to a different decision. Critical action also involves the practitioner developing a consciousness of the often hidden imbalances of power between themselves, agencies and the client (Payne, 2005). Critical practice occurs within the context of theory and consideration of critical theories permits me to understand my construction of power and how this influenced my action, or inaction. For example, Foucault was concerned with language and how discourse can assist professionals to create ‘natural and unchallengeable’ situations because they are deemed to have knowledge and thus power (Finlay, 2000:85). Indeed, the Social Worker established, chaired and controlled the case-review meeting. Fook (2002) concurs and argues that professionals utilise societal structures in order to suppress service users. Taking my earlier point regarding the construction of the case-meeting further it is clear that it was designed by adults with no real consideration about what John wanted. Indeed it is hard to understand why John, or an advocate, was not at the meeting. Yet, even if John was permitted to attend, it is highly likely he would have faced oppression by being forced to engage with the hegemonic language of adults which he would not have understood, thus he would ultimately been oppressed and possibly disempowered (Kehily, 2009). However, Cocker and Allain (2008) contend that service users have the right to take a pro-active role in decision making processes and suggest that the role of the practitioner is to ensure that service users are fully informed through the provision of concise information. This clearly did not transpire and thus true empowerment was never apparent. In concluding it is evident a professionals self can impact on the everyday lives of service users and practitioners. As practitioners we all have multiple identities which we take into practice. Not only do these derive from our previous experiences, but also our responsibilities as professionals, agents of the states, as employees and of course as statutory creation created to fulfil a role. Indeed, critical practice assists practitioners highlight how their self has been impacted upon from each of these identities and permits the us to make decisions, along with the service user, that are more likely to produce a more productive, and effective, outcome for all. In engaging in critical practice I have been able to identify significant factors which may have contributed to a better outcome. Whether John’s participation in boxing contributed to his re-engagement in criminal activities cannot be realistically measured. However, what is certain is John was disempowered in-so-far as he should have been fully informed. It is clear that none of the three domains of critical practice isolated can work independently, however, the careful and intentional synthesis of values, experiences, evidence and knowledge along with an awareness of structural disadvantage caused by agencies can all have a positive impact on the self and ultimately a practitioner’s power to challenge practice. I misplaced my power as a morally active practitioner and permitted the Social Worker to make a judgement based on instinct. I could have researched the potential issues of boxing and provided John with more in-depth information in a format he would understand. However, as practitioners we have an obligation to learn from our experiences because a critical practitioner who is engaged with their self is more likely to succeed in becoming a transformational practitioner.

MDC 13th Documentary Film Analysis Current Crisis of Mass Incarceration Discussion

MDC 13th Documentary Film Analysis Current Crisis of Mass Incarceration Discussion.

1) This documentary emphasizes that the current crisis of mass incarceration is directly tied to our country’s legacy and history of slavery. By showing how slavery shifted to convict leasing, to Jim Crow segregation, to the war on drugs, 13th argues that “systems of oppression are durable and they often reinvent themselves.” As Angela Davis stated in the film, “Historically, when one looks at efforts to create reforms, they inevitably lead to more repression.a) What are ways you can end this cycle? b) What do you think are some of the factors that allowed this system of racial control to simply evolve and replicate itself for the past 150 years?c) How can you be more vigilant against institutional racism?2) How much did you know about the war on drugs and war on crime before watching the film?3) Were you surprised to learn about the racial underpinnings of these legislative policies, and the active role of the state in criminalizing and targeting communities of color?4) What was your reaction after hearing the following quote from John Ehrlichman, one of Richard Nixon’s aides?:
MDC 13th Documentary Film Analysis Current Crisis of Mass Incarceration Discussion

Analysis Of Chester As A Tourist Destination Tourism Essay

essay writer free ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to examine the Chester as tourism destination for tourists USA and develop marketing strategy for tour operators. The research has accomplished following objectives: to examine the attractiveness of Chester as tourism destination for tourists USA ; to identify USA tourists preferences of Chester as tourism destination; and to develop marketing strategy for tour operators offering service for Chester. For achieving aims and objectives secondary data was collected reviewing and discussing books journals and other reports; and further primary data was collected surveying 50 USA tourists visiting Chester through questionnaire. The major results of the research are presented below. Visit art and craft centers and visit museums and parks are the principal purposes why tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester. In most cases tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester by travel agent. In most cases tourists of USA would prefer to book their tour of Chester online. In most cases tourists of USA would consider concessions and packages whilst booking their tour for Chester . In most cases tourists of USA would consider low price services by travel agents whilst booking their tour for Chester. Whilst visiting Chester tourists of USA would centrally focus on service offered as convenience and quality. Whilst visiting Chester tourists of USA would rather more prefer local services and domestic services. DATA ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION This chapter is structured into three parts. In the first part , the demographic data collected through questionnaire is presented. In the second part, the subjective data collected through questionnaire is presented. Finally , in the third part , the collected subjective data is analysed with reference to literature review. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA You would prefer to visit Chester? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Once in a year 18 36% 36% Twice in a year 20 40% 76% More than twice in a year 12 24% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in greater majority (76% out of the total 50), they find that they would prefer to visit Chester ‘twice a year'(40%) or ‘once in a year'(36%) ; whereas for the remaining respondents (24%), they find that they would prefer to visit Chester ‘more than twice a year’ . On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases USA tourists would prefer to visit Chester twice a year or once in a year. Your age group is…………? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Below 30 years 20 40% 40% 30 to 50 years 24 48% 88% Above 50 years 6 12% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in greater majority (88% out of the total 50), they belong to age group of ‘below 30 years'(40%) and ’30 to 50 years'(48%) ; whereas for the remaining respondents (12%), they belong to age group of ‘above 50 years’ . On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases USA tourists belong to age group of below 30 years and ’30 to 50 years. Your gender is……………..? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Male 32 64% 64% Female 18 36% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in majority (64% out of the total 50), they are ‘male’; whereas for the remaining respondents (36%), they are ‘female’ . On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases USA tourists are male. SUBJECTIVE DATA How do you see Chester as tourist destination? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Highly attractive 36 72% 72% Just attractive 14 28% 100% Not attractive 0 0% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in greater majority (72% out of the total 50), they find that Chester is a ‘highly attractive’ tourist destination for them; whereas for the remaining respondents (28%), they find that Chester is a ‘just attractive’ tourist destination for them. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases Chester is a highly attractive tourist destination for USA tourists . For what principal purpose you would prefer to visit Chester? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Visit art and craft centers 28 56% 56% Visit museums and parks 15 30% 86% Enjoy playhouses’ 7 14% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in greater majority (86% out of the total 50), they find that ‘visit art and craft centers'(56%) and ‘visit museums and parks'(30%) are the principal purposes they would prefer to visit Chester ; whereas for the remaining respondents (14%), they find that ‘enjoy playhouses’ is the principal purpose they would prefer to visit Chester. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases visit art and craft centers and visit museums and parks are the principal purposes why tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester. Which way you would prefer to visit Chester? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage By own 17 34% 34% By travel agent 33 66% 100% As the data description in the above table illustrates: for respondents in majority (66% out of the total 50), they find that they would prefer to visit Chester ‘by travel agent’ ; whereas for the remaining respondents (34%), they find that they would prefer to visit Chester ‘by own’ . On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester by travel agent. Which way you would prefer to book your tour for Chester? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Online 40 80% 80% Offline 10 20% 100% As the data description in the above table illustrates: for respondents in greater majority (80% out of the total 50), they find that they would prefer to book their tour for Chester ‘online’; whereas for the remaining respondents (20 %), they find that they would prefer to book their tour for Chester ‘offline’. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases tourists of USA would prefer to book their tour of Chester online. Would you consider concessions and packages whilst booking your tour for Chester? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Yes 37 74% 74% No 13 26% 100% As the data description in the above table illustrates: for respondents in greater majority (74% out of the total 50), they find ‘yes’ that they would consider concessions and packages whilst booking their tour for Chester; whereas for the remaining respondents (26 %), they find ‘no’ that they would not consider concessions and packages whilst booking their tour for Chester. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases tourists of USA would consider concessions and packages whilst booking their tour for Chester . Would you consider low price services by travel agents whilst booking your tour for Chester? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Yes 32 64% 64% No 18 36% 100% As the data description in the above table illustrates: for respondents in majority (64% out of the total 50), they find ‘yes’ that they would consider low price services by travel agents whilst booking their tour for Chester; whereas for the remaining respondents (36 %), they find ‘no’ that they would not consider low price services by travel agents whilst booking their tour for Chester. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases tourists of USA would consider low price services by travel agents whilst booking their tour for Chester. . Whilst visiting Chester you would centrally focus on which service offered? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Convenience 22 44% 44% Quality 19 38% 82% Timeliness 9 18% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in greater majority (82% out of the total 50), they find that whilst visiting Chester they would centrally focus on service offered as ‘convenience'(44%) and ‘quality'(38%); whereas for the remaining respondents (18%), they find that whilst visiting Chester they would centrally focus on service offered as ‘timeliness’. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases whilst visiting Chester tourists of USA would centrally focus on service offered as convenience and quality . Whilst visiting Chester you would rather more prefer which sort of services? Factors No. of respondents Response in percentage Cumulative Percentage Domestic services 20 40% 40% Local services 22 44% 84% International services 8 16% 100% As the data portrayal in the above table highlights: for respondents in greater majority (84% out of the total 50), they find that whilst visiting Chester they would rather more prefer ‘local services'(44%) and ‘domestic services'(40%) ; whereas for the remaining respondents (16%), they find that whilst visiting Chester they would rather more prefer ‘international services’. On the whole, these data reiterate that in most cases whilst visiting Chester tourists of USA would rather more prefer local services and domestic services . DATA ANALYSIS Chester as tourist destination The research literature suggests that for travel and tourism so as to eradicate these shortcomings. The strategy to travel and tourism sector complies with three paradigms the consumer-focussed impresses the majority of the deliberation on global marketing tactical plans. There is one more paradigm that is lean over rivalry (Porter, 1980, 1990). Nonetheless, the above mentioned paradigms, or a mix of these, are apparently not adequate as they undervalue the significance of intermediaries in the domain of travel and tourism. Therefore, the third paradigm of the strategy, the trade-focussed orientation of mediators’ wishes, hardships and requirements should be looked into. The sections to follow amply with the three paradigms to tactical marketing, but they are not worth being treated as options, since they tend to be woven together into a composite strategy. Travel and tourism marketing are marked with market since the quick expansion of tourism requirement mounted throughout the globe during the last twenty years ,which displayed an expansion in emerging formats of tourism marketing into being pertaining to wishes and trends of tourists. However, every market displays great promising tourism marketing since a number of European economies are oriented towards tourism as the most suitable ideological construction for the economic growth over a long period of that among them happens to be Chester, England. Therefore, it was examined in this research as how USA tourists see Chester as tourist destination. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases Chester is a highly attractive tourist destination for USA tourists(see figure 1). Purposes of tourists to visit Chester The research literature suggests that the targeted places or the destinations provide a mix of tourism offerings and services, which are make use of under the umbrella of the destination. Destinations offer an amalgam of tourism products and services, which are consumed under the brand name of the destination. On the opinion of Leiper (1995:87) , the targeted places are the locations in the direction of which people move and where they prefer to put up for a time so as to observer some attributes or specialties an imagined pleasure of some kind. In the opinion of Cooper, Fletcher, Gilbert, Shepherd and Wanhill (1998) targets or the destinations as the centre of conveniences and services planned to fulfill the requirements of the visitors. Chester enjoys the reputation of being not just a city, but also a tourists’ destination or target place. It would be worthwhile to mention here that Extensive Roman continues to be medieval city walls, Tudor rows , a renovation church, a racecourse really in the city, museums, a river suitable for the purpose of enjoying boating and pleasurable morning and evening walks besides being the most coveted marketplace in the entire north-western circle of Britain. Generally summers are a time when it is quite tough to discover a suitable place put up at when it is overcrowded with the tourists. Chester happens to be a thickly populated city; nonetheless one can without much difficulty go round in a few days’ time. One remembers Chester for seafaring, splendid homes, wonderful estates and a tranquil standard of living. Summer reminds one of vessel races, garden get together and band concerts. Therefore, it was examined in this research as for what principal purpose USA tourists prefer to visit Chester. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases visit art and craft centers and visit museums and parks are the principal purposes why tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester (see figure 2). Preference of medium to visit Chester The research literature suggests that the travel sector is greatly influenced by the quick progress of the internet and travel and tourism have left other product domains market on internet well, emerging the lone greatest domain of offerings marketed on the internet (Tourism White Paper, 2007). Unsurprisingly, the tally of the tourism planners on the web has gone dramatically up in the recently bygone years. Surprisingly enough the number of tourism operators on the Web has increased considerably in recent years. Park and Gretzel (2007 p.46) are of the view that the Web has truly brought revolution to the manner in which target marketing institutions furnish target details and the way they interact and come in contact with consumers and scholars. Tourism and travel are deemed to be uncommon since they are not in existence in case they happen to be in existence at a juncture when they are purchased, being just as details made use of to design travel tends to take much time relying on the sources of details compared to the quest on other consumer offerings and services (Fodness and Murray, 1998). The information-oriented attribute tourism offerings implies that the internet, with its universal access and multimedia capacity, happens to be more significant agency of promoting and selling tourism and travel services (Park and Gretzel, 2007). Therefore, it was examined in this research as which way tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases tourists of USA would prefer to visit Chester by travel agent (see figure 3). Preference of booking to visit Chester The research literature suggests that the tourism sector is moreover marked with providing subordinate trade. For instance, the visitors tend to make use of a gamut of travel services such as air travel, car hire, place to put up at and tour facilities. These facilities are normally made available by a large number of institutions. A well-structured web can provide help in scheduling several tourism and travel services and assistance make it sure that the most suitable preferences are expressed leading to a more pleasurable realization for the visitor (Rita, 2000; Park and Gretzel, 2007; Tourism White Paper, 2007). The Internet is more and more significant to tourism since it furnishes knowledge to help customers with purchases (Connolly, Olsen and Moore, 1998), proving crucial in tourists’ travel judgements (Vellas and Becherel, 1999). Tourism happens to be information-oriented sector and internet happens to be most influential and impressive agency to o circulate and swap awareness (Rita, 2000). Therefore, it was examined in this research as which way USA tourists would prefer to book their tour for Chester. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases tourists of USA would prefer to book their tour of Chester online (see figure 4). Concessions and packages whilst booking tour for Chester The research literature suggests that the benefits to all participants taking part in the tourism venture should be fulfilled. In this way, it can be seen that proper planning and administration is quite mandatory so as to achieve advantage in tourism sector. The techniques of collecting the best prices or by resorting to the exorbitant efforts, the promotion of the targets is achieved which results into dissuasion of some market domains. In this manner, marketing is made use of in terms of a device to accomplish tactical aims of target locations and therefore need directed by the policies for local development. so as to gain advantage, the proper interpretation of the target kinds and marketing schemes are significant. The marketers prove instrumental in fulfilling the requirements of the visitors; they need to be in the possession of information relating to the targets and the prospective markets which draws the visitors. Suitable products in the market and appropriate encouragement need to be accorded for the visitors, which is likely to facilitate the maximization of advantages and fine-tuning their marketing mix to their aimed markets (McKercher, 1995; Tribe, 1997). Therefore, it was examined in this research as whether tourists of USA consider concessions and packages whilst booking your tour for Chester. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases tourists of USA would consider concessions and packages whilst booking their tour for Chester (see figure 5). Low price services whilst booking tour for Chester The research literature suggests that the competitor-focused to strategy focuses on competitive rivalry. The travel and tourism is currently in the phase of transition and ambiguity, with latest and sophisticated technologies and more enlightened consumers in the backdrop of certain prospects and hurdles confronting the sector. a competitive marketing paradigm is expected to create and keep up and guard the standing of an institution. Community and personal travel and tourism institutions tend either to gain leadership in terms of cost or price, or segment them to achieve an offering attribute leadership. In addition, an attention on market scopes tends to helps to win a satisfactory status (Day, 1990; Toyne and Walters, 1993). Therefore policies and activities consider the demands of all the participants, to mention, native people, firms and investors, visitors, tour planners besides intermediate agencies, and interest groups. Possibly, the most complicated crisis is ascertaining the judicious application of zero-priced community goods, like landscapes, mountains, and the sea for the well being of all participants and meanwhile conserving the assets for the generations to come. Confrontations are very much apt to conveniently create, particularly in case a number of participants make use of assets for short-spanned advantages. A negotiation including all these interests is quite tough if not plausible, however is the instrument to facilitate prolonged achievement (Buhalis, 1999 ; Buhalis

Estimating Walmart Cost of Capital Worksheet

Estimating Walmart Cost of Capital Worksheet.

Walmart Cost of CapitalTitle Page (Name of Case, your name, date)Introduction: Summarize why the cost of capital is so important in finance and all other disciplines. Feel free to cite your notes or other articles you have secured throughout this course. (about 1-2 pages). Define the cost of capitalBefore Tax Cost of Long Term Debt: Walk through how to calculate the cost of debt. As you read the case, last year’s net interest expense is $2,129 million and the total amount of interest-bearing debt is short term borrowings of $5,225 million plus the current portion of long-term debt and capital leases of $2,605 million, plus long-term debt and capital leases of $50,203 million – totalling $58,033 million (see case Exhibit 2). Divide the interest expenses by the total amount of interest – bearing debt to find the before-tax interest cost of debt. (About 1 page) After Tax Cost of Long Term Debt:Note that the income tax expense for the fiscal year ending 2019 is $4,281 million compared with inocme before taxes of $11,460 million. Now you can calculate the tax rate.But, what does the case say about corporate tax rates due to declines via U.S. regulations? (About 1 -2 pages) Short Term Borrowing: In Exhibit 2, Walmart has about $5 billion in short term borrowings used to finance operations, make capital expenditures, and fund other cash requirements. Review this and determine if you want to add to the cost of debt to account for this? (About 1 page) Cost of Equity using Gordon: To figure out the cost of equity, use the Gordon dividend growth model (D1 divided by r-g, or r = (D1/Po) + gGrowth can be approximated as the Return on Equity (ROE) x (1- Dividend payout ratio). Please note that ROE is provided in the case)Dividends in the previous year are presented in the case and it is $2.08 (that is LAST year’s dividend)The price of Walmart at this time was $102.20 (about 1 page) Cost of Equity using CAPMThe risk-free rate is presented in the case (10 year government bond yield)The case describes beta and you hae choices so would you like to use the historical “raw” beta or a forward looking betaThe case describes the market risk premium and you have choices. You can take a geometric averge from 1928 – 2018, as an example. (about 1 page) Weights for WACCIf you look at Exhibit 2, you could use the book value wieghts based upon information from the consolidated balance sheet. You could also use market value weights (about 1 page) What is the WACC that you created (answers may vary). If Target’s WACC is 4.3% and Amazon’s WACC is 8%, how does Walmart compare? (about 1 page) see excel page attached What did you learn from this final exam case about WACC? (about 1 page
Estimating Walmart Cost of Capital Worksheet

Simple Paper Assignment

Simple Paper Assignment.

The Worth book talks about Governing and Managing International and Global Organizations (INGOs). Please write a 2-3 page paper with the following elements:Define the characteristics of an INGOAddress how they are fundedTalk about special consideration in management of INGOsGive information on how they are structured. Paper needs to be in 12 pt font; double spaced, 1” margins and you must identify at least three resources used for your paper. Some additional resources: Articles attachedThe Promise and Limits of Collective Action for Nonprofit Self-Regulations: Evidence from Asia. Sidel, M. (2010). Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39: 1039. Evolution of Nonprofit Self-Regulation in Europe. Bies, A., (2010). Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39: 1057. Communicating the “Realities” of Charity Costs: An Institute of Fundraising Initiative. Sargeant, A., Lee, S., Jay, E. (2009). Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38: 333. WebsitesGlobal Giving, http://www.globalgiving.org (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Idealist.org, http://www.idealist.org/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.InterAction, http://www.interaction.org (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.International Society for Third-Sector Research (ISTR), http://www.istr.org (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, http://ccssjhu.edu (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Union of International Associations, http://www.uia.be/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Part
Simple Paper Assignment