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Theoretical Framework Theoretical Framework Through the course material as well as the knowledge gleaned through research of gap analysis in reflective nursing practice, it is clear that reflective practice is widely accepted in literature and by educators as utilitarian in promoting a high-level of nursing performance. However, bridging the gap between academia and the world of clinical practice continues to be problematic, as the orientation of academia continues to lack empirical verification from clinical practice (Bastable, 2008).

Schon (as cited in Bastable, 2008) proposed in the 1980s that reflective practice, which focuses on applying concepts gleaned from scientific perspectives, would result not only in producing immediate improvement in patient care practices but also offer nurses insight into applications for future practice (Bastable, 2008). However, as shown in the gap analysis, there is a gap in the literature that indicates empirical verification of Schon’s assumption.

Therefore, the aim of this paper, proposes a component of a theoretical framework designed to address this discrepancy by showing how the proposed theoretical component can be used to increase the utilization of reflective practice within professional nursing. This theoretical framework draws upon the work of nursing theorist Rosemary Rizzo Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming. An Overview of Parse’s Theory Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming focuses on the human-universe-health process that Parse regard as the principal “phenomenon of concern for the discipline of nursing (Fawcett, 2005, p. 72). ” The purpose of Parse’s theory is to offer a comprehensive nursing model that provides an alternative to the medical model, but also focusing on themes that Parse believes should be the focus of nursing, such as the themes of rhythm and transcendence. Parse categorizes nursing theories into two principal categories: those that follow the “simultaneity” paradigm and those that follow the “totality” paradigm (McKenna, 1997). The totality paradigm has its roots in both Newtonian and Cartesian science and corresponds well with the medical model (Wilson-Thomas, 1995).

Parse argues that this has been the leading paradigm in nursing, giving rise to a variety of theories, which focus on aiding patients’ adaptation to the environment (McKenna, 1997). However, in contrast to Martha Rogers in 1970, Parse in 1981 elaborates on the difference between the simultaneity paradigm, and the totality paradigm in three significant dimensions (Fawcett, 2005). The totality paradigm dimensions incorporate assumptions about the person and health in relation to the goal of nursing; and in the implications for research and practice (McKenna, 1997, p. 01). The simultaneity paradigm views the person as a “unitary being who is in continuous mutual and simultaneous interaction with the environment” (McKenna, 1997, pp. 101-102). In this viewpoint, health is understood as a “process of becoming,” and as a set of value priorities (McKenna, 1997, p. 102). Parse’s theory incorporates four assumptions concerning human behavior and four assumptions relating to the process of becoming. The assumptions about human beings follows: The human is coexisting while co-constituting rhythmical patterns with the universe…

The human is open, freely choosing meaning in situation, bearing responsibility for decisions… The human is [indivisible], continuously co-constituting patterns of relating… The human is transcending multi-dimensionally with the possible… (Fawcett, 2005, p. 474). Component of a Theoretical Framework     Human behavior relies on the day- to- day experiences while drawing on training to make decisions. A great deal of nursing training often focuses on the medical aspects of patient care; therefore, there is a tendency to focus solely on these aspects of patient care.

However, it is also true that the medical side of patient care, the physical needs of the individual who is the focus of care, does not address the differentiating factors specific to nursing, such as holistic care that considers the psychological, spiritual, emotional and social needs of the patient. Therefore, the first concept in the proposed component is that knowledge of a grand nursing theory, such as Parse’s, can have a beneficial effect on patient care, and a holistic effect for describing the definitions of superlative nursing care.

A phrase well known about the role of concepts in theory building is that concepts are the “building blocks of theory’” (Rodgers, 2000, p. 9). In her book on concept care mapping, Schuster (2008), points out the utility of concepts, as these are the ideas that practicing nurses use to guide, facilitate and implement practice behaviors. As the above description indicates, Parse’s theory provides the theoretical framework that the first component addresses. The second concept is the premise that incorporating Parse’s principles into nursing practice requires reflection for nurses engaged in clinical practice.

In adding to the discussions on theory development theory Meleis ( 2007), addresses the following four major strategies for addressing theory development: “Theory to practice to theory; practice to theory; research to theory; and theory to research to theory ( p. 191). ” The “theory to practice to theory strategy” refers to when the theorist selects a theory to apply to practice and uses this experience to refine the theory still further (Meleis, 2007).

A pivotal assumption in this strategy is that the main precepts of the theory are “congruent with the assumptions that guide nursing” (Meleis, 2007, p. 191). This statement is certainly applicable to Parse’s orientation, which provides a nursing alternative to the medical model. Frisch (2009), argues that nursing is holistic in nature, as nursing, as a profession, has never had its focus only on the “physical body or the disease entity,” but has because its inception, also focused on the “client’s experience of the condition” (Frisch, 2009, p. 113).

The definition of “nursing theory” offered by Frisch encompasses reflective practice, as she indicates “nursing theory is a framework from which professional nurses can think about their work” (Frisch, 2009, p. 114). In other words, by requiring nurses to be knowledgeable about a theory, Parse’s theory is used as an example, and then stipulating that nurses reflect on ways that Parse’s theoretical principles can be applied to practice, the components defined above influence the incidence and implementation of reflective practice. How a Theoretical Framework Reflects Meta-paradigms of Nursing

Theoretical nursing models are composed of the theorist’s conceptualization of the major paradigm concepts found within nursing, e. g. , “person, environment, health and nursing,” as well as those concepts unique to that model (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 17). The concept of person, the “recipient of care,” whether a single individual, a family, a small group or a community, is central to the formulation of the theory with the model often focusing on the interrelationships between person and additional concepts (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 17).

The way in which theorists define environment is another significant area for determining the theorist’s perspective. Environments can be “directional, linear, open or closed,” and related to the way in which the other meta-paradigm concepts are addressed (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 17). Concerning the meta-paradigms of nursing, the perspective of Parse’s theory focuses on the theoretical foundation for the proposed theory components described above. However, in developing her theory, Parse synthesizes Rogers’ theory, i. e. , the Science of Unitary Human Beings.

Analysis paper on a photograph

Analysis paper on a photograph.

Analysis paper on a photograph

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