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This is a web-based research on a company of your choice. This is a 1 one page paper! Shall be concise, well written, spell-checked and clarity-checked.The body of the paper shall be one-page, single spaced with 12 point font (papers longer or shorter will lose points).The one-page body of the paper shall include:–General information about the company (e.g., Website URL, description of the business, primary goods / services, location of headquarters, etc.)–Three (3) questions that you would ask if you were to have an employment interview with the company.Cover and References pages are a must5 sources in total. 2 from the powerpoint attached. 1 from actual company website (EX: Toyota.com) and 2 other sources are up to you to choose. TIP: Use a car manufacture company it’ll be easier/.
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Table of Contents Key modification methods Medications for Smoking Cessation Positive Reinforcement Technique Conclusion Work cited Behavior modification method is a technique used to change the inappropriate maladaptive behaviors and lifestyle that negatively impacts an individual’s life with more appropriate positive behaviors that builds reputable character and good lifestyle. Cigarette smoking has been documented to cause a remarkable increase in coronary and other cardiovascular diseases among smokers. The approximate number of people succumbing to death from coronary artery disease is 21.5% whereas those dying from stroke and other heart related ailments is approximately 18% (Fiore 121). Cigarette smoking has also lead to an increased incidence of lung, oral and renal cancer. These diseases that arise from smoking can be reduced to a lower risk level or even completely eradicated by deploying smoking cessation behavior modification techniques and sticking by it to the later. Key modification methods Lifestyle modification-this is a technique that gradually helps smokers drift away from habits that may compromise their pursuit to quit smoking. These modifications include keeping off from alcohol during the smoking cessation period, avoiding being idle by finding something to do or going for along walk during leisure time and also eating healthy food and plenty of water to help in cleaning up the system. Seeking counseling and advice from the physician-this is crucial in boosting the patient’s esteem and giving them morale to successfully undertake the program. The physicians may use the five A’s model to facilitate smoking cessation and this includes: Ask-may ask the patient about tobacco use, Advice the patient to quit smoking, Assess patient’s desire to quit, Assist the patient to quit and lastly Arrange for follow up address. This is a very critical process more so during the first weeks where withdrawal tendency and risk of relapse is very high. Smoking cessation programs-these are programs designed to help smokers quit from smoking by putting measures in place to help them modify their behaviors and habits in the course of achieving the ultimate goal of quitting cigarette smoking. Nicotine replacement therapy-this is a treatment offered to patients on smoking cessation to cut down their craving and appetite for smoking by administering small doses of nicotine using special smoking cessation products. This therapy when properly administered is very effective in helping the victims abstain from smocking. The benefits that come with the use of these products far much outweigh any associated side effects that emanates from their use. Some of the approved smoking cessation medications including: bupropion SR, nicotine gum, nicotine inhaler, nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch and nicotine nasal spray. We will discuss each of these medications and relate them to their respective behavior modification techniques. Medications for Smoking Cessation Bupropion SR –it does not contain nicotine but can be effectively used as a smoking cessation product. Some of the advantages of using bupropion include: it is a non-nicotine tablet which is very easy to use and can also be used together with nicotine replacement therapies. Bupropion has a number of side effects which includes: may result in insomnia or restlessness, persistent headaches, depressed moods, hostility, tremors, nausea or anxiety. Research has documented that about 21%-30% of users in a period of 6 months, have successfully quitted smoking. The cost incurred per day for this medication is estimated at $4.33. Nicotine gum-is in the form of a chewing gum that administers small doses of nicotine into the blood stream through tissues in the mouth during the chewing process. Some of the advantages of using this product include: can be easily accessed over the counter, it is very efficient in delivering nicotine and does not have a fixed dosage. Its disadvantages include: cannot be administered immediately after meals, its prolonged use may result in painful jaws and requires regular dosing. About 27% of its users have successfully quitted smoking in a period of 6 months. The cost of nicotine gum is $ 10.33 per day for patients who smoke about 15 cigarettes per day. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nicotine inhaler– is a metered dose inhaler that effectively administers nicotine doses into the patient’s lungs as an inhalant. Some of its advantages include: its mode of application is in a way similar to the act of smoking and it has very few side effects. Its disadvantages include: may result in throat irritation and it also requires frequent dosing. About 23% of its users in 6 months have obtained positive results. Its cost per day is approximated at $9.50 on an average of 12 cigarettes per day. Nicotine lozenge-occurs in the form tablets containing a dose of nicotine that gets into the system through the mouth. Some of its advantages include: can be obtained over the counter, delivers nicotine more efficiently than the patch and has a flexible dosing. Disadvantages include: can result in dyspepsia and cannot be administered immediately after meals. Its success has been rated at 21% in 6 months. The cost of 2 to 4 mg is approximated at $8.88 per day. Nicotine patch-is a transdermal patch used to administer nicotine into the patient’s system through the dermal layer of the skin. Its advantages include: can be obtained over the counter, its prolonged overnight use helps to minimize the cravings in the morning hours and has few side effects. Its disadvantages are: may result in skin infections if not properly used, it is not very efficient in administering nicotine and it is also not flexible in terms of dosing. Its success has been rate at 21% in 6 months. The cost of 21mg is $ 4.00 per day. Nicotine nasal spray-is a powdery product made from grounded tobacco leaves that is snuffed through the nose. Its advantages include: it is the most efficient and fastest method of administering nicotine, it also minimizes craving within a short while and has a flexible dosing. Some of its disadvantages include: it is the most addictive among the products, can result in nose and eye irritation and demands frequent dosing. Positive Reinforcement Technique From the above mentioned medications, the modification technique deployed in all the cases is a positive reinforcement technique where the patients are motivated towards acquiring positive habits and high discipline standards that will help then avoid relapsing and the reward for this is evading many cigarette related diseases like lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, stroke and many others and living a healthy life in the long run. Conclusion The most effective behavior modification technique among college students is bupropion because it is very effective and affordable, has the shortest treatment duration of 12 weeks, it is easy to use and does not contain nicotine and the most effective technique to use in seminars is nicotine patch because it is the cheapest product and readily available over the counter. It also has very few side effects hence the most appropriate technique to be used in seminars. Work cited Fiore, Michael C. Smoking Cessation:Clinical Practice Guidline. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1996. We will write a custom Research Paper on Behavior Modification Technique: Smoking Cessation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Table of Contents Introduction Subject matter and techniques of Impressionism Impact Conclusion Bibliography Introduction Impressionism was an art movement that took place in the 19th century. It had a humble beginning: started as an informal association of Paris-based artists, who had begun displaying their work publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement has its origins in the famous work of Claude Monet, called Impression, Sunrise, which led the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review he wrote in the French newspaper, Le Charivari. He termed Monet’s work a sketch which seemed unfinished: “Impression — I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it … and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape” (Rewald, 1973, p. 323). Figure 1. Claude Monet’s Sunrise Impressionism was heavily inspired by the Romantic colorist Eugene Delacroix, the principal agent behind realism Gustave Courbet and painters belonging to the Barbizon school such as Theodore Rousseau. Other artists who paved the way for Impressionism were Camille Corot and Eugene Boudin, as they owned a style similar to Impressionism and imparted wisdom and knowledge to younger artists (“Impressionism”). Impressionist painting is characterized by prominent brushstrokes, an open arrangement of elements, visible use of light and its changing qualities (which is often used to emphasize the passage of time), very trite subject matter, the employment of unconventional visual angles, and the inclusion of movement as an important aspect of human perception and experience. After impressionism emerged in the visual arts medium, it led to analogous movements in arts, which will be discussed later in this paper, as well as in other media, such as Impressionism music, Impressionist literature, and Impressionist cinema (“Impressionism”). Subject matter and techniques of Impressionism The academic painting was based on certain norms and rules, which early Impressionists broke as they used vivid colors, expressive brush strokes and drew their inspiration from painters such as the French Romantic painter, Eugene Delacroix. The painting had always taken place inside the studio and this rule was not restricted to still life representations and portraits only but landscapes as well, which had always been painted indoors. The Impressionists rejected this norm and took the act of painting out into the world, as they felt they could use the effects of changing sunlight and capture the transient light in their work by painting en Plein air. Their subject matter primarily comprised of realistic scenes of everyday contemporary life and instead of stressing details, they focused on presenting a clear and vibrant overall effect. The color was pure and unmixed, brush strokes were short and broken. The dramatic color was achieved by the unblended nature of the color, as they deviated from the custom of smoothly mixing color to form one uniform shade and consistency (“Impressionism”). A number of these techniques such as Plein air painting were also being explored by other artists such as Macchiaioli in Italy and Winslow Homer in the United States. But, these techniques are generally attributed to having been developed by Impressionist painters in France, because they developed a specific style and method which was representative of the Movement. The Impressionist Movement was about a different way of seeing, art which was based on immediacy and movement, use of candid poses and open compositions, the play of natural light, and rich and unconventionally used color (“Impressionism”). Painters of the Impressionist movement used short, thick strokes of paint, and instead of struggling to capture the details of the subject, such strokes enabled them to quickly grasp its bare essence. The application of the paint was often impasto, meaning it was laid on an area of the surface very thickly, enough so that the strokes of the brush or painting knife can be observed. Impasto allows the paint to provide texture when dry as if it’s coming out of the canvas and makes the work more expressive. Another effect which it produces is that it reflects light in a particular way, and Impressionist painters required this control on the play of light on paintings. The use of light was a very critical characteristic of Impressionist work as the reflection of colors from one object to another was paid close attention (“Impressionism”). Another technique used in impressionist art was that wet was not allowed to dry before successive applications of wet paint on it, which led to a unique, rich combination of color and softer edges of paint. Colors were either not mixed at all, or only minimally as they were applied side-by-side, producing a flamboyant surface. However, to the viewer, the colors would appear to be mixed – such was the effect of this technique. Conventional Impressionist painters avoided using black paint and created dark or monochrome tones by mixing complementary colors (“Impressionism”). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impressionist paintings were usually based on opaque surfaces, and these painters broke the tradition that earlier artists followed of exploiting the transparency of thin paint films (glazes) to create effects. As mentioned earlier, en Plein air or painting outdoors became particularly important during this time and principal advocates of this technique were Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir (Mauclair, 1903). Most of their work was done outdoors. Paintings made outdoor end up capturing a certain freshness and openness due to the reflection of shadows painted boldly against the pale blue hues of the sky, which was not possible in earlier paintings. Following the French Impressionists, American Impressionist painters such as Guy Rose, Mary Denil Morgan, John Gamble, and Arthur Hill Gilbert as well as Russian painters such as Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, and Konstantin Korovin became avid painters of en plein air during the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century (“En plein air.”). Figure 2. Paintings by Renoir These methods had been employed by painters throughout history, but Impressionists used them all together and challenged the customary ways of painting. The very first artists whose works exhibit the use of these techniques are Frans Hals, Diego Velàsquez, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, and J.M.W. Turner (Mauclair, 1903). One thing which worked to the benefit of Impressionists was the introduction of premixed paints in lead tubes, which happened in the middle of the 19th century. Previously, painters would have to go through the tedious process of making their paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil. However, with the introduction of these paints, they were able to work more spontaneously whether outdoors or indoors (“Impressionism”). Another key concept which characterized Impressionist movements was that the content resulted as similar to a snapshot, probably inspired by the new popularity of photography at that time. The subject and background were not treated as entirely separate parts of the painting, and the effect was as if the painting was a part of a bigger reality captured accidentally. The result was more candid, and moments were captures in the everyday lives of people, not just in the views of a landscape. In their paintings, Impressionists aimed to go a step further than photographers could, by including their perceptions in the paintings rather than producing a mirror image as photography did. “Snapshot” angles and unusual compositions were commonly used in Impressionist paintings (Denvir, 1990). Impact Impressionism had a profound impact in shaping modern art which was to follow as instead of recreating the subject, it recreated techniques and forms, changing the way the subject was perceived. It was the driving force behind various movements which followed in painting such as Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism (“Impressionism”). Neo-Impressionism had its roots in Impressionism but it devised a technique called divisionism in which color was broken down into its basic elements and painting was done in small dots, so that from a distance, the dots formed an optical mix of hues (“Neo-impressionism”). Post-Impressionism was another artistic movement derived from Impressionism that extended its concepts but rejected its limitations. While vivid colors, loose and thick brushstrokes, and real-life subject matter were used in this movement as well, geometric forms were emphasized upon, a form was often altered to convey more meaning, and colors used were unnatural and random. This was a very important movement in France’s artistic history and early Post-Impressionists included Vincent Van Gogh, Georges Seurat, and Paul Cezanne (“Post-Impressionism”). Impressionism also made modern art distinctly ‘modern’ and one of the movements it spawned was Fauvism. This comprised early 20th-century modern artists who used rich colors in unconventional ways and simple lines, while at the same time made the painting easy to interpret and exaggerated the perspective it offered (“Fauvism”). An example of a painting from this movement is presented below, painted by Henri Matisse, one of the leaders of the movement: We will write a custom Term Paper on Impacts and Key Concepts of Impressionism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 3. Cubism. Henri Matisse Cubism was another art movement influenced by Impressionism and took place in the 20th century. It started in 1908 and gained massive popularity in France until it died in 1919 (“Cubism”). Conclusion Impressionism art had a distinct style in which artists used vivid colors and painted their subjects just as if a person had caught a glimpse of it. These artists were fascinated with light and used it to give a variety of effects in their paintings. It influenced modern artists and paved the way for several crucial movements in art history. Bibliography “Cubism.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Web. Denvir, Bernard. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson, 1990. “En plein air.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Web. “Fauvism.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Web. “Impressionism.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Web. Mauclair, Camille. The French Impressionists (1860-1900). Web. “Neo-impressionism.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Web. “Post-Impressionism.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Web. Rewald, John. The History of Impressionism. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1973.

Michel Foucault Research Paper

Michel Foucault was a famous and influential French philosopher. He was the leading individual who changed the idea of human body being a biological or physiological figure to a concept of sociology. He managed to change people’s mentality in the sense that the society normal or ordinary state of thinking and people’s perceptions changed significantly. Foucault was also thought of as the greatest and most intellectual scholar and philosopher who lived until the time of his death in 1984(Fenves 369). He came up with very important theories that are still used today and have changed the outlook of society in many ways (Adomo 470). For example, he observed that criminal justice system was not working or performing well as per the expectations of society. As a result, he came up with the Panopticon principle that transformed the way jails and discipline for offenders was being perceived by society. Interestingly, this principle has remained firm in place bearing in mind that the entire face of criminal justice system was gradually reshaped with the adoption of this principle. Foucault focused more on human sexuality as well as the concept of power and human discipline. He was also very much involved in the gay community in San Francisco. Michel Foucault was born in Poitiers, France on October 15, 1926. His father and grandfather were physicians and although he was a brilliant student, he resisted his family and native country and traveled overseas when he fully came of age. When he was 20 years old, he was accepted into the EcoleNormaleSuperieure (ENS) in Paris (Adomo 470). He was a student of philosophy and psychology. For a while he was a follower of communism, but later in life he changed his views. He graduated from ENS in 1952, and started his career immediately. His career was known to be both intellectual and professional. He performed his roles with consistency and purpose. Foucault started his career as a teacher at University of Lille in France. From 1955 to 1960, he served as a cultural attaché in Uppsala, Sweden; Warsaw, Poland; and Hamburg, Germany. Later on in 1960 to 1966, he served as a professor at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France, (Bouchard 117). While he was there, he wrote his early monograms, which received attention, but only from a small audience. In 1966 however, things turned around for him when he published Les Motset les chosestranslated in English to The Order of Things. After the publication of the latter, he attracted a much larger audience. As a result, he was considered an original and controversial thinker of his time. At this point, Foucault decided to become a professor at the University of Tunis in Tunisia from 1966 to 1968(James 340). He then went on to become the director of the philosophy department at the University of Paris, Vincennes for two years. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970, he was given a seat in the history of systems of thought at the College de France (Adomo 470). It is imperative to note that this is one of France’s most prestigious institutions. This opened up the door to Foucault for conducting intensive research which lead to writings of his later works. Over the next thirteen years, he wrote quite a number of works, including his volumes on sexuality and Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison,as well as various essays. He continued to travel throughout the rest of his life and managed to extend his reputation to places like Italy, Canada, Japan, Brazil, and the United States, where he spent relatively long periods of time. He also became a visiting lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley for several years, before his death in 1984. It was alleged that he died of HIV/AIDS which was then an emerging infection (Fenves 377). The fourth volume of his history on sexuality was never completed. Foucault focused most of his research on finding out how to create some methodology on discipline that would be effective in society for purposes of controlling and regulating behavior that needs disciplining the body. He used the term disciplinary practices to describe institutions such as schools, churches as well as prisons which, to a large extent, assist in controlling and regulating any given society (Adomo 470). These institutions are strategically placed in society to teach people how they are supposed to act or think, or when someone goes against societal rules, these rules and regulations are supposed keep them out of society by being locked behind bars. They are changing constantly to come up with new ways to make sure they can keep control and regulate how people act in society. One of the easiest and most common ways to do this is by using surveillance (Bouchard 113). The constant monitoring of bodies and disciplining if necessary by these social institutions make people stay in line and behave how they are supposed to for fear of being disciplined. When people know or feel like they are being monitored, they act differently than they would if they were in their home or somewhere where there is no threat of punishment (Bertaux 366). This has lead to what Foucault refers to as docile bodies which are produced through improvement of individuals’ behaviors through discipline, use, subjugate, discipline by various procedures and techniques of discipline (Adomo 470). A good example of this would be the way teachers and parents expect children to sit quietly and do their work or pay attention for long periods of time. We are always telling children to be quiet and listen or to keep their hands to themselves. Eventually, they learn that they are supposed to be quiet when a teacher or fellow student is speaking, and that hitting is not appropriate (Adomo 470). I work at a children’s fitness center, and although the main focus of our classes are to help these children work on fitness, we also stress the ability to stay in line and wait for their turn, or listen when the teacher is explaining the game they are going to play. We will write a custom Research Paper on Michel Foucault specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I have noticed that many children come into the program without ever having been in a structured setting before, and they have a hard time listening and doing what the rest of the class is doing, but after a few weeks, they sit nicely on their line and listen when they are supposed to (Bouchard 123). This proves that institutions really do use techniques to control and improve the way people act, and to show children the appropriate social norms they will need for the rest of their lives. One of Foucault’s most influential theories is the Panopticon principle. This theory is focused around the way prisons are run and how they keep control of inmates. The Panopticon is a large area with a tower in the center with rows of buildings surrounding it (Adomo 470). With this set up, each inmate can be monitored constantly, so they are under surveillance twenty-four hours a day. The inmate knows that he might be under watch, but he never knows if at any given moment he is being supervised, because they cannot see inside the supervisor’s room. Knowing that they could possibly be under watch makes them maintain some form of control and act appropriately largely due to the fact that they fear going through a disciplinary action g should they get caught breaking some of the clearly set rules and regualtions (Bertaux 360). Another example of this would be the way someone acts in a super market if they know that there are cameras in the store. Many store owners put cameras up that do not really work, but the sight of them makes shoppers believe that they are being taped. As a result, they are less likely to shoplift because they fear they will get caught (Adomo 470). A good real life example would also be the installation of cameras on school buses. When I was young, my fellow school mates would sometimes run out of control while riding in school bus and as such, they could not listen to the bus driver. She got a camera installed in the front of the bus, and told us that the principal could see the feed. These made all the children in the bus to sit nicely and quietly in their seats. From that time onwards, the problem never persisted. The children were afraid since they developed some fear that someone in authority was keenly watching them, and therefore, they acted appropriately. An explanation of his ideas in panoptical principles In a bid to fully understand and embrace modern forms of regulation in social field, many scholars have adopted the conceptual examples and principles of Michael Foucault’s panopticon theory. His ideas in the theory have compelled readers and analysts to contemplate that there is a possibility that panoptical theory has an explanatory frame that is useful, especially on contemporary practices of surveillance (Faubion 165). In the panopticon theory, Foucault focuses on vital factors that include disciplinary actions via systems of social control and the concept of power-knowledge. In his ideas, he strongly believed that through observing others, individuals were able to gain control, power and become knowledgeable (Adomo 470). Not sure if you can write a paper on Michel Foucault by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through it, all events that are taking place would be recorded, and every form of movement supervised. His theory has been lauded as a one that brought transition and transformation in disciplinary power seen from threats of discipline that creates a normalization of sorts (Hitchcock 124). Furthermore, from his ideas on panoptic discipline, an understanding that internalization of fear that an individual is being watched and the need to conform is created, and this achieves a positive response in behavior change that would not fully be achieved by total surveillance (Bertaux 354). The question that begs is how this works. By building on Foucault’s principle, power comes from observation. The behavior and actions of an observer are based upon what he sees exhibited on a monitor (Bouchard 113). This knowledge combined with observation ensures that individuals are fabricated in social order. However, some analysts argue that this is one way that Foucault’s principle in limiting the freedom of others and oppressing them. They further argue that this oppression comes from the threats and fact that a few individuals or groups manipulate others through control knowledge. While defending his principle, Foucault does not see the danger and oppression analysts are seeing (Adomo 470). Conversely, Foucault argues that through control knowledge, the repressions in social order created by individuals are minimized or reduced as panopticon fabricates individuals into social order. On the issue of power, who does not have it and who has it, Foucault’s idea was not to create a situation where others dominate or rule subjects, but he intended to create a system that will ensure that leaders or those who wish to create order find a ;suitable way of solving conflicts and resistance. Additionally, in his wisdom, Foucault did not give physical weapons that individuals could use to create order. Instead, his idea provided a powerful instrument of analysis. His idea has been adopted by many in urban public spaces, schools and offices where individual are induced to transform and conform to social order through surveillance. This has aided inn reducing pervasiveness and resistance to change in the society. His ideas have not received full support especially from a cross section of opposers of Foucault’s principles who think this is a violation of individuals’ right by use of intrusive electronics to control and modify behavior. The issue of freedom and security has plagued Foucault’s theories since his ideas are being seen as ways of incarcerating individuals who are in workplaces, public places and those going about their businesses (Faubion 158). It is imperative to underscore the fact that Foucault’s ideas make sense. This can be supported by the fact that unlike the former society that preceded contemporary one, resistance to change and conformity has tremendously increased( Fenves 369). The structure of the contemporary society has grown worse and become different since it lacks power to transform, instead, as Foucault puts it, relies on enlightenment reforms that bear inherent dangers inasmuch as they are made for and intended to correct barbarity (Bouchard 114). The latter, is intended to be corrected via enlightenment reforms that seeks to create order in the society via constructing learning institutions, modernizing medicine and elimination of dungeons (Adomo 470). In his ideas, Foucault claims that even with reforms, the issue of power and surveillance will be included since changes cause disturbance and the latter calls for order exercised through control and power. Moreover, the idea fronted by Foucault is based on carceral culture rather that the normal culture of spectacle. In it, he argues that formerly, and this is true in some societies today, the forms of discipline included obliteration, dismemberment and body torture. Other forms of discipline, especially in the aforementioned obliteration, rehabilitation occurs as well as internalization through a constitution. In his idea, creating reforms requires adoption of panopticon theory (Bertaux 354). For instance, in a prison set up, ensuring that there is order in the cells, creation of a surveillance tower would effectively control and monitor every movement. Creating on at the centre of a prison facility makes prisoners to feel that an individual is watching them inasmuch as they can not determine whether a person is in the tower (Bouchard 119). Adopting the prison example, Foucault claims that this can be used in both capitalist and democratic societies to maintain order. He believes that to create order, the populace must at all times know that someone somewhere is watching them. The advantage of this would be that the populace will police themselves through internalizing their own panoptic surveillance towers (Adomo 470) . The knowledge of being watched and the power of constraint aid individuals in taking responsibility in their actions. As such they play both the roles of subjection to internalized surveillance and power over their behavior. Today, governments and federal agencies have adopted the idea of Foucault and modernized it through modern technology whereby they track the behavior .and movements of the populace with systems of control such as surveillance cameras in public places, credit cards, ATM’s, the census, social security numbers, cell phones, telephones and the internet. The use of Panopticon is a carceral culture and idea that has been diffused to affect urban planning through discouraging concealment and monitoring movements. Additionally, it is used in learning institutions, factory architecture and hospitals. The idea of ponopticon schema and its application is polyvalent. Foucalt argued that it has been used to induce idlers and beggars to work, supervise workers, confine the insane, instruct school children, and treat patients and reform prisons (Bouchard 113). Through it, intervention and instruments of power are defined, power is channeled and disposed to its powers, and hierarchical organizations as well as distribution of individual are tracked and located. His idea was to have a society in which its functions are generalized. This is evident today in the manner in which the contemporary society has become a part of the panoptic mechanism. As a matter of fact, Foucault’s idea has been used today to internalize regulations and rules to bring conformity. Societies such as the American society that is fond of committing violence to innocent subjects just for the sake of following authorities (Adomo 470). Internalizing rules aids in contesting unjust rules through naturalizing them. Additionally, rather than the crude, old-fashioned, unusual and cruel punishment that many societies in the nineteenth century and even today apply to rehabilitate law breakers, the use of ponopticon would be a normal way of creating reforms. Early reform methods have been considered to be inhumane to the insane and prisoners. For instance, Foucault argues that the use of torture affects the private aspects of individuals’ lives. The idea of using ponopticon in effect acts as a judge everywhere such that social workers, educators, teachers and every other individual will feel that someone is watching them and ready to judge them for their actions(Faubion 148). Other important aspects of the theory are that through the ponopticon, specialization of workforce in an organization increases, efficiency is built and value placed in organizing individuals and data to effect dissemination of information and goods as wel as to effect mass production despite injustices or exploitations. An analysis of his theories To understand social regulation and its modern forms, it is imperative to adopt the conceptual exemplar of the panopticon metaphor created by Michel Foucault. In the field of surveillance and in a post-panoptic world, the use of panopticon has drawn critical reactions and questions on its relevance. During the practice of contemporary surveillance, determining the usefulness of panopticon requires analyzing its course using an explanatory frame (Fenves 369). Readers and analysts of Foucault’s ideas and who seek to determine the possibility of a panopticon to work effectively in light of complex situations have been compelled to contemplate on how they can go beyond the conceptual boundaries of this multifaceted and rich concept to the implications of its manifold functions (Adomo 470). Critiques have blamed the idea of surveillance technology to interference with individuals’ freedoms and security. Monitoring and tracking individual who are not incarcerated doing their normal daily activities through surveillance cameras claiming to modify or control their behavior is a violation of their rights. They further argue that the intrusive electronic society formed by the panoptic mechanism is in itself pervasive and hence cannot manage the information that it is collecting and tracking. In analyzing his theories, it is important to find answers to a number of issues that includes the possibility of mobilizing a counter- power to manage the power systems in the society, create a power that resists existing powers or surrender and allow individuals to be controlled and be manipulated by forces endeavoring to manage people from afar(Bertaux 354). Some of the core themes that are instructive and solid found in the study of surveillance includes visibility, subjectivity, resistance, normativity and power. His idea has been adopted by many in urban public spaces, schools and offices where individual are induced to transform and conform to social order through surveillance. This has aided inn reducing pervasiveness and resistance to change in the society (Adomo 470). His ideas have not received full support especially from a cross section of opposers of Foucault’s principles who think this is a violation of individuals’ right by use of intrusive electronics to control and modify behavior. The issue of freedom and security has plagued Foucault’s theories since his ideas are being seen as ways of incarcerating individuals who are in workplaces, public places and those going about their businesses. It is imperative to note that Foucault’s theories such as that of governmentality and panopticon have raised controversies among analysts. This has been observed in the manner at which individuals have felt that like in the former society that preceded this contemporary one, resistance to change and conformity has tremendously increased (Faubion 149). As already mentioned, the structure of the contemporary society has grown worse and become different since it lacks power to transform, instead, as Foucault puts it, relies on enlightenment reforms that bear inherent dangers inasmuch as they are made for and intended to correct barbarity (Adomo 470). The latter, is intended to be corrected via enlightenment reforms that seeks to create order in the society via constructing learning institutions, modernizing medicine and elimination of dungeons. In his ideas, Foucault claims that even with reforms, the issue of power and surveillance will be included since changes cause disturbance and the latter calls for order exercised through control and power (Fenves 369). These themes and their key problematics are nuanced by Foucauldian interpretations or by alternative theoretical frameworks. On the other hand, since most studies have focused on the negative aspects of surveillance, it is imperative to critically focus on the epistemological way forward. Looking at it in a determistic and dystopian way, sociologists argue that surveillance offers moral governance through monitoring programs. The ideas of Michel Foucault have over the years led to significant developments of the surveillance systems (Faubion 357). However, research studies have indicated the various limitations in the foundational concepts of panopticon claiming that the explanations that Foucault has given in his ideas on surveillance are insufficient. This is observed in how it functions. By building on Foucault’s principle, power comes from observation. The behavior and actions of an observer are based upon what he sees exhibited on a monitor. This knowledge combined with observation ensures that individuals are fabricated in social order (Bertaux 354). However, some analysts argue that this is one way that Foucault’s principle in limiting the freedom of others and oppressing them. They further argue that the oppression comes from the threats and the fact that a few individuals or groups manipulate others through control knowledge. While defending his principle, Foucault does not see the danger and oppression analysts are seeing. Conversely, Foucault argues that through control knowledge, the repressions in social order created by individuals are minimized or reduced as panopticon fabricates individuals into social order (Adomo 470). On the issue of power, who does not have it and who has it, Foucault’s idea was not to create a situation where others dominate or rule subjects, but he intended to create a system that will ensure that leaders or those who wish to create order find a ;suitable way of solving conflicts and resistance. Additionally, in his wisdom, Foucault did not give physical weapons that individuals could use to create order. Instead, his idea provided a powerful instrument of analysis. The ideas of Michel Foucault have over the years led to significant developments of the surveillance systems. However, research studies have indicated the various limitations in the foundational concepts of panopticon claiming that the explanations that Foucault has given in his ideas on surveillance are insufficient (Fenves 369). Analysts observe that the argument on Foucault’s principle that power comes from observation betrays the suitability of panopticon the best in contemporary surveillance dynamics. Inasmuch as the behavior and actions of an observer are based upon what he sees exhibited on a monitor, it alters the metaphor of panopticon with complex perspectives beyond panopticon such as seen in foucault’s governmentality theory such as models of assemblage, social sorting and concepts of hyper-control. This knowledge combined with observation critics depicts his ideas induces and fabricates individuals into social order (Bertaux 354). Additionally, some analysts argue that this is one way that Foucault’s principle in limiting the freedom of others and oppressing them. They further argue that the oppression comes from the threats and the fact that a few individuals or groups manipulate others through control knowledge. Moreover, other analysts are of the opinion that through control knowledge, the repressions in social order created by individuals are minimized or reduced as panopticon fabricates individuals into social order (Faubion 148). On the issue of power, who does not have it and who has it, Foucault’s idea was not to create a situation where others dominate or rule subjects, but he intended to create a system that will ensure that leaders or those who wish to create order find a ;suitable way of solving conflicts and resistance. Additionally, in his wisdom, Foucault did not give physical weapons that individuals could use to create order. Instead, his idea provided a powerful instrument of analysis. The growth of panoptic surveillance has been regarded as a form of oppression that is spread by Foucault’s theory of governmentality. The knowledge of being watched and the power of constraint threaten the security of a populace. As such they play both the roles of subjection to internalized surveillance and power over their behavior (Bertaux 353). Today, governments and federal agencies have adopted the idea of Foucault and modernized it through modern technology whereby they track the behavior .and movements of the populace with systems of control such as surveillance cameras in public places, credit cards, ATM’s, the census, social security numbers, cell phones, telephones and the internet (Adomo 470). The use of Panopticon is a carceral culture and idea that has been diffused to affect urban planning through discouraging concealment and monitoring movements. Additionally, it is used in learning institutions, factory architecture and hospitals. Works Cited Adomo, Theodor. Parataxis: Zur spaten Lyrik Holderlins.Noten zur Literatur. 1(2005) :447-494. Bertaux, Pierre. Was Holderlin mentally Ill? Philosophy Today 37.4 (2007): 353-368. Bouchard, Donald. 2009. Language Counter-Memory–Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, translated by Donald Bouchard

British India and The Partition of India Independence History Discussion

programming assignment help British India and The Partition of India Independence History Discussion.

Students will be asked to prepare one opinion editorial (op-ed) of at least 800 words. In the op-ed, a student should take a position on one of the controversial questions or issues in the development and present a focused argument that has a clear thesis statement (the introductory paragraph should specify what the controversy/issue is and present a driving argument which will be fleshed out, substantiated and defended throughout the remainder of the op-ed). The best op-eds are those that present a tight and persuasive position on the given topic based on evidence. It is important not to ignore contending arguments, but rather engage them directly. Clarity and style of writing are also important: the op-ed should be engaging and articulate, with correct grammar and spelling. This should be at least 800 words and cite reputable scholarly and media sources. Make sure you predominantly use your own words, cite everything you use in APA format – provide in-paragraph citations in your paper (New York Times, 2015), and provide a reference list at the end of the paper with all of your sources (I would suggest a using an online citation machine to help, such as this one (Links to an external site.)). For assistance go to the USF Library Citation Assistance page. Please note, if you use large blocks of quotations that are multiple sentences, you will not score higher than a C. Papers must be submitted in either Word (.docx) or PDF (.pdf) format. No abstract or cover page needed. I will provide feedback on drafts up to a week before the assignment is due.
British India and The Partition of India Independence History Discussion

Theories of Leadership and Motivation

Introduction: Leadership is the character which every organisation wants to see in their staff and the person who is self motivated and who can motivate the team members become a good manager. Leadership is nothing but inspiring the team leader is the one who does it, inspiration is nothing but motivation. So leadership and motivation is a chemistry which can take any difficult task to success. The leadership and motivation chemistry is mostly helpful in management sector whether it is in business or in the team; every individual posse’s leadership but the one who practices on the go become a perfect leader. The main aspect a leader consists is a vision for the certain purpose. When a task or project is taken over by a company the company searches for a leader who posses knowledge on the project and vision how to develop the project, make use of colleagues and give the organisation a profit on it. A leader tends to influence the task to be continued and change to be taken place to make the organisation profitable. There are several theories on leadership by great leaders some of them say that “leadership is an action not position or person”. These theories help to prepare a perfect leader, all these theories are proposed and practiced by great leaders and managers but latest management considers a leader who follows his role. Leadership theories: Considering leadership reveals school of thought giving different leadership theories such as Great Man theory, trait theory, behaviourist theory, situational leadership theory, contingency theory, transactional theory and transformational theory. Great man theory is the one proposed before twentieth century where it says that leaders are born with the talent and leader should be a man this lead to the next theory trait theory. Trait theory: The trait theory rose from the concepts of the ‘Great Man ‘approach. This theory leads to identify the important characteristics of a successful leader. The people who got the characters as defined by the traits approach are isolated or shortlisted and those are recruited as leaders. This type of approach was mostly implemented in military and still used in some of the area. According to the trait theory the person who got the following skills is said to be a trait. Ambitious and success oriented Adaptable to all kinds of situations Co operative to all the members in the organization Highly active or energetic Dominative Good decision making ability Self-confident Adaptable to stress conditions and Dependable. These are the characters which make a person trait and they should posses some skills which are Skills Intelligent Skilled conceptually Creative Fluent in speaking Tactful Self motivated and self belief Skilled socially When these kinds of skills and characters are identified in the person, the person is recruited in the team. Behavioural theory: The trait study doesn’t give any conclusive results and it was hard to measure some more critical issues such as honesty, integrity and loyalty. This leaded the attention to be diverted on to the behaviour theories. The behaviour theory focuses on human relationship and success performance as well. According to behavioural theory the manager believes that the working environment should be like an entertainment place where the expenditure of mental and physical efforts is treated to be play and rest. The idea of manager is an average person not only learns to accept but also seek responsibility. The people will automatically learn to exercise self-control and self direction to achieve the goal or target. The organizational problems can become imaginative and creative. Contingency theory model: This theory illustrates that there are many ways for the manager to lead the team to get best outcome. According to the situation the manager can find a best way to get the best outcome. Fiedler worked on contingency theory according to that he looked for three situations which define the condition of a managerial task. Leader and team member relationship Work structure or project structure Position and power The manager should maintain relation with their team members to get along and create confidence and make them feel free to think about the task and give their ideas to help the task to be finished. Project structure is the job highly structured or unstructured or in between. The power shows how much authority a manager does posses. This theory rates the manager whether the manger is relationship oriented or task oriented. The task oriented managers gets success in such situations where there is good leader and team member relationship and structured projects or tasks doesn’t matter whether the position power is weak or strong. And get success when the project is unstructured and does have any sort of good vision by having a strong power and position. The variables which affect the task such as environmental variables are combined in a heavy some and differentiated as favourable and unfavourable situations. The task oriented management style depends on the favourable and unfavourable environment variables but the relationship management style stays in the middle by managing or changing the variables to accumulate with their style. Both styles of managements got their sides to be good when all the performance and team work well in the tasks. There is no good or bad management in these two managements. Task motivated management style leaders do best when the team performs well and they are good in achieving good sales record and performance better than their competitor where as the relationship oriented leaders are helpful to gain positive customer service and build a positive image to the organisation. Transactional and transformational leadership: Transformational leadership “is a relationship of mutual simulation and elevation that converts the followers in to leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents” Transformational leadership is communicating with the leaders and the team members to take them to higher level something like a leader can become a moral agent and the follower can become a leader. Transactional leadership technique builds the person to finish the certain task such as job done for the time being. Some of the differences between transactional and transformational leadership are Transactional style of leadership builds a man to complete a certain task where as transformational styles builds a member to become a leader. This focuses on task completion and tactical style of management where as transformational leadership focus on strategies and missions. These are some theories of the leadership which shows how a leader act on different situations and how different leaders behave to get success in the organization. Motivation in Management: Theories of motivation: The theories of motivation can be divided into 3 broad categories. Reinforcement theories – emphasize the means through which the process of controlling an individual’s behavior by manipulating its consequences takes place . Content theories – focus primarily on individual needs – the physiological or psychological deficiencies that we feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate. Process theories – focus on the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the minds of people and that control their behavior. Early Theories of Motivation: Hierarchy of Needs Theory Theory X and Theory Y Motivation-Hygiene Theory Contemporary Theories of Motivation: ERG Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs Cognitive Evaluation Theory Task Characteristics Theories Goal-Setting Theory Equity Theory Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Abraham Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs: Physiological. Safety. Social. Esteem. Self-actualization. Maslow then categorized these 5 needs into lower-order needs and higher-order needs.Lower-order needs are needs that are satisfied externally: physiological and safety needs.Higher-order needs are needs that are satisfied internally (within the person): social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGrogor: McGregor concluded that a manager’s vision of the nature of human beings is based on a certain blend of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her actions toward subordinates according to these assumptions: Employees naturally dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible Motivation-hygiene Theory: According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are dividing and distinct from those that leads to job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include factors such as: company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary. Motivator factors include factors such as: attainment, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and growth. Hygiene Factors Company rule and management; Supervision; association with supervisor; Work circumstances; Salary; Relationship with peers; Personal life; association with subordinates; Status; Safety Motivator Factors: attainment credit; Work itself; Responsibility; progression; Growth Contemporary Theories of Motivation: ERG Theory: ERG Theory proposed by Clayton Alderfer of Yale University: Alderfer fights that there are three groups of core needs: Existence Relatedness Growth Existence group is worried with providing our basic material existence requirements. Relatedness group is the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships McClelland’s Theory of Needs: McClelland’s theory of needs focuses on three needs: Achievement Power Affiliation Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarded tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. (This concept was proposed in the late 1960s.)The interdependence of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards is a real phenomenon Task Characteristics Theories: These theories seek to identify task characteristics of jobs, how these characteristics are combined to form different jobs, and their relationship to employee motivation, satisfaction, and performance. Goal-setting theory: Specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. Feedback leads to higher performance than non-feedback. In addition to feedback, 2 other factors have been found to influence the goals-performance relationship. These are: Goal commitment. Sufficient self-efficacy. Equity Theory: Individuals make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relatives to those of others and then act in response so as to remove any inequities’. Stacy Adams proposed that this negative tension state provides the motivation to do something to correct it. There are 4 referent comparisons that employee can use: Self-inside. Self-outside. Other – inside. Other – outside. Conclusion The change in the leadership theories time by time says that the leader should posses certain characters which lead the organisational success whether to believe in maintaining a relationship or to go on tactically the manager or the leader should act to the situation and get success at the end. Depending on the companies motive the leader should react or behave with the team members to achieve the target. Usually maintaining a good relation helps to make the team members life easy and manage the work happily. The team members become more innovative and achieve targets easily where as with tactical style leadership may create some sort of pressure on the team members, there is no guarantee that in every situation relational ship management is successful. the leader should adapt himself for the situation and act according to a particular situation. We have discussed above only a collection of the motivation theories and thoughts of the various proponents of management .In some of the theories and opinion presented, however, one can observe some ‘glimpses’ of the person and how, perhaps, he or she could be motivated. This is satisfying in itself. But, as noted earlier, practice has been in advance of theory in this field, so let us now move to the realistic side of management of human behaviour and motivation in the workplace.

Methods for Cybersecurity

INFORMATION SYSTEM Data framework (IS) a framework that give the data which is essential to deal with an association all around adequately. Information frameworks (IS) are the methods by which individuals and associations, progressively using innovation, accumulate, process, store and scatter data. A data framework as “a framework wherein human members as well as machines perform work (procedures and exercises) utilizing data, innovation, and different assets to create enlightening items or potentially benefits for inner or outer clients (Geiger, Rosemann, Fielt and Schader 2012). CYBER SECURITY Cybersecurity is that the act of securing frameworks, systems, and comes from advanced assault. These cyberattacks are typically gone for getting to, changing, or pulverizing delicate data; coercing cash from clients; or interfering with ordinary business forms (Von Solms and Van Niekerk 2013). Cyber security is that the insurance of internet associated frameworks as well as instrumentality, programming and information from cyber-attacks. See below figure… Figure: cyber security CURRENT TREATEMENT OF CYBER SECURITY There are numerous methods which associations are doing and they can do to shield their business from cyberattacks. The European Union agency for cyber security (ENISA) is working in Europe from 2004 and all the countries in European Union have a National cyber security strategy (NCSS). This strategy helps them to tackle risks. (European Union agency for cyber security 2018) According to European Union agency for cyber security (2018) ENISA’s work in supporting these techniques has concentrated on the investigation of existing NCSS; on the advancement and execution of NCSS; on laying out and bringing issues to light of good practice to give direction and pragmatic apparatuses to the Member States for assessing their NCSS. Refreshed NCSS Good Practice Guide (New!) NCSS: An Implementation Guide National Cyber Security Strategies An Evaluation Framework for NCSS Motivating forces and hindrances of the digital protection advertise in Europe Digital Insurance: Recent Advances, Good Practices and Challenges (New!) A typical goal of each European national digital security procedure is joint effort to improve digital security over all dimensions, from risk data sharing to mindfulness raising. Joint effort is frequently accomplished through two formal structures: Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) and Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). Ways to make cyber security strategic within organization: Staff preparing Assailants are sharp about finding a point of section into your frameworks and system. This could be a clueless worker with feeble passwords or who falls for a phishing or social designing endeavor. Ensure your group knows how cybercriminals can deceive them, how to recognize a suspicious email or telephone call, particularly those that appear to be authentically from companions or another office. Prompt them on the most proficient method to shield the association from these endeavors. Keep programming refreshed According to Arora