Introduction The USA is one among the many nations in the world that has the most dynamic education systems. The USA’s education system has been changing from time to time with respect to political, sociocultural, and economic factors. In this case, this research paper aims at exploring the changes that have taken place in the US’s education system since the year 1970. There is a special interest to analyze factors of discrimination in higher education vacancies, the increase or decrease of students accessing higher education, and how cost of colleges has contributed to educational variables is the focus of this paper. Review Of Literature Increased College Attendance Prior to the 1970s, education was limited to a few individuals depending on their qualifications, physical state, mental state, and their races. These groups of individuals comprised of mostly White Americans from well up social backgrounds. The mentally challenged and students with exceptional needs are among the changes that authorities addressed, and the government proposed and passed laws that took care of the groups. In 1972, the Indian Education Act was signed into law, the state of Pennsylvania allowed children with exceptional needs to be taught or instructed through alternative or improvised means, and Title IX of the 1972’s Education Amendment was signed into law in order to disregard discrimination in all aspects of education. The number of students that access higher education is determined by the number of students making out of high school; the fact that the state of Pennsylvania allowed the instructing of special needs’ students raised the number of students who were graduating from high school. This aspect allowed more candidates to apply for college and university vacancies as opposed to the scenario if this laws were not passed (Thayer, 1965). There have been improvements in the approach of teaching where talents are promoted and scholarships are offered. A number of students who are gifted in one area have been given the chance to join colleges in order to further their talents and learn at the same time. In 1972, the Marland Report was issued and it provided a broad scope on the definition of giftedness and has been applied for decades thus giving various students the chance to join college. In 1974, the Equal Educational Opportunities Act was passed by Arthur Garrity, a Federal Judge who ordered Black American students to be enrolled in White Schools. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above courses of action ensured that racial and other discrimination tendencies in the education system were done away with to promote equal opportunities. The Acts and the Judge’s verdict brought some of the most remarkable changes that have since then influenced the attendance in colleges. Currently, the number of Black Americans and White Americans attending college is almost equal in respect to fair treatment and qualifications. Limited Access to Higher Education Higher education is any form of education that is attained from colleges and universities. It is the education that is required before one could qualify for job opportunities. Immigrants and non-English speaking students are some of the groups that have limited access to higher education. The law illegalizes discrimination of any kind. However, the American law does not specify the groups that this law applied. In this case, this law protects Americans by registration and birth. However, foreign students and immigrants are faced with the problem of vacancies since the education systems focus their attention to addressing the problems of citizens. Besides vacancies and the number of students that an institution can take, immigrants who happen to be married to a citizen or students whose parents are immigrants are faced with the problem of registering to educational facilities. This is because the education system can have regulations, but at the ground level, there is no one to enforce the requirements of the law. On the other hand, the various states offer different educational systems. In this case, language is a barrier or a requirement that many students find to be difficulties. In the USA, there are all types of people from various countries all across the globe. However, the USA is ready to give these people the opportunities to learn but language disqualifies them from the selection criterion. The various courses that are offered are contributing factors since some require proficiency in English and run for short durations. In general, the factor of discrimination is not a pronounced problem in the USA and the group of students unable to access higher education is more affected by other interpersonal problems (Alexander, 1971). We will write a custom Research Paper on The USA’s education system specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cost of College If the cost of college is high, only the able will get the chance to enter the colleges. However, if it were cheap, everyone would make it to college given that they made it from high school with the right grades. The cost of college in the USA is generally affordable for public institutions and it enables many students to enter college. However, the cost of college is not defined through the accessibility of formal education but rather through quality education. Private colleges and technical courses are expensive and sometime hard to access to middle or low class earners. College fees affect students negatively considering that some students are unable to raise the full amount to cater for college needs. Inspite of the fact that general amount of college fees is fairly affordable to American students, some students do not graduate from college, as many drop due to lack of consistent generation of funds. In cases where partial scholarships are offered, students face the difficulty to raise the remaining amount of fees therefore dropping out of college. References Alexander, R. (1971). Education in a Free Society, (2nd Edition), Philadelphia: David McKay Publications, p. 78-81. Thayer, T. (1965). Formative Ideas in American Education, New York (NY): Dodd, Mead, and Company Publishers, p. 115-116.
History of Dubai and its Architecture. One of seven semi-autonomous states within the United Arab Emirates called Dubai has turned out to be a rising force in the Middle East. Half a centaury ago Dubai was only a focal point were a few thousand weather stricken people somehow pushed and pulled their life ahead collecting picking dates, diving for pearls, or sailing in wooden dhows to trade with Iran and India, Dubai was as poor as any village in Somalia or the Sudan. It was in 1971 the six states namely Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Dubai, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain, and Fujairah were united. And in1972 Ras Al-Khaimha joined the unification, The United Arab Emirates (UAE) were thus formally established with declaration from H.H Sheikh Zayed that the UAE was established as an Independent Nation with the aim of maintaining Independence, stability and co-operation. Dubai has a unique new exciting story of more than fifty years. The city has emerged from a poor fishing village to the fastest growing city in the world. Going back to the history, education was given priority in the different Emirates prior to the confederation. The Emirate of Dubai started educating it children in 1954. A few facts about the simplest basics of the country are men out number man in the male to female ratio of the country. All university tuitions are paid for by the states. All books stationary and study materials provided free of charge to the student. If the student works and studies, he/she is paid the salary for the job. From this, the business and infrastructure success story of Dubai is not hard to establish. ‘In the 1990s the three fastest growing cities in the world were Dublin, Las Vegas and Dubai. This has accelerated in the 21st century with 23% population growth in Dubai in the past four years. The present real estate boom is obvious enough, particularly in the Jebel Ali-Dubai corridor. Today Dubai is the trading, business and increasingly financial hub of the Middle East, and for parts of Africa, the CIS and even the Indian subcontinent. It’s a vast hinterland for such a small place’ (Peter J. Cooper 2006). In the 1970s oil wealth turned the UAE from a desert kingdom to a modern metropolis, and its rulers took a keen interest in this development. Not for them the idleness and corruption that afflicted some nations blest with oil wealth. While the oil wealth can be considered as one of the reasons for the growth of Dubai, there are also other factors which could be considered as the key factors in developing the city state to be one of the best in the world. In Dubai the late Sheikh Rashid developed his tiny emirate into a trading hub with the timely development of port infrastructure and a driving ambition to invest oil wealth back into the local economy. Again this was sharply at variance with the policy of investing oil wealth abroad pursued in many countries (Peter J. Cooper 2006). In a yet another move towards the success, Dubai was to become the business and commercial hub of the Middle East. The Dubai Government and the leading local families invested even more into the physical infrastructure of the emirate and pursued more and more ambitious plans. ‘Surprisingly, to many observers, most of them succeeded, usually better than expected. Perhaps it was because the Government could act decisively, eliminating red-tape and shortening the planning process to a simple ‘build it there’ decision by the CEO of Dubai Inc. as Sheikh Mohammed is often known’ (Peter J. Cooper 2006). The Modern History of Dubai in Brief Within recorded history, Dubai started as a fishing village probably some time in the 18th century. It was a dependency of the sheikhdom of Abu Dhabi and its inhabitants were probably mostly Bani Yas. In 1833 a group of about 800 people of the Al Bu Falasah subsection of the Bani Yas seceded from Abu Dhabi and settled in Dubai. The leaders of the exodus, Ubaid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Buti, remained joint leaders until the death of the former in 1836. Maktoum bin Buti ruled until he died in 1852, establishing the dynasty of the Al Maktoum rulers in Dubai. Maktoum and most of his successors usually followed a policy of good understanding with the British authorities in the Arabian Gulf (DTCM 2005). The real history of Dubai begins in 1930 when settlement started and began momentum in growth. At that time neighboring Sharjah was the main trading centre on the Trucial Coast, and for the rest of the 19th century Dubai was simply a pearling village with a merchant community. In fact there were three distinct settlements around the Creek and one of them called Bur Dubai was an Arab fishing village on the western side. ‘The Dubai Creek provided one of the few safe anchorages along the southern coast of the Arabian Gulf and served as a haven for dhows despite its hazardous entrance. It was the starting and finishing point for pearling expeditions which, until the invention of cultured pearls in the 1930s, formed the main part of the economy after the 1820 British agreement prevented ship-building. The turn of the 19th century was considered the golden age of the pearl industry. Three thousand vessels were employed in the trade, leaving harbor in May and not returning until mid-September. Fishing, too, was an important occupation. The Arabian Gulf’s warm and shallow waters supported a wide variety of marine life and dhows were built on the foreshore of Dubai Creek’ (DTCM 2005). Dubai had sufficiently grown to attract settlers from the third world countries namely India, Iran and Baluchistan and so on. The turn of 20th century saw Dubai becoming popular in the modern business world as safe and prosperous port. Dubai was very quick to establish itself as a natural heaven for merchants as the facilities for trade and free enterprises were great. ‘Meanwhile a flourishing Indian population was settling in Dubai and was particularly active in the shops and alleys of the souq. In fact a major factor in the growth of Dubai in the early post-war years was the re-export of gold to India. The cosmopolitan atmosphere and air of tolerance began to attract other foreigners too. Some years later the British made their centre on the coast, establishing a political agency in 1954’ (DTCM 2005). However, being the most developed area in the region did not just provide for the adequate infrastructure of Dubai. In spite of the reputation Dubai had by the middle of the 20th century, the city just did not have enough roads, electricity, sewers or telephone. The infrastructure building had started in Dubai even before the discovery of oil in 1969, but once the revenue from the oil began to flow in the building process gained momentum. ‘Trade remained the foundation of the city’s wealth, whilst other projects were developed over the next 20 years. The airport became one of the busiest in the area, a large dry-dock complex was developed, the largest artificial port in the world was built at Jebel Ali and Dubai Aluminum Company (DUBAL), which has become one of the emirate’s largest non-oil related industry, came on-line in 1979’ (DTCM 2005). Economic Sustainability through Tourism Industry ‘In the 1980s and early 1990s, Dubai took a strategic decision to emerge as a major international-quality tourism destination. Investments in tourism infrastructure have paid off handsomely over the years. Dubai is now a city that boasts unmatchable hotels, remarkable architecture and world-class entertainment and sporting events’ (Government f Dubai 2010). Dubai has undergone modernization and urbanization since the 1960s when the area was described as one of barren coastlands largely populated by nomadic tribes where the only occupations were fishing and pearling (Clements, 1998). The details of Dubai’s tourist arrivals right from the year 1982 shows the fact that the city has turned out to be one of the fastest growing destinations. Stability in economic, social and political domains is essential for tourism as severe disturbance and volatility will deter many tourists, investors and the industry of tour operators and travel agents in generating countries. Dubai is part of the UAE and conditions there are shaped by both federation and emirate governments (Joan C. Henderson 2006). ‘Income from oil made Abu Dhabi the economic powerhouse and financier of the federation, providing the smaller emirates with a standard of living and degree of security that would otherwise be unavailable to them. The other emirates meanwhile provide Abu Dhabi with a demographic and geographic collective strength that it would lack acting alone’ (EIU, 2005a, p. 5). Dubai now began to act as the financial and commercial nexus of Gulf. The successful economic returns from the investment made on tourism in any country depend on the convenience of transport mainly the access through air. Dubai has done every thing to be an air transport hub. The home airline company called emirates flies very long routes to almost all the countries and destinations of the world. The company helps to bring tourist from the far away places such as fifteen hour rout to Sao Paulo, then seventeen hour trips to Los angels and San Francisco, then the fourteen hour flight to Sydney. It also flies to most of the major cities in Europe which provides Dubai with a lot of tourists. It flies to all the major cities to Africa, Middle East and South Asia. Most importantly all this routs are being extremely profitable (Jim Krane 2009). A US$4.1 billion upgrading is underway which will enable the airport to handle 40 million passengers by 2010 and 100 million by 2025 (Matthews, 2003). Owning the largest Arab Airline Emirates has made it possible for the government of Dubai to succeed in developing and maintaining stable inputs to its economy. ‘Accounts of Dubai usually comment on the partiality of officials and developers for the ostentatious, which is manifest in accommodation projects and attractions such as the US$5 billion Dubailand theme park. This will occupy two billion square feet of land and take 15 years to complete under the aegis of the Dubai Tourism Development Company (DTDC), an operating arm of the Dubai Development and Investment Authority (DDIA). The stated purpose is to make Dubai the ‘ultimate fun and leisure centre of the Middle East’ augmenting the supply of indoor attractions, which are independent of weather and have all year round appeal to multiple markets, not least families with children. In another illustration, Ski Dubai opened in 2005 within the Mall of the Emirates, reportedly the largest shopping space outside of the USA, and sells skiing and snow related pursuits in a ‘winter wonderland’ of sub-zero temperatures. The Crown Prince has said that only 10% of his visions for Dubai have been enacted, implying other such ambitious ventures are likely’ (Joan C. Henderson 2006). An Unparallel Workforce Another reason for Dubai to be on the top in terms of infrastructural growth and development is its unmatched workforce which gets the least contribution from the locale flock. ‘Numbers may be keys to the nature of Dubai’s workforce and its economy. According to a 2005 government report, 97.13 per cent of Dubai’s total labour force is foreign. The second number – mostly likely unknown – is the percentage of those foreign workers who have come to regard Dubai as home or would like to make it their permanent home. Many of these expats came to Dubai 15 to 20 years ago for a two-year stint, liked it and stayed. The third number, also from the government, is that only five per cent of Emiratis are employed in the private sector’ (Rod Monger 2007). Almost every one in a company, starting from the administrative level to the last one on the lower level labor, is imported and the positive aspect of this phenomenon is the advantage Dubai gets on molding its workforce in a way the city needed with the lowest cost. At the same time, the work force of Dubai is an enthusiastic lot, it growing in terms of loyalty and commitment, in spite of the fact that they are treated with substandard facilities for the cost control (Jim Krane 2009). This commitment had played an important part in making the city look one of the best destinations in the world. Building Landmarks The Chicago Beach Hotel, which continuously recorded 80% occupancy in consecutive years, was a money making machine in Dubai in 1990s. British engineering firm called W.S Atkins forwarded a proposal for another beachfront hotel to be named as the Jumeirah Beach Hotel. The company was given permission to proceed with the project which had to include a tower too on approval. The company has hired an architect named Tom Wright who hardly had any experience in building hotels. But as thoughtful as he is Tom new that the Sheikh needed something tall and iconic, discussing on this concept he came up with a giant arch in the Islamic style. Sketching it out, the drawings showed a huge sail shaped building of 1300 feet tall, ‘jutting from the sea floor waves lapping at its base. The building leaned over the sea and a cable car ran from shore to its peak. The other access came from an undersea tunnel. The structure was more Iconic than demanded but it was impossible. Wright straightened it up moved it from seafloor to a small man made island and traded the cable car for helipad. A causeway bridge replaced the tunnel. They scaled back the height to a thousand feet’ (Jim Krane 2009). The work began in 1994. When people thought of it as a new Beach Hotel, to the Sheikh the iconic building was much more than that. The tower was the symbol of his pride as an Arab. The building was to be ‘The Tower of the Arab’- Burj Al Arab. The budget was unlimited, even when Sheikh Mohammad knew that the hotel will never pay for itself. He never let that scope of profit cramp the concept of Burj li Arab. The idea of locating the building on a man-made island was thought over again by the Sheikh. He imagined it both on island and mainland. The Island was much more time consuming and costly where as there was nothing unique about it is being located in the mainland. At last Sheikh opted for it to be in the Island (Kim Krane 2009). By 1999 Burj was a wonder around the world. The sight of the blue and white tower is a mind-blowing sight. Burj Al Arab turned out to be exactly what the sheikh Mohammad wanted an icon easily recognizable. Burj attracted quiet a lot of tourist who would spend lavishly. Moreover, a genius series of promotion followed like Andre Agassi and Roger Federer were found whacking volleys on the helipad. Later on Tiger Woods drove ball from the same spot. Tourism made up nearly a quarter of the city’s economy $ 8 billion in 2006. The Emirates aim is to host nearly 15 million tourists a year by 2015 (Tim Krane 2009). Though the economic scenario at large indicates that goal may fall a little short of. The growth and success of Dubai is undeniable. Burj Dubai There was already a hand full of building and a formidable infrastructure when the Burj Dubai project came up. But the Wlter Landors believed in their own guiding principle that “Products are made in the factory, but brands are made in the mind.” At this point, the “product” didn’t exist. Still they invited prospective bidders to experience the brand. ‘They fashioned a multisensory presentation centre, wrote books and designed websites, had invitations etched, fragrances concocted, and parties thrown. A blazing Dubai sun finally rose on the first day for apartment bids. There was no second day. In less than 24 hours, every apartment-to-be was spoken for, netting more than half a billion dollars. Even by the heady standards of the region, the branding of the Burj Dubai was off to an exceptional start’ (Landor 2008). Emmar had it in mind through the project of Burj Dubai not only the city but the entire region which is often neglected by the media, was going to be in the limelight. There was a sophisticated linear approach that was extended into a comprehensive design style to reinforce the brand’s concept of pre-eminence. The word mark, typography, look and feel, voice and imagery, and even colour palette reflect prestige. In contrast to the over-the-top golds and bright colors prevalent in other Dubai premier develop-ments, Landor chose understated tones echoing the buildings’ finishes of stainless steel and aluminum and set them off with a sharp green accent inspired by the carpenters’ levels found in the hands of hundreds of architects, engineers, and craftspeople building the tower (Landor 2008). The project basically was a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertainment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. The project was designed to be the centerpiece of the large scale Burj Dubai Development that rises into the sky to an unprecedented height that exceeds 700 meters and that consists of more than 160 floors (Ahmad Abdelrazaq 2008). At the turn of the century no one really had thought about such a construction. Coming from a city were the construction industry was in the infancy, the Burj Dubai project has shown to the world that tall building system development is always directly related to the latest developments in material technologies, structural engineering theories, wind engineering, seismic engineering, computer technologies, and construction methods. The Burj Dubai project capitalizes on advancements in these technologies, advancing the development of super tall buildings and the art of structural engineering (Ahmad Abdelrazaq 2008). The Booming Growth Is Boosted In the year 2000, the Burj Al Arab was already being a host to the excited wealthy tourist from around the world. The Arab nation was still overwhelmed in the amazing aesthetics of the new construction, the world witnessed one of its toughest times. The economy at large shuddered under heavy recessions. The money burning dotcom companies ran out of cash and went out of business. Gulf foreign investors were holding crumpling assets and in the west and around the world. Adding to the economic back drop of the US, nineteen Arabs crashed passengers jets into the World Trade Centre, Pentagon and a field in Pennsylvania. This caused the US stock market a further down slide. The newly elected president George W. Bush who found himself in the white house with disputed elections consoled the people America saying the terrorists might have been successfully shaken the foundations of some of the mightiest structures in the United states, but they would never succeed in shaking the foundations of the mightiest nation on the face of the earth. Still the fact remains true that the nation has not yet abated the fear and economic worry the September 11 attack has brought upon the nation. The post September 11 United States was not an ideal place for investing as far as the Arabs were concerned. On the contrary, in Dubai, September 11 attack started the beginning of the years long economic boom. In fact the attack played a role in boosting this economic investment and viability in the gulf region. The rage toward Arabs in America increased and the country fought many wars after. The Arabs who had invested in US pulled back billions of dollars and send back to their Home country. No one was interested and dared to invest in country which was at war. Cash poured into Dubai, as the reports say before September 11 attacks as much as $25 billion a year was put into US investment. Where as, the figures came down to just $1.2 billion between 2001 and 2003. Most of the missing money has been made to play itself in Dubai where the potential was felt to be very high. Further, in 2001 Dubai’s urban area was a narrow strip along the sea shore. By 2008 Dubai was almost as big as Huston. With man made Island rising from the sea and constructions sprawling deep into the desert. The Two Fold Advantage of Dubai’s labor market Outsourcing Dubai is not a city with immense industrial infrastructure. This diverse multicultural city has an international community of almost 1.5 million people from about 170 nations. This committed workforce contributes to the growing economy which mainly derives from trade, manufacturing and mainly tourism. The strategy of labor market outsourcing helps the third world countries just as it help their own country. When many rich nations claim to be in the business of economic development, they seldom let poor nations to play by the same rules that richer countries use to promote growth. Above all, going back to the beauty and uniqueness of Dubai, Dubai is a modern costal city located at the heart of the Middle East. It is charming and sophisticated; ‘the beautiful Burj Al Arab hotel presiding over the coastline of Jumeira beach is the world’s only hotel with a seven star rating. The Emirates Towers are one of the many structures that remind us of the commercial confidence in a city that expands at a remarkable rate. Standing 350 meters high, the office tower is the tallest building in the Middle East and Europe. Dubai also hosts major international sporting events. The Dubai Desert Classic is a major stop on the Professional Golf Association tour. The Dubai Open, an ATP tennis tournament, and the Dubai World Cup, the world’s richest horse race, draw thousands every year’ (Government of Dubai 2010). References Ahmad Abdelrazaq (2008) Brief on Construction Planning of the Burj Dubai Project’ CTBUH 8th world congress. Clements F. (1998). United Arab Emirates. Clio Press: Oxford. DTCM (2005), Dubai-Modern History; Dubai Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing. EIU. 2005a. United Arab Emirates Country Profile 2005. The Economist Intelligence Unit: London. Government of Dubai (2010) Dubai History; The official Portal of Dubai Government http://www.dubai.ae/en.portal?topic,Article_000240,0,History of Dubai and its Architecture
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I’m working on a statistics question and need guidance to help me learn.
A binary logistic regression model is valid when the dependent variable has only two outcomes. True Interval /ratio type data can only be used as independent variables in binary logistic regression. True An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates the event is less likely to occur as the independent variable increases. Fales A chi-square test is used to test the goodness of fit of the model. True Points falling randomly around the center line on a residual versus order plot indicates the residuals are independent. Fales
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Rio Salado CC Ethical Principles of Informed Consent in Healthcare System Essay
Rio Salado CC Ethical Principles of Informed Consent in Healthcare System Essay.
Write a 2 page paper (2 pages of text is required in addition to a title page and a reference page)This paper should demonstrate that you are presenting this topic to staff at a clinical research site on the topic of Informed ConsentMust be in APA Format with in-text citations with at least 3 credible resourcesPaper FormatYou will be writing this paper to present the topic to staff at a clinical research site.Introduction – statement of purpose, provide relevant background information on the topic (i.e., the site is initiating a Phase 1 study for the first time, a recent audit identified major informed consent problems, it has been discovered that non-English speaking patients aren’t being approached or considered for a study for which they are eligible, etc.) Body – be sure to present evidence &/or quote sources (citations/references) to support the rationale for the position you take on the topic (i.e., federal regulations and informed consent requirements, Belmont Report and including all eligible patients, etc,). Be sure to explain things fully. This doesn’t mean you have to discuss everything about the topic. Just be sure you are thorough in expressing the details of a key point or points.Summary – discuss the importance of the topic; how the topic impacts your worksite; other things that staff might need to consider; etc.
Rio Salado CC Ethical Principles of Informed Consent in Healthcare System Essay
Models for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict
assignment writer “Peace is not absence of conflict, it is the ability to handle conflict by peaceful means.” Ronald Regan. Table of Contents Introduction Conflict Functional Conflict Dysfunctional Conflict Model of handling dysfunctional conflict Conclusions Bibliography Introduction “To nie konflikt jest źródłem nieporozumień i walki między ludźmi, lecz sposób jego rozstrzygania” Wojciech Haman, Jerzy Gut (2001) Translation of the above quotation from Polish: „This is not a conflict that is a source of confusion and a struggle between people, but a way of settling it.” In any culture and any location in the word, definition of conflict would be very similar with the one main indication – conflict is a part of modern person life. It does not really matter if they like it or not, conflict will emerge in an individual personal and professional life a number of times. It is only up to them, to understand it and to learn how to deal with it. Being able to understand the conflict is highly influenced by the way how person is seeing the nature of conflict. It could be perceived as negative or positive process. It can be distinguish as a natural experience, for some it would be unnecessary stress factor and others will consider it as a part of professional and personal development. With this being said, the main tasks of this assignment are to explain the broad definition of conflict, to demonstrate how conflict works by explaining its dynamics. Another objective of this paper is to distinguish two types of conflict – functional and dysfunctional. The aim of this paper is to help readers to understand why the functional conflict should be encouraged and the dysfunctional conflict properly managed. Lastly, this assignment will take into accounts one of available models of handling dysfunctional conflict and discuss it. Conflict The definition of the word conflict came from two Latin words: conflictus and confligre. In literal translation they mean a collision. Each person in their life will experience a collision of a two different: behaviours, concepts, interests, ideas, goals, values, needs, preferences or just the different way of perceiving the reality. In situation where named above differences are not accepted by one of the sides, conflict is being born. Opposite to popular belief conflict is not about fighting per se, it is any situation, where participants have different opinions. The conflict will occur when two sides, which depend on each other, are facing some differences or misperceptions. Without approval or at least participation of the other side opponents cannot achieve their goals. They are standing on each other way to reach the target. There are some signals, which can precede conflict in organizations: Diversity of employees. Introduction to change. Dynamic career choices. Work tasks divided to teams. Globalisation, which will trigger cross-cultural contact. Symptoms of Conflict involve poor communication between people and hiding their feelings, which will dissolve in frustration. This is triggered by low morale, a desire to become better than others and jealousy. It is impossible to exclude conflict from personal or professional life – it is a natural phenomenon. Built into organizational attitudes and roles or evolving over a lack of resources. Conflict can be interpersonal, personal or between coalitions or rival groups. It arises because of the differences between people and dynamics of their relationships, which is named diversity. Diversity is great. It creates new ideas and patents. Difference between people is strengthening organisations but, at the same time can cause frustration, gaps and conflicts. People are different based on their age, gender, place where they were born and raised, their education and working environment, material status and many more. Individuals do not think the same. It is not necessarily a bad thing but effectively, variances of characters are triggering conflicts. Everyone is handling conflict in their own way. Some people are easy-going and personal or professional relations with them are uncomplicated. They would back out from any conflict situation and agree on anything suggested to them. Unfortunately others could be opposite – difficult and hard to deal with. This type of people would react emotionally in any type of confrontation. They are getting offended or aggressive easily, what would end any further cooperation. Disagreements are making people uncomfortable, which is a negative emotion. This is a first sign that conflict is starting. There are two types of issues: Substantive issues, which could be caused by competition. Individuals are trying to get the same resources or they have different understanding of roles in company. This type of conflict could be resolved by mediation of a third party. Emotive issues, which are negative feelings. This type of conflict needs honest conversation and exchange of feelings between parties. Conciliation intervention of the third party would be appreciated. Most of people associate conflict with something negative, but it can be positive occurrence in organization. It can bring good changes, improve current situation or show future solutions. With this being said there are two types of conflict: functional and dysfunctional. Functional Conflict Encouraged and monitored by company, so it would not get out of hand. It is healthy, constructive disagreement. Stimulation of this type of conflict will cause creativity and movement in organisation. It will improve group curiosity and quality of decision made. Aim of this practice is to clear the air and keep employees motivated by introducing the competition. It will be helpful when the team is becoming stagnant. Functional conflict is supporting the goals of organisation by improving it performance. Results of this type of practice are deeper and better relationships and new perspectives and ideas. It involves listening to others and will help people to learn how to compromise and respect each other’s ideas. Individuals have a chance to speak their thoughts without being interrupted; they are given freedom of speech in work environment. Dysfunctional Conflict Waste of time and energy of parties involved and mediators. It will have disastrous and destructive consequences for communication, relationships and organization performance. This type of conflict should be eliminated or resolved in the early stages, before causing stress and aggressive situations. Dysfunctional conflict is not supported by management, as its cost is expected to be higher than possible benefits. It is motivated by all the wrong reasons – competing workers egos. Managing this type of conflict is crucial. Company Managers should adopt the perspective of each of the sides and try to obtain all information to fully understand the conflict therefore being able to resolve it. “$359 billion in paid hours or the equivalent of 385 million working days are lost each year to workplace conflict” Workplace Conflict and How Businesses Can Harness It to Thrive. Model of handling dysfunctional conflict K.W. Thomas and R.H. Kilmann – Five Conflict Handling Methods. 1) Competing (Win – Lose approach) based on quick decisions. This method is appropriate in emergencies, when time is essence, decisions need to be quick and people affected by them should be aware and supportive. It is extremely assertive way of achieving goals. Person is not trying to cooperate with opponent. Competing will be useful, when decisions are made for the group wellbeing – decision maker knows that he is right. 2) Accommodating (Lose – Win), when person is aware that is wrong and able to admit it, therefore will listen to other side and cooperate to a high-degree. This could happen at his own expense. It will work against his objectives, planned outcomes and goals. This type of approach is highly effective in situation where other party is an expert or can offer better solution, person can learn from his own mistakes. Perhaps individual is not that interest in discussed issue as opposite party, this way he is getting “social credits” for different issues and maintain effective future relations with opposite side. 3) Avoiding (Lose-Lose) when person does not help other party to reach their goals but at the same time not trying to reach his. This is good approach when small issues are involved, when there will be more necessary issues soon or when person knows that he has no chance to win. Avoiding could work as well, when sorting the issue will be simply too costly. It would be great approach when atmosphere is heavy and emotional so it is better to just avoid any discussion. People can only hope that someone else can resolve conflict better but they should “fight their own fights” – hope does not count as a strategy. It can help temporarily but it is not a long-term solution. 4) Compromising (Lose-Lose) neither party achieves everything that they wanted. It would happen, when opponents has equal power and level of assertiveness and cooperation. It is good enough temporary solution, where both sides goals have the same level of importance. It is risky – collaboration could produce more benefits but after unsuccessful collaboration it is consider an easy way out. 5) Collaborating is pairing up with other party to achieve what they want, the “Win-Win” scenario. This solution requires reasonable level of cooperation and assertiveness and it is a way to break free from “Win-Lose” and try to achieve “Win-Win”. It is appropriate when both sides have equally important goals. It is a great scenario to accommodate everybody’s ideas but it requires high degree of trust to opponent and it is time consuming. However it is not a waste of time, as it is beneficial for both sides. Conclusions In conclusion conflict is not necessarily unfavourable, while managed properly. In this assignment several conflict advantages was indentified. Creating healthy competition is bringing great results for company performance, is enhancing communication, increasing professional and personal growth and producing new and better ideas. It is creating possibilities to identify the issues and talk about what is important to both sides of the conflict, in effect clearing the atmosphere. People are spending great amount of time at work and thereafter with their close once, it will always create some level of frustration – talking about it is a key! However there is another side of disagreement – it can tear company or relationship apart, when not effectively managed. Great challenges for managers are to maintain the intensity and right balance of conflict by understanding its dynamics and learning the proper resolution. Productive engaging in disagreement is priceless. Majority of people are interested is solving their own conflict, therefore they need to have appropriate set of skills. Without knowledge how to approach conflict, most people would try to avoid it, without facing the problem. Unfortunately this is not an answer, avoiding conflict results in conflict escalation and feelings became stronger and more negative. Summarising what was written in this paper, people are different but there are many similarities which should be outlined, while managing conflict. To supervise conflict properly, participants need to think what they have in common and what can bring them together. Nevertheless that would never happen if they do not listen to others and try to force their own opinion. Bibliography Anon, (2018). [online] Available at: http://www.managementguru.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/conflict-management.jpg [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Bizfluent. (2018). What Is Dysfunctional Conflict?. [online] Available at: https://bizfluent.com/facts-7246711-dysfunctional-conflict-.html [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Cytaty.mfiles.pl. (2018). konflikt – Cytaty – Encyklopedia Zarządzania. [online] Available at: https://cytaty.mfiles.pl/index.php/keyword/168/0/konflikt [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Fc.civil.tamu.edu. (2018). Summary: Understanding Conflict and Conflict Management. [online] Available at: http://fc.civil.tamu.edu/home/keycomponents/teams/conflict1h.html [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Kreatywni.wsptwp.eu. (2018). [online] Available at: http://kreatywni.wsptwp.eu/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/ROZWIĄZYWANIE-KONFLIKTÓW-materiały-szkoleniowe.pdf [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Psychology Today. (2018). What Makes Conflict? How Are Conflicts Resolved?. [online] Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/resolution-not-conflict/201211/what-makes-conflict-how-are-conflicts-resolved [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Robyn Short. (2018). The Cost of Conflict in the Workplace – Robyn Short. [online] Available at: http://robynshort.com/2016/02/16/the-cost-of-conflict-in-the-workplace/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Smallbusiness.chron.com. (2018). Differences and Conflict in Diversity. [online] Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/differences-conflict-diversity-3045.html [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Sourcesofinsight.com. (2018). 5 Conflict Management Styles at a Glance. [online] Available at: http://sourcesofinsight.com/conflict-management-styles-at-a-glance/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018]. Study.com. (2018). Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict in Organizations: Differences and Mediation – Video
Need chemistry help to Convert your grams/10 mL values to grams/100 mL values (Convert temps too)
Need chemistry help to Convert your grams/10 mL values to grams/100 mL values (Convert temps too).
Convert your grams/10 mL values to grams/100 mL values (Convert temps too)Temperature at which the solubility is 3.5g / 10 mL (C) 23.1 CTemperature at which the solubility is 4g / 10mL (C) 40.2Temperature at which the solubility is 4.5g / 10mL (C) 57.3Temperature at which the solubility is 5g / 10mL (C) 74.9
Need chemistry help to Convert your grams/10 mL values to grams/100 mL values (Convert temps too)
Louisiana State University Political Science Report Supreme Court Argumentative Essay
Louisiana State University Political Science Report Supreme Court Argumentative Essay.
Report #5: Supreme Court After watching the video “U.S. Supreme Court Justices Antonin Scalia & Stephen Breyer: Conversation on the Constitution (2009)” (link provided below), write a brief report. The report should contain three separate sections that address all the points in each set of questions. Notice the expected word count for each section (exceeding the word count will not negatively affect your grade, but please try to stay within the range).1. Describe the competing perspectives used by Supreme Courts Justices in interpreting the U.S. Constitution. In your answer be certain to elaborate on what is meant by “originalism” and alternatives to this perspective. (approximately 100-150 words)2. Describe the views of Constitutional interpretation held by each of the two Justices in the video. How do they describe their philosophy and what do they say guides their decision making? (approximately 150-200 words)3. List and describe one point each made by Justice Breyer and Justice Scalia that you found particularly interesting, novel, or insightful. (approximately 150-200 words)Be careful not to plagiarize. If you want to quote directly from the text or from the video, do so using quotation marks (giving the page number if you quote the text). But try to do this sparingly and simply use your own words in addressing the questions.In your writing, use an analytical tone that is free of your personal opinions. In other words, try to answer the questions in a straightforward and objective manner.Link to video:
Louisiana State University Political Science Report Supreme Court Argumentative Essay