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Theories Of Unemployment And Growth Economics Essay

There is an extensive literature that examines the relation between institutional labour market arrangements and their impact on labour market and economic situation of an economy. Studies that focused upon labour market institutions and their impact on unemployment across Europe and OECD use ordinal indexes of the quality of labour market institutions and the use of macroeconomic framework which make an intense use of the NAIRU theory of unemployment. According to these theories, labour market rigidities are perceived as a factor that has a negative impact on the frictionless operation of the labour market, ultimately it contributes to the raising of the unemployment rate. A number of empirical studies have been done on demand shocks and rigidities in labour market institutions that affect unemployment rate, such as Brubb and Wells 1993, Scarpetta 1996, Nickell 1997/1998, Elmeskov et al 1998, Nickell and Layard 1999, Belot and Van Ours 2000. Even dough their findings are not uniform, a general outcome seems to prevail: institutional rigidities such as long duration of unemployment benefits, rigid employment protection legislation, are significant in explaining the patterns of persistent unemployment in European countries, especially in the British economy. Stockhammer (2004) [1] made an attempt of an analysis which differentiates itself from the standard one that is based on NAIRU and he jointly examined the role of price adjustments, accumulation patterns and labour market rigidities. The role of accumulation if revealed as it deflects from the Neoclassical and New Keynesian theories of unemployment; instead it relates on a Post-Keynesian view of the economy, where unemployment is regarded as a disequilibrium condition which results from the difference between capital growth and the rate of growth of the workforce. Stockhammer’s findings suggest that labour market rigidities have a poor effect on unemployment and that the accumulation slowdown in Europe is the most relevant in determining unemployment. Even if there are differences in their policy prescriptions, the theories mentioned above have a number of limitations. Firstly, they rely almost fully on subjective measures of quality or on the strictness of the labour market institutions. Nickell et al (2002) and Nunziata (2002) find contradicting evidence which suggest that labour market rigidities impact more the structural than the cyclical element of unemployment. Secondly, such studies are based on the assumption that the unemployment relationship is the same across all sample countries (OECD Economies). Countries differ not only in labour market institutions but also in the way that key macroeconomic and microeconomic policies are being performed. Such differences can have high implications in the way labour market institutions and other macroeconomic variables impact the economy. Finally, these studies tend to omit differences within country in unemployment performance and labour market flexibility. These differences are usually large and more pronounced than cross country differences. Unemployment and growth – general In the long run, there is a negative relationship between GDP growth rates and unemployment changes. This relationship has been best captured by Okun’s Law in the 1960s, becoming a base framework for the study of the relationship between the two variables. The theory states that real GDP growth, which is approximately equal to the potential output growth, most of the times, is required to sustain a stable unemployment rate [2] . In the short run, it has been discovered that the relationship between the rate of unemployment and economic growth might be a weak one. There have been previous cases when unemployment rate start decreasing sometime after economic activity has turned positive on an extensive scale [3] . The reason why unemployment rate does not pick up once the recession has finished is that some firms tend to hoard labour; because to lay off workers when product demand decreases and rehire them when product demand increases back is costly. As a result of this, firms may be able to increase output to meet demand on the short run, without hiring additional workers and this is done by increasing hours and productivity of the current employees. This phenomena result in a temporary boom in labour productivity growth, which reaches levels above its long run rate. With fully utilised labour, output cannot grow faster than the rate of labour productivity growth, until firms start to hire new workers. If growth in GDP exceeds growth in labour productivity, employment will increase; if employment growth is more rapid than growth of labour force, then the unemployment rate will decrease. Thus, one of the most important factors underlying the long-run relationship between GDP growth and unemployment is the growth rate in potential output. Potential output is represented by the measure of an economy’s capacity to produce goods and services when available resources are fully utilised. Potential output rate of growth is a function of the growth in potential output and labour supply, provided the economy is at full employment. As it happens in the current recession which started in 2008, unemployment increased, as a result of the fall in the actual GDP compared to the potential GDP (output gap). [4] If any addition to the labour force goes straight in employment, output growth will equal the labour supply, provided there is no productivity growth. If it is the case that GDP growth falls below labour force growth rate, then there will be a shortage in the new job creation needed to cover all job seekers; as a result, unemployment rate will increase. If the output growth rate exceeds labour force growth rate, new jobs will be created by the firms in order to satisfy the rise in demand of goods and services, leading to an increase of employment as new positions will be filled from the pool of unemployed workers. [5] It has been estimated, by the Congressional Budget Office, that the rate of NAIRU (non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment) is around 5% [6] . If GDP growth is equal to labour force growth in the presence of productivity growth, more people will be on the labour force market than the number that is actual needed to produce a certain amount of goods and services. The unemployment rate will fall in the long run, only if GDP growth will exceed the combined labour force growth rate. Measurement of unemployment Measuring unemployment has always been a matter of debate, as it encountered a problem of international comparison, while countries measure unemployment differently. Early measures of unemployment were compiled from data of those who receive benefits and social assistance. This measure was affected by the fact that it was difficult to estimate the number of all people who are unemployed as benefits are allocated under special circumstances. Benefit eligibility and regulations differences across countries may reflect disparities in the availability of benefits rather than people out of work. This method distinguishes between “voluntary” and “involuntary” unemployment, as the circumstances under which benefits are granted differ. In order to overcome these irregularities, governments, international institutions and economists agreed that the best measure of unemployment is by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) definition. According to this, unemployment is measured by the number of people out of work, looking for work and available for work as a proportion of the total labour force. ILO and OECD encouraged the usage of surveys for the labour force, which measure unemployment as described above and in a way that is consistent across countries. ILO measure does not take into consideration the reason why a person if out of employment, nevertheless it distinguishes between “unemployment” and “being out of labour force”, by the criterion of having searched for work in the near past. The main difference between these measures is the question of what are they trying to measure and why unemployment should be regarded as an issue. Only few of those who are not working are classified as unemployed, as it is a matter of choice if to participate to the labour market or to dedicate to family, studies or other activities that do not place someone as part of labour market. Unemployment is seen as a greater concern than non-participation because it is considered to be involuntary and represents a failure of the labour market. The difference between unemployment and non-participation is far from being clarified in practice and neither the ILO nor the “claimer count” methods fully distinguish between the two. Review of Models Simple structural models Simple structural models have been inspired from the notion of “natural” rate of unemployment introduced by Milton Friedman (1968) [7] . “Natural” rate of unemployment is grounded in labour market institutions, as there are imperfections that characterise the labour markets. The imperfections that characterise the natural rate of unemployment include factors such as labour market legislation, benefits, taxes and the role of trade unions; these being the same variables included in the Keynesian models and which are responsible for “wage pressure”. Hysteresis Hysteresis is built on the idea that a system can be changed permanently or for a long period of time after experiencing a shock. In his writing, Keynes [8] (1920) gives the example of a ship on the sea that is caught in a storm. As a consequence the ship is sunk and sailors drowned. He explains that even dough the storm is temporary; the damages it caused are permanent, with the ship and sailors never to come back to the surface. In the economic environment, the notion of a shock can be compared with the event of a bankruptcy, in which a firm closes down and its employees are dismissed; for some it might take long to get back into employment or this might not happen at all. The notion that labour market is subjected to hysteresis was introduced in the 1980s when long term unemployment rates increased in some European and Western economies. The main idea is that not labour market institutions cause high rates of unemployment, but rather macroeconomic downturns such as the OPEC shocks, which cause the nations to get stuck in a situation of high rates of unemployment. This concept of hysteresis can be merged with the simple Keynesian or the simple structural theories. For example, in the structural case, it will be a long run equilibrium natural rate, nevertheless in the short run the equilibrium rate will be given by: USR=λU* (1-λ)U-1 Eq. (5) – U-1 – unemployment rate in the previous period – λ – rate of decline If there is a sharp increase in unemployment due to an unexpected shock, the equilibrium rate of unemployment will rise and eventually decline (λ) slowly back to its long-run equilibrium. Taking the example of oil market shocks and monetary deflation from the end of 1970s and beginning of 1980s, hysteresis model have the property that sharp increases in unemployment would last for some years after the shock. Nevertheless, how many years the anomalies will last, depends on other factors which characterise the speed of adjustment. One theme came in the attention of economists with the work of Layard and Nickell on the UK economy in the 1980s and had as main interest long-term unemployment. [9] The main idea was that once unemployment rose, there would be a rise in the number of people who experience long duration unemployment; this phenomenon could lead to discouragement in pursuing job search, weaken motivation and ultimately a depreciation of skills. Because of this situation, employers are reluctant to employing people who have been for a long time out of work, leading to some people fading out of the labour force. One of the most important disruptions in the Western Europe economy and with the highest impact since World War II is the rise in unemployment following OPEC decision of rising prices during the 1970s. Other shocks can be also mentioned, such as the decline in productivity growth from the 1970s [10] and the sudden rise in real interest rates all over the world in the 1980s [11] . Interactive models Interactive modes are characterised by a static structure and unlike simple structural models, these assume that the economy is hit by a permanent shock, whose impact depends on the structure of the nation’s economy. One good example is the technology shift hypothesis, which states that an increase in use of technology has shifted the demand for unskilled labour to skilled labour, leading to wage inequality and higher unemployment. According to Krugman (1994) [12] “the shift in demand towards more highly skilled labour has created persistent unemployment in countries where relative wages have not been able to adjust”. Theories of unemployment and growth Pissarides and the job-search theory – a basic framework The first and most complete set of work on Job-search model was developed by Charles Pissarides (1990). The model is an extension to the neoclassical growth model with exogenous technological progress. Search-theory is based on the assumption that labour market activity is uncoordinated, time consuming and costly. A matching function has been developed and it includes unemployed workers and the number of vacancies available on the market at a certain point in time. It is assumed that m function is concave so it can represent an accumulation of externalities on the labour market. If there are more vacancies opened by employers, the smaller the search effort of workers looking for a job; and vice-versa, the more workers on-search on labour market, the faster matching process for firms. It has been observed that growth rate is negatively correlated with the unemployment rate from the supply side perspective. From the demand side it is observed that an increase in growth rate leads to a decrease in capital ratio per unit of efficient labour, resulting in an increase in the interest rate. This affects the labour market tightness and the effect can be either positive or negative, depending on the difference between interest rate and growth rate. Endogenous growth and unemployment: Neoclassical and Keynesian features A further development of the basic model of job-search has been made by Bean and Pissarides (1993) [13] . They built a model where both unemployment and growth are endogenous variables, this will allow analysing a new kind of feedback effect that unemployment generates on growth. The base framework is the model of Diamond (1965) [14] , to which it is added technology that displays decreasing returns to capital on the firm level, but constant returns at the aggregate level, according to benchmark model of Romer (1986) [15] . Another assumption is the introduction of a costly process of matching workers and firms. Firstly, the model represents in steady state endogenous growth with a positive unemployment rate. Secondly, there are introduced Keynesian features, assuming imperfect competition on the goods market. The model is completed with other parameters which can represent policy intervention. Authors argue that unemployment reduces savings pool and ultimately the investments necessary to impel accumulation of capital. Starting from this theory, Bean and Pissarides (1993) use their model to investigate on how different policy interventions have an effect on the endogenous variable. [16] According to the model, a reduction in the hiring cost results in an increase in the number of vacancies a firm creates. This stimulates employment and generates an increase in the pool of savings, stimulation accumulation of capital and ultimately growth. In the case, if an intervention is directed to the labour market it determines a positive effect on both growth and unemployment. When the intervention is directed to increase the bargaining power of workers, the outcome is ambiguous. High wages can discourage firms fro opening new positions, increasing unemployment, on the other side, high income can stimulate increase in the pool of savings for employees. [17] Assuming imperfect competition in the goods market, and a high mark-up margin, it can be observed that any increase in the marginal propensity to consume will increase the pool of savings and stimulate growth rate; despite what is predicted with Classical assumptions. Dean and Pissarides (1993) assume that hiring costs are expressed in terms of consumption; if the price for goods rise, hiring costs increase along with unemployment. A reduction in the trend to save raises employment level. In this case it is generated an increase in the pool of savings, increasing growth through accumulation of capital. The framework developed by Bean and Pissarides (1993) can be used to investigate the effect of new policies on both endogenous variables. The neo-Schumpeterian approach to growth and unemployment Aghion and Howitt (1994) [18] have a different response to Pissarides’ (1990) model, trying to express growth and unemployment in a joint way. The basic model of creative destruction has been extended to include the problem of labour reallocation across the firm. Agion’s and Howitt’s (1994) model is based on the assumption that each household is endowed with a flow of one unit of labour service which is supplied to the firm. Also the household is endowed with a stock of h units of human capital. As all household display the same patterns and the same intertemporal utility function, this can be expressed as: U(c) = E0 ʃ∞1 ct(yt)e-ρtdt Eq. (18) Aghion and Howitt define the firm as being “an “institutional embodiment of knowledge; research facilities for producing new knowledge, for generating new ideas” (Aghion and Howitt 1994). The production of a final good is made by combining a specific technology with an appropriate worker and a variable amount of human capita. yt = Atf(ht – hmin) Eq. (19) The function f() is the representation of all neoclassical features and also is been take into consideration the Inada conditions. In the basic model the productivity (At) is exogenously determined and follows the basic exponential rule: At = A0e-Ï’t. According to the Poisson effect, if the firm decides to transform innovation in new technology, it will incur an implementation cost and the new process will be available at a specific point in time. Due to labour reallocation across firms, there is generated a certain level of unemployment; if a firm does not innovate it will not be able to cover its fixed costs, leading to potential closure which will force workers into unemployment. At this point it starts a new process of matching the worker with another firm; this process is described by Diamond and Blanchard (1989) [19] and Pissarides (1990) [20] . The matching function displays all neoclassical standard features: the recruitment rate q(V) is a decreasing function of the vacancies number in the economy; the job finding rate Ï… is an increasing function of all vacancies number. Assuming that the duration of every match takes specific units of time (S); a worker who is forced into unemployment will wait 1/ Ï…(V) units of time until finding a new job; on the other hand, a firm who is trying to find a new employee will wait 1/q(V) units of time until finding a proper match. If it is assumed S as constant and technologically determined, the equation above can be re-written as: u = 1 – S Ï…(V) Eq. (20) Aghion and Howitt tried to express the Beveridge curve in the function of technological change (equation (20)) when a firm decides to innovate at a specific point in time (t0), it start looking for a specialized worker. A match is predicted to be obtained at time t0 1/q(V) and the production process can start. Aghion and Howitt also take into consideration other effects of growth on unemployment; these affect unemployment indirectly through the dynamics of new firm entrants into the economy and through the clearing equation on the human capital market. Stylized facts of Unemployment and growth in UK Unemployment in UK often has a tendency to last a very long period of time. As it can be seen in the table below, the rate of unemployment recovers during a long period after the Recession from the beginning of the 1990s, the rate stabilizing only at the beginning of 2000s. There are multiple causes of unemployment depending on the state of the economy and the policies that are in effect. Medium causes of unemployment can be identified as influences that tend to reduce the actual supply of labour from the total labour market (unemployment benefits and social security, a problem in matching the unemployed with available vacancies and employment protection legislation). [21] Before 2000 in UK unemployment rates tend to follow the same patterns during economic changes; rising during recessions, decreasing during non-recession and with steady low rates during booms. In the 1980s and 1990s recessions, unemployment in UK tends to rise and persist for a long period of time after shocks have occurred. The figures registered returned to their low rates of pre 1980s only after the recession in the 1990s, demonstrating that it took a long time form unemployment rates to recover after a major shock. During the 2000s, UK did not suffer from the recession that hit US and other European countries at the beginning of this period. In 2008 a global financial crisis developed and with it a severe recession which has led many to refer to it as the “great Recession”. It developed as a result of government incapability and/or inaction to correct old economic imbalances and from a continuous misperception of risk by most who were involved in the financial sector. British economy also entered this downturn in 2008, experiencing its first recession in fifteen years; with figures rising from 5.1% in early 2008 to 8% in early 2010 (OECD). Even if it is a significant increase, this is overshadowed by the figures registered during the 1980s, with increases of 6.5 %.(OECD). Unlike other developed countries which have been affected by the recession, such as Germany, UK did not pushed forward labour market policies aimed to temper the effects of the recession on the labour market. Austerity package which includes public spending cuts and tax increases further exacerbated increases in unemployment. This can be denoted from the contraction in output during this period, this is shown in Figure 2 with a relationship between unemployment and GDP in UK since the early 1970s (Okun’s Law). Even though there was slow increase in unemployment, GDP has fallen by 6% compared to the trend over 2008-2009 recession; this drop is similar to the one registered in the 1980s recession [22] . As a conclusion derived from the table it can be said that the rise in unemployment in UK has been mild despite the amplitude of the recession. The diagram below shows the fluctuations in unemployment [23] and GDP growth since 1960 until 2011 [24] . It can be seen that in the early 1990s, GDP rate dramatically decrease, while unemployment rose illustrating a clear negative relationship between the two variables. Also it can be seen that recovery of unemployment rate is extended over a long period in order to reach previous levels; with peak points in 1984 and 1993, so it can decrease during a period of eight years (from 1993 to 2001) to reach its nadir of 4.7%. The same pattern is observed after 2008, with important decrease in GDP levels and increases in unemployment rate. Gregg and Wadsworth (2010) have an explanation on why unemployment rate has decreased so little compared to other recession periods. Even if working hours has fallen and part-time employment has risen, the major impact on adjustment was a fall in producer wages more than in previous downturns, fact that maintained firm profitability. Firms were able to survive without any important job losses, even dough they registered decline in productivity that has been a consequence of the temperate fall in employment relative to large decline in output. Layard et al. (2005) and Nickell (2006) included the role of institutions in the explanation of unemployment; and this has been subjected to a broad econometric testing and the validity of empirical results which are meant to support this view have been doubting. It have been found that is difficult to estimate cross country panel unemployment regressions, which have a lagged unemployment rate and a high number of year and country dummies and to prove that any of the labour market rigidity variable work. Also it has been found a similarity between European countries and is that labour market institutions do not tend to cause unemployment. One major exception is changes in the replacement rate which sometimes appear to have a negative correlation with changes in the unemployment rate. On the other hand, Blanchard and Wolfers (2000) have argued that “the interaction of shocks and institutions does a good statistical job of fitting the evolution of unemployment both over time and across countries”. Even so it is difficult to interpret as being true as results have been obtained in an over-fitted model; and driven more by the cross-section variation than by any time series changes. In this model there are only eight time series data points as it is used five year averages between 1960 and 1995. Okun’s Law In economics, the empirical evidence of observed relationship between unemployment and growth is known as Okun’s Law, named after economist Arthur Melvin Okun (1962). He discovered that for every increase of 1% in unemployment rate, a nation’s GDP will be approximately 2% lower than its potential GDP [25] . This has been known as “gap version” and another “difference version” [26] is describing the relationship between quarterly changes in unemployment and quarterly changes in GDP. Friedman and Wachter (1974) state that there is a fixed relationship between unemployment rate movements and the size of the gap. The assumption of Okun’s law is that any change in productivity and in the labour force, happen at a steady exogenous trend rate across time. This theory states that from a Cobb Douglas production function all variables should be excluded except unemployment rate and the linear time trend; by assuming that all variables are only functions of unemployment rate and an exponential time trend [27] . The relationship that Okun’s Law describes can be represented through a linear regression, where the change in unemployment rate is a function of an intercept, a value of GDP growth and an error term: DUNEMPL = β0 β1 DGDP Ɛ For the purpose of this report it will be investigated the “difference version” which it can produce more relevant outcomes as it includes more observations. According to the output below, growth has a statistically significant negative effect on unemployment rate. In UK it is shown that with every one percent increase in GDP growth, there will be a decrease of 8.12 percentage points in unemployment rate. Due to the presence of heteroscedasticity problems, the estimation is done with White heteroscedasticity-consistent standard errors and covariance. For an observation period of 51 years (1960-2011), change in GDP growth explain changes in unemployment rate in proportion of 16.17% as reported by the Adjusted R-squares. Dependent Variable: DUNEMPL Method: Least Squares Date: 08/31/12 Time: 14:44 Sample (adjusted): 2 52 Included observations: 51 after adjustments White heteroskedasticity-consistent standard errors
Poverty is central to health and development in low-income and middle-income countries. State your definition of poverty prior to studying public health. Based on this definition, what would be the focus of poverty alleviation solutions? Based on the relational and spiritual definition of poverty, discuss how the focus of solutions would change to include a holistic approach. Identify an example of a health program or solution that integrates a relational definition of poverty. Watch the video on “Defining Poverty” to help in responding to this discussion question. 
Issues Affecting Teaching and Learning. The purpose of this assessment is to demonstrate an understanding of pupil learning in relation to learning theories and establish links between effective pupil learning and teaching strategies. In this essay, I will address the key issues that impact on effective teaching and learning strategies for learners of business studies in secondary school. In doing this, I will refer to my own experience and observations in the classroom and to lessons given as well as to objectives and evaluations. I will also refer to learning and pedagogical theories, curriculum, standards and policy documents that inform practice. I will use examples from two specific lessons, on profit and loss and personal budgeting and, from these examples, establish links between theory and practice. It is first of all useful to begin with an understanding of the curriculum expectations of the teaching of business studies and the changes that have occurred over the past thirty years and also in light of recent reforms that aim to “raise the education and skills levels of students by delivering a curriculum which gives life and social skills,” and prepares students “for a fast-changing world” (Department for Children, School and Family, 2008). Curricular knowledge, as well as subject and pedagogical knowledge are the “three important aspects” (Hammon, 2005, p. 26) a teacher needs to understand and master. The aim of recent reforms in the education of young people is to make “education more relevant to today’s world.” As such, business studies and the core skills of ICT have become a priority in preparing young people for higher study and employment. This strong shift towards education as preparing students for employment, further study, and becoming citizens in a globalised world, demands that secondary education be used to foster the development of students in terms of their practical and vocational potential. This shift raises, yet again, all the great pedagogical questions (Jephcote and Abbott, 2005) which teachers may not be able to answer, but will nonetheless help in understanding the purpose of teaching business studies in the way informed by government policy and to guide teachers – both experienced and novice – in understanding why and how to best teach their subject. These pedagogical questions concern whether business, career and work-related education in schools should meet the demands and needs of the individual learners or of “society and economics” in general. These questions also consider whether schools should be concerned with changing society or “preserving the social order,” whether career and work-related education should be a vehicle for preparing good and morally responsible social individuals, and whether education should prepare learners for their life after school or simply teach students how to successful learners (Jephcote and Abbott, 2005, p. 6). These questions seem to raise conflicting ideas and goals, but they are mutually supportive: learners who enjoy the learning experience for its own sake will also be able to better employ the concepts, facts and skills learnt beyond their schooling. In any case, the very basis of career and work-related education is founded on instrumental value, regardless of whether or not students students find any intrinsic value in it, any value in learning for the sake of learning, that is. In terms of instrumental value, employers have expectations that career and business education will provide them with a capable and skilled workforce. Students need to gain knowledge and skills that will make them somehow useful in society. Hence the strong shift in policy focus: in 2005, employers were less than satisfied with the level of business awareness that school leavers and graduates had brought to the workforce (Kelly, 2005, p. 21). But apart from employers, both parents and students themselves also hope to gain some instrumental value from their study of career and work-related subjects: they want to become successful at finding jobs. As far as the school’s part in all of this, and by extension the teacher’s, there is a “legal responsibility” to provide opportunities for “careers education, work-related learning and enterprise and financial capability” at key stages 3 and 4 (Department for Education and Employment and Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 1999). By thus understanding the focus of government policy and curriculum expectations teachers then need to find their own ways of improving student outcomes, all the while working within their preferred ideological or pedagogical frameworks and holding their personal beliefs about education and their role as teachers, while taking into account the preferences of students. In light of all this policy change and reform, teachers effectively become “agents of” decisions made by others, instead of controlling decisions that will impact on their classrooms (Cohen, 2005, p. p. 16). Teachers, instead of feeling threatened by this, find comfort and confidence in knowing exactly what is expected of them and their students. Policy, frameworks and standards provide an excellent scaffolding for teachers to develop their own teaching objectives within the strict framework. After all, when it comes to teaching, “the way you do it is just as important as what you do” (Kyriacou, 2001, p. 31). It is an acknowledged pedagogical trait that effective teaching of a given subject is influenced by a teacher’s confidence in the chosen teaching method and resources used as well as a clear understanding of the principles behind lesson objectives, just as much as it is the teacher’s subject knowledge and expertise. Similarly, effective learning is influenced by student confidence in the teacher and knowledge taught, as well as the freedom to learn via different learning strategies and the ability to control their learning process. A confident teacher will have a clear understanding of pedagogical frameworks and curriculum expectations and also be sensitive to student needs and preferential learning styles (Kyriacou, 2001). When it comes to teaching and learning business awareness, learners will often have to master quite new concepts, such as profit, cost, revenue and budget. As such, teachers might intuitively respond to this need by understanding their role as one in which they must “impart” or “transmit” the knowledge that they have about the subject to the students who do not yet have this knowledge. In fact, this understanding of teaching is in line with Wood (1997) who offers four ways of teaching in a type of hierarchy. The first, that of teaching as imparting knowledge, fits into an objectivist (Fox, 1983) understanding of knowledge as something that exists independently of the knower. The process of acquiring knowledge then, is simply one which involves learning something that already exists. According to Wood, as a teacher becomes more experienced, so too will their chosen mode of teaching become more complex. From the understanding of teaching as imparting knowledge, the teacher develops that understanding to teaching as preparing students to use knowledge, teaching as providing opportunities for students to explore different perspectives, and finally, teaching as preparing students to be reflective (Davies and Brant, 2006, p. 182). In the case of teaching profit and loss, a teacher, especially a novice teacher, might well see that these concepts already exist in the world business and the best way to deliver this knowledge to students is when they act as expects who impart this knowledge. This understanding of teaching was observed in a lesson on profit and loss (Appendix I). The lesson objectives were stated as thus: Students should be able to define profit and loss; Students should be able to explain the relationship between turnover, cost of sales, gross profit and net profit; Students should be able to calculate net profit and gross profit and make assumptions about the profitability of a business (Salbstein, 2001). The lesson aimed to impart information, facts and definitions about key concepts in profit and loss, via a traditional method of introducing the language and definitions on the classroom board for students to record in their books. Methods of calculation were also introduced. The teacher’s role in this lesson was a central role as the main expert facilitator of the knowledge of profit and loss. Once the concepts had been given and discussed, students were directed to study in pairs on the computers by accessing an online lesson of profit and loss, which included an online quiz (Salbstein, 2001) to test student understanding of the concepts taught. This method is a type of information-processing method, whereby learners are presented with information and then asked to manipulate it, in this instance by quiz work, but also by re-wording learnt definitions and discussing concepts. According to Davies and Brant (2006, p. 121) this theory of learning is based on the idea that when learners learn new information is “processed and stored in the mind.” While this is suggested as an effective method for applied learning, this method is limiting because it treats all learners in the same way, disregarding individual preferences and learning styles. Another method, which is classic but limiting, is the method based on an understanding of learning as a behaviour that changes in response to environmental factors, such as positive reinforcement. This is Skinner’s behaviourist model. Learning based on this method suggests that each stage of learning be broken down into parts or steps and rewards given following successful completion of each step. Davies and Brant (2006) suggest that this method is useful in teaching vocational and ICT-related tasks and skilled, but is limited because it does not provide a holistic view of learning and knowledge acquisition. The lesson outlined above, while presented in a comparatively limiting way, was not unsuccessful. This is because of the appeal of the ICT element in teaching, when students worked through the online tutorial. In evaluating the success of the lesson it was noted that students remained on task longer and were motivated to learn about the subject. ICT is an important and necessary element in career and work-related education when used to “complement teaching” (Jephcote and Abbott, 2005). ICT is more than merely a teaching tool and has the potential “empower” students by “liberat[ing] users from routine tasks” and also by making “accessible vast amounts of information” (Leask and Pachler, 1999, p. 4). In fact, current education policy in the UK stresses the importance of ICT in the classroom, simply because the increased use of technology “in all aspects of society makes confident, creative and productive use of ICT an essential skill for life…ICT capability is fundamental to participation and engagement in modern society” (Department for Education and Employment and Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 1999a, p. 1). As seen in the above lesson on profit and loss, students were able to locate further information in order to extend and consolidate their newly acquired knowledge of the subject being taught and were able to gain rapid and direct access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people. In this case, the online tutorial was devised and designed by a teacher from another school. The results of this rather simply designed and planned lesson on profit and loss were positive and showed agreement with findings by Tomlinson (1981) who found that ICT increases motivation in students and increases their commitment to learning their subject. In fact, Tomlinson found that ICT enhanced the confidence and self-esteem of learners, as well as stimulating student determination to learn the subject, the amount of time spent on task, and the level of control over their own learning experience. All of these factors were seen in this lesson on profit and loss. But ICT is not just a beneficial tool for students, it is also a tool that the Qualified Teacher Standards expect teachers will use (Training and Development Agency for Schools, 2007) because it also “raises the profile” of teachers, makes teachers refresh their perspective on what they are teaching, and offers the potential for a variety of individual and group activities (Leask and Pachler, 1999, p. 5). Teachers should try to vary their teaching style as often as possible and exhibit “a knowledge and understanding of a range of teaching, learning and behaviour management strategies and know how to use and adapt them” (Training and Development Agency for Schools, 2007, p. 8) Teachers should bring in new tools and new ways to present information, and giving students as many opportunities to learn facts and skills in a variety of ways (Davies and Brant, 2006, p. 142) and this is because within any given class a teacher will encounter students with various learning styles. For example, visual learners, who enjoy learning with pictures, graphs, artefacts and videos; auditory learners, who enjoy discussion and listening to tapes; and kinaesthetic learners, who enjoy simulations and role play. Ideally, a subject will be approached using all of these methods in the classroom. Moving away from the information processing models which are learning theories that tend to attract teacher-centred learning styles, there are the learning theories that are more student-centred, and these are called experiential learning theories. The theory underpinning this experiential model is one that stresses the relationship between experience and learning. Each individual student, it is theorised, has collected a range of experiences about a phenomenon and it is this range of experience that is called upon to introduce a new topic. Davies and Brant (1999) discuss Kolb’s learning cycle and note that lessons informed by the experiential theory begin with student experience and examples instead of teacher-imparted principles and concepts. Kolb’s learning cycle begins with the teacher calling on student experience as a way of introducing a new subject. Next students are encouraged to reflect on their experiences, to make generalisations from their experiences and, finally, to act on this new knowledge (Davies and Brant, 1999, p. 168). This theory of learning was implemented in a lesson on budgeting (Appendix II). This lesson aimed to introduce the concept of budgeting and the wide range of costs that might be involved in advertising and promoting a product (which the students had designed in a previous lesson). The learning activity was to plan a promotional event to advertise and promote their product to the public. Students were expected to investigate the costs involved, generate data and produce a projected budget for the event. The role of the teacher in this lesson was to motivate students to discuss their own experiences of budgeting before they began the learning activity. As such, the teacher led a discussion about student’s spending habits over a typical week. The leading questions were: a) What do you spend your money on in a typical week? b) Do you spend more money during some parts of the week than others? Are there more expensive periods of the week? c) Do you keep track of your spending habits? Or do you just spend until your money runs out? d) Do you feel that you miss out on things you’d like to spend money on because you have run out of money? (Appendix II; Mark Your Challenge 2008). It was after this discussion that the actual lesson activity was introduced. Students were asked to investigate where money might be spent in organising a promotional event. The teacher introduced the idea that an effective budget means that one must have good and clear knowledge of where the money might be spent. Students were directed to use the Internet, newspapers and magazines in order to gain background information about what such organising such an event might demand and were asked to present their prospective budgetary conclusions in a format they chose. The lesson ended with group discussion following presentation of student-group findings. This lesson was particularly successful, as students responded confidently. The underlying theory behind this method is strikingly different to the information-imparting and information-processing theory that informed the lesson on profit and loss. Here, knowledge was not understood to be something that the teacher had and that the students did not have, but rather, that the students themselves already knew something about the subject and could further their knowledge with teacher-led guidance. This understanding of knowledge is social constructivist one. Some factors involved in understanding this approach is that learners are essentially being introduced to new ways of “interpreting the world that has been constructed by academic disciplines or communities of practice.” For these new ways to become meaningful, the students needs to actively construct or reconstruct the knowledge in their own way, and this usually occurs by linking new knowledge to the real world, and to some real context, so as to bridge the gap between what is considered “school knowledge” and “everyday knowledge” (Davies and Brant, 2006, p. p. 170). Moreover, students need to do this via dynamic and meaningful social interaction. In fact, it is not enough to simply provide access to the environment about which they are learning, that is, through work placement or even business-related simulations and role-plays, but through authentic interaction with teachers and other students, as well as with experts in the subject they are studying. It was Piaget (1968) who stressed the importance of social interaction, because when students participate in discussion with others – peers or experts – Piaget found that they become stimulated to express content in their own language. By re-evaluating content on their own terms and with their own language, they are able to further develop their understanding of the subject taught. It is this social interaction, that enables them to process information learnt and make sense of the subject in an dynamic way, using their own language to articulate and reformulate what they have learnt. In this way, they are not just mimicking concepts, definitions and strategies learnt in the classroom but integrating what they have learnt about knowledge already constructed by a particular community – in this case the business community – and the success of this occurs when learners have experienced positive interactions. This understanding of the learning process also links to into what is called the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1978). This idea refers to the understanding that what we already know gives us “access” to things we do not yet know, so long as there is some help from a guiding expert. In the case of the lesson on budgeting, students already had some knowledge of money spent and the practical use of budgeting to make sure that money does not run out. From this personal knowledge, a teacher can guide learners towards more complex knowledge about a business situation. In evaluating the success of the lesson on budgeting, this social constructivist approach proved to be very useful. In conclusion then, and in light of the importance placed on teacher’s having “high expectations” of their students (Training and Development Agency for Schools, 2007, p. 7), when designing lessons informed by various pedagogical theories and curriculum expectations, teachers can foster successful learning outcomes when they integrate their own knowledge of pedagogy, curriculum and subject and their own beliefs and expectations about the teaching and learning experience to produce successful educational experiences. The teacher’s high expectations of students were met with both lessons discussed above: the lesson on profit and loss with key concepts being delivered and then students encouraged to approach the subject using ICT activities, but also the lesson on budgeting which encouraged students to use their own personal experiences as a way into the lesson. Both lessons met the high expectations the teacher had of the learners and both teachers and students participated in a fully educational experience which fostered an environment of trust and a strong commitment to learning. Appendix I Lesson plan: Profit and Loss Learning intentions: To introduce the concept of profit and loss and the related concepts of revenue and costs. To introduce simple verbal definitions and a mathematical equation in order to calculate and use the ratios of gross and net profit to understand a company’s profitability. Resources: Teacher’s guided worksheet, and Internet tutorial and quiz (Salbstein, 2001). 1/ Lesson content: INTRODUCTION Time: 5 mins. Teacher: Teaching role, teacher-led. Begin lesson with a story to introduce topic of class lesson an to engage student. The topic is the concept to be learnt – that of profit and loss – and why it is important for business. The story: A business person runs a company which produces mp3 players. These products are sold so that the company makes more money that what the company spends. When a company makes more money than what is spent, we call this profit. Ask the question: Why would profit be an important concept in business? Students give their answers. Teacher confirms: Profit is an important idea in business because it shows us whether a business is successful (Salbstein, 2001). 2/ Lesson content: DEFINITIONS Time: 10 mins Teacher: Teaching role, teacher-led. Introduce key definitions and mathematical equations: Profit, Gross Profit, Net Profit, Revenue, Cost, Ratios. 3/ Lesson content: MAIN PART OF LESSON Time 35 mins. Teacher: Teaching role, guide. Student: In pairs, computer activity, student-led. Students now go to computers to proceed in pairs to complete an online tutorial on Profit and Loss Accounts (Salbstein, 2001). Each student pair is asked to check, compare and rewrite the definitions given by the teacher earlier with definitions given in the tutorial. Students complete the challenge quiz – record answers and and any concepts or ideas to be clarified. 4/ Lesson content: CONCLUSION Time: 10 mins Teacher: Teaching role, teacher-led. Student: group discussion activity. Students are asked how they well the participated in the online quiz and which questions they found challenging or sought clarification about. Students were asked if they reworked the definitions of issued at the beginning of class and asked to consolidate their ideas about why profit is important in business. Appendix II Lesson plan: Understanding budgeting. [This lesson plan is devised from, with slight adaptations, from the Mark Your Challenge 2008 Money Matters Lesson Plan]. Learning intentions: To introduce the concept of budgeting and to understand the variety of costs involved in planning a promotional event to market a student-devised product. Learning activity: To plan a promotional event to market a student-devised product and investigate the overall costs involved. To produce a budget for the project. Resources: Internet, teacher’s notes, personal experience. 1/ Lesson content: INTRODUCTION Time: 10 mins. Teacher: Teaching role, teacher-led. Student discussion activity. Begin lesson with a discussion about student’s general spending within a given week. Leading questions: What do you spend your money on in a typical week? b) Do you spend more money during some parts of the week than others? Are there more expensive periods of the week? c) Do you keep track of your spending habits? Or do you just spend until your money runs out? d) Do you feel that you miss out on things you’d like to spend money on because you have run out of money? Students respond with their own knowledge based on personal experience. 2/ Lesson content: MAIN PART OF LESSON Time: 40 mins Teacher: Teaching role, teacher-led. Student group work. Teacher introduces learning activity. Students meet in groups to discuss the planned event and potential costs that might be incurred. Students are encouraged to think about all the ways in which money might be spent and to organise expenses into main areas of expenditure. Students are asked to present their data in their own format. 3/ Lesson content: CONCLUSION Time 10 mins. Teacher: Teaching role, guide. Student: In pairs, computer activity, student-led. Students present and discuss their findings and compare to other group findings. Students are encouraged to question their results and data and to compare and contrast differences with other groups. Bibliography Capel, S., et al. 2001. Learning to Teach in the Secondary School: A Companion to the School Experience. 4th Edition. London: RoutledgeFarmer. Cohen, L., et al., 2005. A Guide to Teaching Practice. New York: Routledge. Davies, P., and Brant, J., 2006. Business, Economics and Enterprise. London: Routledge. Department for Children, School and Family. 2008. 14-19 Reform [online]. Available from: [Accessed: 2 January 2009]. Department for Education and Employment and Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 1999a, Information and communication technology. London. [online] Available from: [Accessed: 2 January 2009]. Department for Education and Employment and Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 1999b, Personal, social, health and economic education. London. [online] Available from: [Accessed: 2 January 2009]. Department for Education and Skills. 2006. An Integrated Approach to Teaching Key Skills in Business Studies and Information Technology – Case Studies. London: Learning and Skills Network. Dickinson, C., 2000. Effective Learning Activities. 2nd edition. Edinburgh:Network Educational Press Ltd. Fox, D., 1983. “Personal theories of teaching.” in Studies in Higher Education, 8(2), pp.151-163. Hammond, M., 2005. Next Steps in Teaching. New York: Routledge. Huddleston, P., and Oh, S.A., 2004. “The Magic Roundabout: Work-Related Learning within the 14-19 Curriculum.” in Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 83-103. [online] Available from: [Accessed: 2 January 2009]. Jephcote, M and Abbott, I., 2005. Teaching Business Education 14-19. London: David Fulton Publishers. Kelly, R., 2005. 14-19 Education and Skills White Paper. [online].[Accessed: 2 January 2009]. Kyriacou, K., 2001. Essential Teaching Skills. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Leask, M., and Pachler, N., 1999. Learning to Teach Using ICT in the Secondary School. London: Routledge. Mark Your Challenge 2008. Money Matters Lesson Plan 2008. [online] Available from: [Accessed: 2 January 2008]. Piaget, J., 1968. Six Psychological Studies. London: London University Press. Salbstein, D., 2001. Profit and Loss Accounts. [online] Available from: [Accessed: 2 January 2009]. Tomlinson, P. D., 1981. Understanding Teaching: Interactive Educational Psychology. London: McGraw-Hill. Training and Development Agency for Schools, 2007, “Professional Standards for Teachers: Qualified Teacher Status,” [online] Available from:, [Accessed: 15 December 2008]. Vygotsky, L., 1978. Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Wood, D., 1997. How Children Think and Learn. London: Blackwell. Issues Affecting Teaching and Learning
someone to do a research portfolio for me. I’m studying for my Sociology class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

For this research project I have sleeted 3 articles from magazines or newspapers. You are to write a 2-3 page(MLA FORMAT DOUBLE SPACED) reaction to each of the two articles discussing how they relate to sociological theory and topics discussed in class or present in the course readings. . Please see the rubric concerning how this project will be evaluated. The rubric is not meant to micro manage you, rather to provide a broad framework while allowing you and your peers to creatively write in different directions.
Each paper should use 12 point Times New Roman font and standard margins. You must submit your completed portfolio to blackboard (do not e-mail me your papers).
Here are the articles you are to analyze. You task to argue and analyze the author’s main point.

Breaking the Glass Ceiling
Rubric: please look over the rubrics as your write!!


Information is very organized with a very logical structure.
Information is organized with a somewhat logical structure.
Information is fairly organized with little coherent structure.
Information is not organized and has little to no coherent structure.

Recognizing the key points
The most applicable course topics present in the article are addressed by the author and expanded upon in depth.The author provides much support for their main points.Theories and concepts are bolded as they are brought up.
A few applicable course topics present in the article were addressed though could be expanded upon to make connections clearer.The author provides some support for their main points.
The most applicable course topics present in the article were barely addressed by the author and expanded upon with little depth.The author provides a little support for his/her main points.
The most applicable course topics were not addressed.The author provides little to no support for his/her main points.


The author discusses important implications of the article’s points for society based on his/her analysis.
The author discusses some weak implications of the article’s points for society based on his/her analysis.
The author discusses some no implications of the article’s points for society based on his/her analysis.

someone to do a research portfolio for me

Most Important Issues Facing British Society

Most Important Issues Facing British Society. Ever since the 1880, immigrants came to Britain to flee from various reasons such as poverty, religious persecution, and other different social reasons. Britain was the world’s largest market for transportation of human lives. Now, Britain offers LGBT rights, Black rights, and other minority rights that most countries lack. Moreover, it also offers health care benefit for anyone living inside Britain. Lastly, it is a safe haven for refugees to seek for asylum. As a result, Britain has received more immigrants and asylum seekers than any other countries in the European Union. There immigrants come from countries in many different parts of the world including Afghanistan, Poland, and even Ireland. However, in the recent years, there have complaints by the British natives that there have been way too many immigrants. In the past 10 years, there are about 1.5 million people immigrated into the UK. Over two-third of them came from the continents of Asia and Africa. In 2006, the United Kingdom’s population was 61 million. If immigration continues at this current rate, the total population in the UK in 2031 will be 70 million according to the government actuary department. Currently, the people born outside of the UK account for 10% of the UK’s population compare that to just 6% in 1981 and 8% in 2001. This has made Britain a very ethnically diverse nation. However, there have been major clashes between cultures in the United Kingdom. Native British people believe in tradition rather than fairness and value community rather than individualism. Most indigenous British residents complained that the government allow too many immigrants to enter inside Britain and felt that the British culture has been diminished by these newly immigrants. Most of these complaints are from the London region, where most of the immigrants resided. With the large wave of immigrants, British people felt their tradition was being harmed. With the freedom of mobility in the European Union, people from countries inside the EU can visit and stay in the United Kingdom. Many of them would just stay and not return to its formal countries. There is an estimate that there could be 35000 people from outside of the European Union who come on a visitor’s visa and then never leave. When these immigrants arrive, they form their own community and transforming the once British community into their own. This frustrates a lot of indigenous British citizens as they see their old community getting converted into a foreign community. For example, the largest immigrant group to Britain is Polish. Currently, Polish represents 1/60 of the population in Britain. These polish immigrants don’t fully integrated into the British society and still continue their lives as if they are in Poland. They form their own community in Britain and keep themselves separated from traditional English community. Furthermore, many indigenous British citizens are concerned that their jobs might be taken away from these newly immigrants. Most of the immigrants who came into Britain are usually from poorer nations. They would work hard and would be satisfied with getting paid minimal wages. Many indigenous underclass British people have seen their jobs taken away by new immigrants. Moreover, indigenous British complain that these immigrants have received more benefits from Britain such as health care benefit than they have contributed to the system. British people argued that they see the quality of their social service decline as immigrants are drying up the social fund. According to government’s latest “Citizenship survey”, over 77% of the population thinks that immigration should be cut. Therefore, in the UK’s election in may, both the Labour and the Conservative party are considering putting a limit on immigration. They also want to increase security to prevent illegal immigration and will have stricter criteria for refugees to join, making sure that refugees genuinely need help in order to survive . Race Relation: Ethnic minority in the United Kingdom complained that they don’t receive the same rights or opportunity as native white British citizens. A lot of ethnic minorities find it hard to find jobs in Politics or to take on an executive position in a company compared to white British citizens. For instance, Yasmin Aili Brown said she was the only minority in her News Paper company in the United Kingdom. The British public had been very hostile/racist against her, sending her hate mails and saying that the real Britain is for White people. A lot of ethnic minorities especially the Muslim group shares the same experience as her when it comes to discrimination. Immigrants complained that there were stereotypical and derogatory jokes towards them. For example, Black is often characterized as uneducated and uncivilized outlaws. Muslim would often have characterized as wearing Hijab, turbane all the time and their refusal of alcohol. One example our speaker Adrian gave us was an example of a Muslim who immigrated into UK 10 years ago had to change his name from Mohammad to John in order to fit in with the British Society more. He always doesn’t get invited to social events or get promoted. Lastly, many ethnic minorities / immigrants dislike the fact that most British people would classify them either as Black or Asian. People from India, China, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, and Japan would all be considered Asian and People from Hispanic countries, Caribbean island are all be considered as Black. Thus, this is causing a lot of minorities feel as if they don’t belonged in Britain as they have lost their identity. Therefore, the clash between the indigenous and newly immigrants is currently a serious issue facing Britain. Security: Due to the recent waves of immigrants into Britain, there is a fear of the Muslim community with Islamic religion. In 2006, 3% of the working age populations are immigrants born in the Middle East. People feel like security being jeopardized because of the concern for terrorist attack. In recent years, many terrorist activities were conducted by the Muslims who were born inside Britain. For instance, there was a coordinated suicide attacks in London subway station on July 7th, 2005. The bombings were carried out by four British Muslim men, three of Pakistani and one of Jamaican descent, who were motivated by Britain’s involvement in the Iraq War. Furthermore, there was an attempt bombing attack by a British African this year. Many of members of these terrorist organizations were 2nd or 3rd generation immigrants, meaning they were born in Britain. This is a serious issue currently for Britain because it can’t prevent internal terrorist attacks from its own citizens. Economic recovery: Due to the recent financial crisis, Britain is currently facing serious issues in terms of cutting its unemployment rate and reducing its national debt. In 2008, the United Kingdom had to bail out its financial banks such as RBS from bankrupting because a large part of the UK’s economy was financial based. As a result, the United Kingdom has piled itself with debt after many stimulus packages to revitalize the economy. Now, the United Kingdom faces the problem of fixing its financial system and the need of reducing its national debt. The UK’s government has to cut public spending and raise taxes. This is a serious issue because Britain’s social welfare budget and government spending has already been very low due to the poor economy. It would be difficult to continue to cut spending in the public sector when there is a very high unemployment rate. Cutting spending in social welfare program would mean there will be less benefit for the UK’s citizens and the homeless people who need it on the street. Moreover, raising taxes in a country that already has a very high VAT of 20% won’t be good for the economy as people will have less disposable income to spend. In order to reduce deficit, the labour party said that there will be a tax increase of 60% to only the top% of earners. The conservative party proposed to start cut spending immediately in 2010 to eliminate the UK’s structural deficit within the next five years. Therefore, both parties consider the large UK deficit as a serious issue facing the UK. However, cutting spending and raising taxes would ultimately slow down the UK’s recovery and would be an issue for the public as no one likes paying high taxes. UK economy is too weak for sharp spending cuts. Currently, both Tory and labor party tried to avoid taking about spending cut because the public usually isn’t very supportive of it. The government faces the issue of reducing the unemployment rate at the same time because there would be social unrest. Britain certainly doesn’t want its economy to be like its economy in the 1970’s when there was a very high unemployment rate. The government is currently proposing to provide training for unemployed workers in the UK for more than six months in order to solve the unemployment issue. Relationship with the Europe Union Britain has lost its once dominance as an empirical power in the world. However, it stills wants to exert influence in the world. Ever since the end of WWII, Britain is losing its once close relationship with Australia and Canada as they are continuing becoming more independent. It is hard for Britain to maintain its relationship with the commonwealth countries due to geographic reason. In 1973, Britain joined the European Union to receive funding from the EU’s central budget in order to salvage its poor economy. Moreover, it joined to give Britain an more importance role in world affairs. Currently, with the rise of emerging markets such as China and India, Britain has found itself falling behind in terms of influencing the world and need to develop a closer tie with the European Union. Now, it faces the issue of whether to further integrate into the European Union or not. Currently, the European Union wants to further integrate economically and politically. However, Britain dislike the idea of political integration in Europe and still wants to keep independency/sovereignty as an imperial state. Britain refuses to adopt Euro as its official currency and refuses to contribute to its part of the share into the Common Agricultural Policy. Britain is against most of the policy proposed to the European Union such as enlargement of the EU. Thereby, most European nations consider Britain as a hindrance rather than a helper for the European progress. This is really harming the relationship between Britain and the European Union. According to the Sun’s poll, the majority of British citizens prefer the European Economic Community rather than the European Union, where Britain will only receive trading benefit for the EU rather than political benefit. It is not taking an advantage of its relationship with the European Union in terms of trading because most of the UK’s businesses are service based. Many citizens proposed that Britain should withdraw from the EU’s political union as they don’t want a centralize government to make the decision for the British. British people want a British government, in which the British can enjoy the basic democratic free right and the ability to throw out a Government they don’t like. Leaving the European Union would severely harm the relationship between the United Kingdom and Europe. Therefore, developing a good relationship with the European Union while maintaining Britain’s sovereignty is one of the major issues Britain is facing today. Conclusion: Britain is a rapidly transforming nation that still wants to retain its traditional customs and imperial status. However, current issues such as immigration, internal ethnic relationship, internal security, economic recovery, and Britain’s relationship with the EU act as major blocks to the progress of the British society. Whatever the next British government may be, these are the issues that party has to address and solve. The modern British society has to find ways to deal with these crucial issues in order to move towards a brighter future. Citations: Most Important Issues Facing British Society

Campbellsville University Application of Information Governance Discussion

essay writer Campbellsville University Application of Information Governance Discussion.

Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course (Information governance) have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment (SharePoint engineer). Note: Assume you are working as a SharePoint engineer for a financial organization, provide a reflection on how information governance concepts are applied in your field. References are not required but if you use any please cite them accordingly in APA 7 format. Course topicsInformation Governance1)Data cleansing and deduplication2)Information governance metrics3)Information technology and information governance functions4)Regulations and compliance5)Privacy and security consideration for information security6)Web 2.07)Information governance for email8)The role of blockchain in information governance9)Mobile computing10) Cloud computing11) Digital archivalRequirements:Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.NO Plagiarism.
Campbellsville University Application of Information Governance Discussion

The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present Essay

Introduction Division of labor is an economic theory that has been in use for many centuries. As a result, there have been several definitions accorded to the term depending on the use of the theory. However, a more acceptable version that has been relied on by many is that of Peter Groenewegen in the New Palgrave’s Dictionary of economics (1987, p. 901) which defines division of labor as the “division of a process or employment into parts, each of which is carried out by a separate person”. This is to mean that individuals will cooperate with or without their conscious to perform processes or employment that is divided. The question that results is, why and how the separation of people in processes and employment concurs with the social and economic consequences? This question and many others are best answered using the evolution of the ideas generated from the theory of division of labor. This paper is therefore an in-depth analysis of the evolution of the division of labor theory starting from the ancient Greek economists such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx and William Petty, among others to the present. The analysis will begin by examining the relationship between increasing returns and the division of labor as stipulated by Smith. This will be followed by the important insights by Karl Marx on the division of labor in the society and division of labor in manufacturing. The theories of other great economists on the division of labor theory will also be explored and finally comparing them to the modern theory of division of labor. The history of Division of labor Theory The evolutionary history of the theory of division of labor has been explained through various mechanisms. It was long ago used by the Sumerians to group their jobs and thereafter allocate them to the skilled people in the society. However, according to Plato Socrates, the origin of the theory of division of labor is based on two main facts. The first one is the fact that human beings are endowed with different abilities (Bogers 2). The argument states that if at all human beings had equal strengths and abilities then the issue of division of labor would not have arisen since everyone can perform all tasks. Secondly is the issue of the variation in the external conditions on the earth. This again leads to the creation of division of labor since had all the external production conditions been similar everywhere, then division of labor would have been of no use. After the realization of the theory of division of labor, several economists have tried to argue their points on this theory. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ancient Theories on Division of Labor Adam Smith Adam Smith is one of the greatest economics known who lived from the year 1723 to 1790. He engaged in many works in the economics field where he had major contributions in the theory of the division of labor. Smith explored the various advantages of the division of labor. In one of his books titled The Wealth of Nations, Smith explained how the breakdown of a task into several operations made production easy (Dhamee 1). He gave the example of a pin-factory, where he claimed that such a company’s production could increase by up to 240 times higher just because of the division of labor. The main reason for this is because the worker becomes acquainted to what they are doing hence becoming experts in that field. On the other hand, workers remain in their jobs for a long period hence saving time unlike when they have to switch tasks in the course of the day. Smith continues to say that this was what led to the success of the Victorian factories in the 19th century. This was as a result of productive labor which is meant to fulfill two essential requirements which are creation of surplus that could be ploughed back into production and secondly lead to production of objects that are tangible. “The ideas of Smith were based on perfect liberty in order to assert the principle of organizing labor solely by a free market” (Bogers 4). After his assertions, Smith identified the shortcomings of the theory of division of labor. He pointed out that it created boredom due to the monotony of performing a similar task for a long time. This in the long-rum would lead to dissatisfied and ignorant workers. Charles Babbage This was another of the ancient economics who lived between 1791 and 1871. Charles continued with Smith’s work in which he focused on simplifying and integrating the tasks. He argued that simplifying and integrating tasks had a great impact on the labor costs in that it minimized them greatly. The reason behind this is the low bargaining power of the worker since workers will require minimal time to get acquainted to each task. Karl Marx Within his short life span of 65 years, Karl Marx made inevitable contributions in the field of economics. His, was criticism on the present theory of division of labor arguing that it led to the alienation of people. In his assertions, Marx claimed that there ought to be very little or no division of labor at all. This would make workers have control over work thus being contended with it unlike when there is division of labor. Karl Marx thus wrote that “with this division of labor, the worker is depressed spiritually and physically to the condition of a machine” (Bogers 5). He further claims that alienation is great societal problem that could be easily generated through division of labor. We will write a custom Essay on The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same theory, Marx describes labor to have value. He goes on to describe value as being a fraction of the total labor that is present in the society within a stipulated period of time for instance a year, and used in the production of a given product. Therefore to find the value of labor, the average labor available is divided by the number of units produced hence expressed in time of hours, days or eve months. However, Marx’s greatest contribution in this theory is when he classifies the two types of division of labor as technical/ economic division and the social division. He stipulates social division of labor to be based on the different social classes and status of hierarchy that are present in the society. Technical division is usually as a result of the different skills that people have. William Petty Sir William Petty is again one of the ancient economics who lived in the 1623 to 1687. As a matter of fact, he was the first writer to take note of the theory of division of labor where he made its significance to the Dutch shipyards. Petty made several contributions in political economy which eventually led to the differentiation of classical political economy as a science on its own. Among other notions in economic science such as labor theory of value to econometrics he is the founder of the notion behind surplus and the division of labor. Petty claimed that the society could be equated to the human body which has several functions. In the society people will play different roles and functions all of which are of great importance to the societal functions. Treatise of Taxes and Contributions If there be 1000 men in a Territory, and if 100 of these can raise necessary food and raiment for the whole 1000, if 200 more make as much commodities, as other Nations will give either their commodities or money for, and if 400 more employed in the ornaments, pleasure, and magnificence of the whole; if there be 200 Governors, Divines, Lawyers, Physicians, Merchants and Retailers, making I all 900 the question is, Since there is food enough for this supernumerary 100 also, how they should come by it? (Gianni and Groenewegen 30). Fredrick Taylor Another great contributor to the division of labor theory is Fredrick Winslow Taylor who named his developments as ‘scientific management’. This theory of scientific management has been thoroughly developed and the final version of it is to be named after the innovator that is ‘Taylorism’. According to his theory, Taylor argued that the industrial process could be broken down into several unit tasks that are able to be well organized and timed. Despite having widespread application, it was of great use in Japan. This theory generally entails working out the best and efficient way of organizing work such that the monetary allocation to the work equates the output generated. Taylor proposed that the tasks be distributed in accordance to knowledge, experience as well as skills of the worker. Therefore if the Taylor system is well applied in an organization, it will result into good labor returns. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The only shortcoming with Taylor’s theory on the division of labor is that human beings are treated like robots or animals having to work tirelessly and continuously. There is monotony in work and less chances for creativity and inventions. Max Weber Max Weber is often referred to as the father of bureaucracy due to his invention of the theory of bureaucracy. This theory was an opposition to the theory of the division of labor since it argues that occupational duties and workers can be freely interchanged such that there is no specific position for workers. The workers are therefore to move from one task position to another within the same organization. The list of the ancient economists who made their contributions (whether small or big) to the theory of division of labor is endless with other being people such as David Hume, Henri-Louis, Durkheim and Henry Ford just to mention but a few. The Modern Theory on Division of Labor The modern theory of the division of labor has undergone several reforms from the ancient economics discussed above the most recent ones such as Romer and those to come in the future. It is arguable that not all the constituents of the ancient models have been incorporated in the modern theory since some of them have been left out and other modified. Taking the example of Romer, who is a more recent economist to handle the theory of division of labor, he argues that Adam Smith had two ideas which conflicted. “In the first idea, Smith claims that competition leads to efficient resource allocation and in the second he notes that growth is an indigenous phenomenon” (Robert 76). Both claims have been proved wrong after the developments of economics whereby growth is no longer viewed as an indigenous process. Other modern contributions concern the introduction of fixed costs in computation of profits, something that was not done before among many other developments. Nevertheless, some of the ancient theories on the division of labor have still found their way into the modern society. A good example is the contribution of Emile Durkheim which is of great significance today. In his book entitled The Division of Labor in Society of 1893, Durkheim majors on the effects that come with specialization (division of labor) and how they affect the society. For Durkheim, division of labor is infinite separation of occupations such that even the final product is independent. This is very evident in the modern society, take the example of a student who joins college and is asked to select a ‘major of specialty’. Let us say, they select accounting, thus throughout the college years they will be specializing in accounting being prepared to be accountants. They graduate as accountants and get a job in an accounting firm where they perform accountancy services and duties. Their whole life revolves around accountancy. This is a perfect example to show that specialization or division of labor is inevitable and in practice in almost all areas of life. In a nut shell, it can be said that the modern world is making great use of the theory of division of labor. It is mostly applicable in the management and organization functions of any business enterprises. Given the fact that societal hierarchy is inevitable, division of labor has been used to cater for such differences as well as others. Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be seen that the theory of division of labor has undergone various evolution from the ancient time to the present. The theory of division of labor has found its application and use in the present society by a great deal. As a matter of fact, the increased productivity in the current society can be attributed to the division of labor. According to Robert, “a major shift in firm’s strategies and organizational structure driven in part by increased global competition and technological process” (Robert 184). He further continues to argue that, despite the many variables and processes involved emphasis should be put on specialization and division of labor. On the other hand, division of labor has been found to have negative features since time immemorial. Some of these negative features include; boredom, demoralization and imposition of the discipline of labor among others. These negative features can be easily overcome by removing the direct producers from the market and the fact that repetitive performance of a task increases the efficiency of the operation. Works Cited Bogers, Marcel. Division of Labor. 2002. Web. Dhamee, Yousuf. Adam Smith and the Division of Labor. 1995- July 24, 2011. Gianni, Vaggi And Groenewegen, Peter. A concise history of economic thought: from Mercantilism to monetarism.-2003. Palgrave Macmillan. Groenewegen, Peter. “Division of labor,” The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics -1987. v. 1, pp. 901–07 Roberts, J. The Modern Firm. – 2004 Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Read the three articles listed as an example of a grand theory with clinical nursing practice or find another

Read the three articles listed as an example of a grand theory with clinical nursing practice or find another source that relates grand theory to clinical practice and utilize it for your discussion post comparison. King’s Theory of Goal Attainment: Exploring Functional Status (PDF) (Links to an external site.) Enhancing Telehealth Education in Nursing: Applying King’s Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (PDF) (Links to an external site.) A Patient with Cancer and Her Family in Caring Partnership Based on Margaret Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (PDF) (Links to an external site.) Compare and contrast two separate theories.

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