The Sustainable Development Goals are a kind of call to action emanating from all countries – poor, rich, and moderately developed. This call aims to improve the well-being of people and animals and protect our planet and nature. All countries admit that poverty liquidation measures must be taken at the same time with efforts to improve economic growth. Also, addressing a range of issues in the areas of education, health, social protection, and employment as well as combating climate change and protecting the environment should be done as soon as possible. The purpose of this paper is to list and discuss the United Nations’ seventeen Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations or U.N. is an intergovernmental organization that seeks to keep international safety, peace, and security, develop healthy and friendly relationships between people from different countries, be the center for harmonizing the actions of nations, and achieve international cooperation. The Sustainable Development Goals are considered to be the foundation for a better future for everyone. These goals appeal to the global problems that are related to inequality, poverty, environmental degradation, climate change, justice, and peace (“About the Sustainable Development Goals”). All the seventeen goals are connected with each other, and the United Nations want to achieve all of them by 2030. The first goal is to get rid of all kinds of poverty by ensuring that all people have equal rights and access to basic services, economic resources, ownership, natural resources, inherited property, financial services, and relevant new technologies. The second aim is to eliminate hunger by providing all people with permanent access to adequate, healthy, nutritious, and safe food. The third goal is to promote well-being and ensure healthy lives for all people of all ages. It may be achieved by reducing mortality rate, ending preventable deaths of children and newborns and premature mortality, increasing health financing. Also, this goal’s steps are completing the epidemics of tuberculosis, AIDS, tropical diseases, and malaria and combating water-borne diseases, hepatitis, and other infectious sicknesses. The fourth aim is to establish quality education by providing all boys and girls with quality, free, and equitable early childhood development, care, preprimary, primary, and secondary education (“About the Sustainable Development Goals”). Also, it is necessary to make sure that all people have equal access to affordable and quality higher education and that all gender disparities in education are eliminated. Goal number five is to achieve gender equality by ending discrimination, harmful practices, and violence against all girls and women all over the world. The sixth aim is to provide all people with clean and safe water by eliminating dumping, reducing pollution, and minimizing the release of dangerous materials and chemicals. Also, it is important to halve the amount of wasted water and increase reuse and recycling. The seventh aim is to provide people with access to reliable, affordable, modern, and sustainable energy. It may be achieved by upgrading technology and expanding infrastructure for supplying sustainable and modern energy services for everyone in all developing countries. Goal number eight is to promote employment, sustainable and inclusive economic growth, and decent work for everyone (“About the Sustainable Development Goals”). The ninth goal is to foster innovation, build sustainable infrastructure, and promote stable industrialization by raising industry’s share of GDP and employment and increasing access to communications and information technology. Aim number ten is to reduce inequality within and among countries by empowering the economic, political, and social inclusion of all people despite their race, age, religion, and other differences. Moreover, it is essential to provide equal opportunities and reduce outcome inequalities by destroying discriminatory policies, laws, and practices. The eleventh goal is to make towns and cities safe, inclusive, sustainable, and resilient by providing access to secure transportation, improving road safety, and protecting and safeguarding the world’s natural and cultural heritage. Aim number twelve is to ensure sustainable and responsible production patterns and consumption. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may be done by halving global food waste per person and reducing food losses (“About the Sustainable Development Goals”). The thirteenth goal is to take action to fight climate change and its impacts by integrating necessary measures into national policies and strategies and improving people’s awareness of the problem. The fourteenth aim is to conserve and sustainably use marine resources. People need to prevent or at least reduce all kinds of marine pollution, minimize the impacts of acidification of ocean, and prohibit some forms of fisheries subsidies. Goal number fifteen is to fight with desertification, manage forests, and stop and reverse land degradation. It may be achieved by ensuring the conservation of mountain ecosystems and restoring degraded soil and land. Aim number sixteen is to promote equitable, inclusive, and peaceful societies by reducing violence and death rates that are related to it, ending exploitation, abuse, trafficking, and torture of children, and reducing bribery and corruption. Finally, the seventeenth goal is to achieve sustainable development by revitalizing the global partnership (“About the Sustainable Development Goals”). In other words, this goal is about strengthening domestic resource mobilization, mobilizing additional financial resources, and assisting developing countries. To draw a conclusion, one may say that these goals are essential for achieving sustainable development, a safe society and atmosphere, the world’s proper condition, and the prosperity of all people. It is hard to disagree that most of these goals, like combating climate change or protecting the marine resources, are so crucial that they need to be achieved in the nearest future. Unfortunately, it is impossible until all people realize the problems and unite to change the world for the better together. Work Cited “About the Sustainable Development Goals.” Sustainable Development Goals. Web.
Importance of Electrochemical Series. A series in which the reduction electrode potentials of various electrodes have been arranged in the increasing order (downwards) is called Electrochemical Series . The standard reduction potential of hydrogen is zero.The electrodes above hydrogen have negative reduction potential while those place below it have positive reduction potential and vice-versa. To understand the importance and application of Electrochemical series we have to study about Oxidation,Reduction and Standard Reduction Potential. What is Electrochemistry? Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry which deals with the study of the chemical changes which occur on passing electric current into certain chemical systems and also with the generation of electricity by carrying chemical reactions which are redox reactions in nature. And Redox reactions are those reactions in which both oxidation and reduction taking place. Electronic Concept of Oxidation and Reduction According to the electronic concept, oxidation may be defined as the process in which an atom or ion loses one or more electrons. The loss of electrons is also called de-electronation. As a result, there is increase in positive valency or decrease in negative valency of the species. The species which lose electrons during oxidation are called Reducing agents. According to the electronic concept, reduction may be defined as the process in which an atom or ion gains one or more electrons. The gain of electrons is also called electronation. As a result, there is increase in negative valency or decrease in positive valency of the species. The species which gain electrons during reduction are called Oxidising agents. Electrode Potential It is the potential difference between the electrode and its ions in solution. The value of Electrode potential depends upon: (i) Nature of the metal (ii) Concentration of the ions in solution. (iii) Temperature. Types of Electrode Potential Oxidation Potential:- It is the tendency of the electrode to lose electrons and as a result it gets oxidized. Reduction Potential:- It is the tendency of the electrode to accept electrons and as a result,it gets reduced. Measurement of Standard Electrode Potential (Eo):- The standard electrode potential(electron releasing or electron accepting tendency) of an electrode in contact with its electrolyte in a half cell cannot be measured experimentally due to the following reasons:- A half cell whether oxidation or reduction half cell cannot work of its own and can work only when connected to the other half cell. The electron realeasing or accepting tendency of an electrode is only relative tendency and not absolute tendency. Thus we cannot determine the absolute standard electrode potential of an electrode.To solve the problem,a reference electrode is needed and an arbitrary electrode potential must be assigned to it.The commonly used reference electrode is standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) also called normal hydrogen electrode(NHE) and its standard electrode potential (oxidation as well as reduction) is taken as zero. We have stated that a standard hydrogen electrode acts as the reference electrode and it helps in measuring the standard electrode potential of an electrode.An electrochemical cell is set up in which the metal electrode under consideration is kept in one half cell and the standard hydrogen electrode acts as the other half cell. The potential difference developed as a result of the redox reaction is measured with the help of high resistance voltmeter(or beter by potentiometer). Since the electrode potential of the hydrogen electrode under standard conditions is taken zero, the reading of the voltmeter will therefore,give the standard electrode potential of the electrode under consideration. The deflection of the voltmeter in the cell circuit represents the flow of current. The flow of current is towards opposite side.If it is towards the metal electrode, this means that the flow of electrons is towards the standard hydrogen electrode. Therefore, metal electrode will act as anode and standard hydrogen electrode as cathode. In case, the deflection is towards the hydrogen electrode, this means that the flow of electrons is from hydrogen electrode towards the metal electrode. In such a case, hydrogen electrode will act as anode and the metal electrode as the cathode. In General, Eo cell = Eo cathode – Eoanode Where Eo cell value represents the standard reduction potential of the electrode. Electrochemical Series or EMF Series :- The standard electrode potential (Eo cell) of a large number of electrodes are determined with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode acting as a reference electrode. The standard reduction potential of hydrogen is zero. The electrodes above hydrogen have negative reduction potential while those place below it have positive reduction potential and vice-versa. They are arranged in decreasing strength of reducing agent to form a series known as Electrochemical Series. Application of Electrochemical Series:- To predict the relative oxidizing and reducing powers:- The electrochemical series helps to pick out substances that are good oxidizing agents and those which are good reducing agents.In an electrochemical series the species which are placed above hydrogen are more difficult to be reduced and their standard reduction potential values are negative. The Li : Li (aq) electrode has the least Eo value and therefore, it is reduced with more difficulty. Therefore, Li cannot accept electrons easily and so loses electrons to behave as a reducing agent. Li is the strongest reducing agent. The species which are easily reduced than hydrogen are palced below it in electrochemical series and their Eo value are positive. The F2 : 2F-(aq) electrode has the highest Eo value and therefore, F2 has the greatest tendency to get reduced,it is consequently the strongest oxidizing agent. In general, oxidizing agents have Eo values. Higher the positive value, stronger will be the oxidizing agent and reducing agents have -Eo values, higher the negative value, stronger will be the reducing agent. For Example: Increasing order of reducing power of metal is Ag /Ag( 0.80V) < Cr3 /Cr(-074V) < K /K (-2.93V) Calculation of the EMF of the Cell The following steps determine the reduction potential of the cathode and anode: Step I The two half-cell reactions are written in such a way that the reaction taking place at the left hand electrode is written as an oxidation reaction and that taking place at the right electrode is written as reduction reaction. Step II The number of electrons in the two equations are made equal by multiplying one of the equations if necessary by a suitable number. However, electrode potential values (E°) are not multiplied. Step III The electrode potentials of both the electrodes are taken to be reduction potentials and so the EMF of the cell is equal to the difference between the standard potential of the right hand side and the left hand side electrode. Eo cell = Eo R – EoL Step IV If the EMF of the cell is ve, the reaction is feasible in the given direction and the cell is correctly represented, i.e., oxidation occurs at left electrode (anode) and reduction occurs at the right electrode (cathode). If it is -ve, the cell reaction is not feasible in the given direction and the cell is wrongly represented. Thus, to get positive value for the EMF the electrodes must be reversed. To predict whether a metal will react with acids to give H2 gas:- Metals above hydrogen in Electrochemical series have great tendency for oxidation,so they displace hydrogen from acids.All metals having negative electrode potentials (negative E° values) show greater tendency of losing electrons as compared to hydrogen. So, when such a metal is placed in an acid solution, the metal gets oxidized, and H (hydrogen) ions get reduced to form hydrogen gas. Thus, the metals having negative E° values liberate hydrogen from acids. metal having negative E° value For example, metals such as Mg (E (Mg2 Mg) = – 2.37 V), Zn (E (Zn2 Zn) = – 0.76 V), Iron (E (Fe2 Fe) = – 0.44 V) etc., can displace hydrogen from acids such as HCl and HSO4. But metals such as Copper, (E (Cu2 Cu) = 0.34V), silver (E (Ag Ag) = 0.80V) and gold (E (Au3 Au) = 1.42 V) cannot displace hydrogen from acids because of their positive reduction potential value. To predict the Feasibility of Redox Reaction:- From the E° values of the two electrodes one can find out whether a given redox reaction is feasible or not. A redox reaction is feasible only if the species which has higher potential is reduced i.e., accepts the electrons and the species which has lower reduction potential is oxidized i.e., loses electrons. The electrochemical series gives the increasing order of electrode potentials (reduction) of different electrodes on moving down the table. This means that the species, which accept the electrons (reduced) must be lower in the electrochemical series as compared to the other which is to lose electrons. (oxidized). For example, From the electrochemical series E° value of Cu = 0.34 V and that of Ag = 0.80 V since the reduction potential of Ag is more than that of Cu, this means that silver has greater tendency to get reduced in comparison to copper. Thus, the reaction occurs more readily than the reaction The reduction potential of copper is less than that of Ag, this means that copper will be oxidized or will go into solution as ions in comparison to Ag. Thus, the reaction, occurs more readily than Therefore, silver will be reduced and copper will be oxidized and the above reaction is not feasible. Rather the reverse reaction, can occur. Thus a metal will displace, any other metal, which occurs below it in the electrochemical series from its salt solution. When a metal having lower E° value is placed in a solution, containing ions of another metal having higher E° value, then the metal having lower E° value gets dissolved and the ions of the metal having higher E° value get precipitated. Problems Q:- Write the half-cell reaction and the overall cell reaction for the electrochemical cell: Calculate the standard emf for the cell if standard electrode potentials (reduction) Pb2 Pb and Zn2 Zn electrodes are -0.126V and -0.763 V respectively. Solution Zn electrode acts as anode while Pb electrode acts as cathode and, therefore oxidation occurs at zinc electrode and reduction occurs at lead electrode. The half cell reactions are: Q:- Iodine (I2) and bromine (Br2) are added to a solution containing iodide (I-) and bromide (Br-) ions. What reaction would occur if the concentration of each species is 1 M? The electrode potentials for the reactions are: Solution Since the reduction potential of Br2 is more than that of I2, it means that bromine can be readily reduced. Therefore, I- will be oxidized to I2 and this reaction should be written as oxidation. Therefore, the following reactions will occur: Since for the feasibility of the reaction, the emf should be ve, and to get ve value for the cell reaction, subtract the equation representing lower value of E° from the equation representing the higher value of E°. Q:-. What will be the spontaneous reaction between the following half-cell reactions? Calculate Ecell. Solution Since the reduction potential of reaction (ii) is more than that of reaction (i); reaction (ii) will occur as reduction. Therefore, reaction (i) should be written as oxidation. To obtain the net reaction, we multiply the reactions by appropriate coefficients so that electrons get cancelled. Ecell = Esubstance reduced – Esubstance oxidized = 1.28 – (- 0.74) = 2.02V To predict the spontaneity of any redox reaction:- For any spontaneous reaction (deltaG) should be negative.Since deltaG = -nFE cell Hence E cell should be positive for spontaneous reaction. E cell is the emf of the cell and is calculated from the standard redox potentials by using the reaction. E cell = Ecathode – Eanode If E cell is positive, the cell reaction is spontaneous, otherwise not. To predict the Replacement tendency :- The relative ease with which the various species of metals and ions may be oxidized or reduced is indicated by the reduction potential values. The metals with lower reduction potential are not reduced easily but are easily oxidized to their ions losing electrons. These electrons would reduce the other metals having higher reduction potentials. In other words, a metal having smaller reduction potential can displace metals having larger reduction potentials from the solution of their salt.For example, copper lies above silver in the electrochemical series, therefore, if copper metal is added to AgNO3 solution, silver is displaced from the solution. In general a metal occupying higher position in the series can displace the metals lying below it from the solutions of their salts and so are more reactive in displacing the other metals. Thus, Li is the most electropositive element in solutions and fluorine is the most electronegative element. To predict the correct Metallurgical Methods :- Eo values of Cu,H2O and Al are 0.34V,-0.83V and -1.66V.It means Cu gets more easily reduced than water and water gets more easily reduced than aluminium.Hence copper can be produced by the electrolysis of aqueous copper sulphate but not aluminium.this is due to the fact that when Al3 (aq) is electrolysed,the H2O will be electrolysed but not Al3 (aq). For calculation of Equilibrium Constant :- Therefore measurement of E o enables the determination of the equilibrium constant for the electrode reaction. Importance of Electrochemical Series
Three categories to Aging. 1. Introduction What is old? What is ageing? There are three categories for older adults’ ages, “young old”, “old old” and “oldest old” (Papalia et al., 2009). Young old is suggested as the age from 65 to 74; old old is suggested as the age from 75 to 84 whereas oldest old is suggested as the age of 85 and the above. Ageing is a natural process in which it can be described in two dimensions. Primary aging is the gradual, inevitable process of ageing. It is unavoidable. It occurs throughout years even with efforts/ technology which are used to help to slow the ageing process down. The secondary aging is avoidable, as it results from disease, abuse. For instance, having a healthy lifestyle might help to reduce the risks of entering secondary ageing or delay the entering. In a rapid developing society like Hong Kong, people seem to avoid talking about aging and view ageing as a negative process rather than a natural process. Therefore, ageism becomes one of the social problems in Hong Kong. Traxler has given the definition that if a person or a group of people who are subordinated because of the age by any means (e.g. action, attitude or by an institution) it would be classified as ageism. Ageing situation in Hong Kong According to the U.S. Census Bureau, International Database, the Hong Kong population pyramids 2010 has predicted that the dominant age group would be the 45-49 year-old people in which it would be close to 400 000 among the whole population in Hong Kong. The population of other age groups, 40-44 and 50-54 would be similar and close to the 45-49 group. By 2050, the leading age group would be the 80 where the female 80 population would get close to 700 000 while other age groups would remain similar and stay under 300 000 (National Master, 2003). The longevity is one of the possible reasons of the change of the population pyramids with the enhancement on medical technologies, the better prevention or prediction of diseases, the higher standard of living and so on. Ageing is unavoidable and it is an inevitable process for life. Because of this reason, I believe it is important to understand ageing in terms of theories and from that to develop possible solutions to tackle the problem or to smoothen the adaptation of the demographic changes in Hong Kong. Objectives The objectives of this paper are: (1) To overview aging and ageism in terms of different theories, (2) To offer some possible solutions to promote positive images of ageing 2. Theoretical Perspectives Disengagement Theory This is a psychosocial concept to state that older adults will gradually disengage in a society (The Medical Dictionary, 2009). They are said to be inactive and being uninterested towards their possible participation in the society. This theory has bias towards ageism and has given people the negative point of view of aging. Work/ job related disengagement When older adults retire, the primarily disengagement is caused by their functions in society. Some of them stop working when they retire and are said to be “non-functional” towards the working field. Some would continue their work (part time or full time). However, some older adults that wish to continue their work always suffer in difficult job-seeking process. Employability for them seems to be low or lower in Hong Kong. It might be possible that some of them have accumulated much experience and in return the current wages would not be satisfied for them. It would end up that retirement would become a transition for them with a reduction in their incomes. In contrast, some less educated older adults might not be able to compete with younger jobseekers. Such two diverse reasons could use to explain why the employability for older adults is low. Family relationship related disengagement One of the reasons of the demographic changes would be the delay of marriage and it could possibly delay the life-transitions (Harper, 2004). For example, entering late adulthood later than the expected age, there are people confusing about the term “middle age” in which they believe that middle age could mean people that are 65 in age (Papalia et al., 2009)) Because of that reason, there is potential that older adults experience disengagement with their children who leave home. Alternatively, disengagement theory assumes that older adults have a tendency to get involve with people with similar ages forming a so called “homogenous group” (The Medical Dictionary, 2009). In my own point of view, I would believe that older adults are disengaging and from that new engagement is needed. While engaging with “new people” in which they are of similar ages with the older adults, they create or regain something that is meaningful or of value to them. There seems to be a contradiction between the assumption of the theory and its pessimistic explanation of ageing. In addition, there is also criticism for disengagement theory as it provides a negative point of view of ageing; it tends to reinforce the stereotypes of older adults. For instances, older adults are useless, inactive, withdrawn, etc (Palmore, 1999). Clinical Frameworks These are represented by medical, biological and naturalist theories. The main emphasize would be that the physical changes on the older adults. The physical changes are referred in term of biological perspectives. The nature of the framework seems not to be focused on the sociological perspective. However, the frameworks highlight a present change or sometimes viewed as an issue by people – the higher life expectancies. Dozois has stated that the advancement of medicine have led to greater longevity. When people have noticed the change in proportion of older adults over the population in the last century, ageism is worsen (2006). People raise concerns and accentuate that older adults are non-productive. Non-productive in this case claims that older adults consume lots of resources but in return they do not contribute toward what they have consumed. The large number of non-productive people might affect the society (mainly the economic side) in which the vast majority people would consider as a concern (Dozois, 2006) Relating such frameworks to Hong Kong, some people believe that the government would need to pay more attention to the aging society. As a result, the welfare system in Hong Kong might experience a high demand situation in the coming next 10 years onward while the Hong Kong population is changing. Simultaneously, when Hong Kong is facing so many different economic crises, the rapidly evolving economic relationships with China and other countries, ageing would serve as a factor that affects the Hong Kong economy. In the future, the government might need to increase tax rate when dealing with the large population of older adults who are eligible to applying the old age allowance (OAA) in Hong Kong as one of the social welfare services. Consequently, the society might put forward a more negative image for the older adults in Hong Kong. It is like a circular causality to boost ageism. Activity Theory In my opinion, activity theory is the opposite of the disengagement theory as it describe ageing in a much more positive viewpoint. It basically says that how a person is being constructed in two major focused sources, (1) What they do and (2) The roles they have in their lives (Roy and Russel, 2005). Similar to disengagement theory, activity theory claimed that people “give up” or “force to give up” roles as they age. When they retire from work, when they lose their partners, drop out of professional, clubs, unions and so on. Those are the parts that holding a person together as w whole. The sudden changes cause by the retirement might become the cue of why older adults would reduce their sense of identity. According to the humanistic theory, there are two selves, the actual self and the ideal self (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2009). The actual self is referred as how people understand one person in which the person recognize himself or herself from his/her surrounding and some personal perspectives. The ideal self is what the person wants himself or herself to be. The reduced sense of identity might be caused by the changing or losing of roles enlarge the discrepancy between the actual self and the ideal self. Roy and Russel suggest that activity theory should come to place that older adult should engage in activities (E.g. joining clubs or developing new hobbies). Older adults could develop new roles to substitute or replace those old and force-to-be-given-up roles. The theory has concluded the importance of late life activities in which to restore, maintain or enhance the well-being of the older adults (2005). Rather than pinpointing the negative impact of ageing like disengagement theory, the activity theory could be served as evidence on why there is a need to promote the community participation for older adults Exchange Theory The exchange theory simply states that people should end the relationship with another person if nothing can be gained or exchanged from that person. This theory has shown its capitalistic point of view. The assumption of the theory is that people operate in order to gain material or non-material rewards and also people would try to keep the gained benefits (Moberg, 2001). There are many exchanges in which that could affect one’s 3Ps (3Ps are referred as power, prestige and possessions). The 3Ps are the three element derived from the social stratification. Social goods might not be concrete like material possessions, but also including other abstract items like psychological satisfaction and experiential pleasure (Moberg, 2001). Older adults that could afford their own living could have relatives that would want to rely on them and putting the relatives or family in a dependent situation. Accordingly, those older adults seem to keep their personal power in which they could influence on others as well as controlling their own activities with their affordability such as financial wealth. They provide e.g. financial support to the relatives in return to keep their power. Older adults that could not provide valuable things to their family or relatives might gain only little power within or outside the family. As they lose the power because of being a lower class, when they retire, they would find fulfilling the 3Ps as a hard process for them in which they are said to be oppressed because of social stratification. They would have nothing to exchange. Some hidden older adults in Hong Kong could well be a case of losing the 3Ps. 3. Possible Solutions to tackle the current situation Extend the retirement ages – Providing chances according to the demographic changes There is no statutory retirement age in Hong Kong but people that turning to their middle age would find it hard to seek for a job, so do the older adults. To provide more changes and focus on promoting job opportunities for older adults could reduce chances for older adults to suffer in poverty and financial difficulties. Moreover, it can also extend the older adults’ engagement with the society and rejecting the clinical framework that older adults could not contribute to the society. Hopefully, it could help to change the biased perception of ageing and it might help Hong Kong to adapt the demographic changes. Information technology (IT) for older adults – Getting older adults to involve Possible work could be done in IT with older adults that could serve as a diversification as it is society oriented or situational. With the support from the activity theory, there is a need to get the older adults to be involved. However, with the changing society, it has become a heavily technology-based society. Isolating the older adults might not be the best solution and it has also deteriorated ageism in Hong Kong. As a result, IT should be considered and be served as a tool to help the older adults to regain their identity in the society. Let’s start with introducing two existing technologies: a. Personal Emergency Link One of the popular technologies that are related to older adults in Hong Kong would be the “Personal Emergency Link (PE link)”. Such technology has been used since 1996. The service operates by connecting the PE link users through a so-called advanced communication system to a 24-hour PE link centre. By pressing the portable remote trigger, the PE link users would be connected and be able to talk to someone in the PE link call centre. In addition, the medical history of the user would be saved within the PE link organisation database and would send to the hospital when there is an emergency. However, such service can only be used at home and only benefit to those that can afford or can apply for funding. This service is not universal and might act as a burden for older adults in Hong Kong. If such service could not cover the vast majority of older adults in Hong Kong, how do we evaluate the effectiveness of such service? Furthermore, as the PE link could only use at home, it cannot help when the older adults go out. It also requires the pressing action in order to help notifying the people in the PE link call centre. b. Global Positioning System Global Positioning System (GPS) is well-known among the mobile users as GPS is integrated into the mobile phone for ease of search different locations. Recently, there is investigation of GPS in Hong Kong. Assisted Global Positioning System based (AGPS-based) Elderly tracking system is being implemented in Hong Kong in an experimental level (Wong et al., 2009). Such system utilizes the mature technology – GPS in order to track and position a person in outdoor environment. In this experimental stage, the tested older individual needs to carry the device out with them in which some of the participants would find it “awkward”. Further development of such technology is needed with possible integration of AGPS-based elderly tracking system within the mobile phone. In addition, there is a need to improve its usability in indoor settings (Wong et al., 2009). Both systems have shown how technology could help to improve older adults’ lives and there are many different assistive technologies to help improving older adults’ lives. But how we could make older adults participate in the IT-based communication society that is one of the dimensions that social worker should need to consider. It seems that the two technologies have their advantages and disadvantages; however they alert the society, the government or the people that it is very important to have careful planning when dealing with older adults. What’s more, sometimes, it is essential to change older adults’ perception towards ageing as well as the general public. To compete with the fast growing technology, the perception shaping towards “IT for older adults” would need to be studies to allow useful means of intervention. However, it takes time for the society to be “reshaped”. With the possible increasing uses of internet in the future, social security for older adults could become a concern. Older adults might become a target for crimes in which they might expose their personal information. A long-term approach of applying IT for older adults might be more suitable with proper education with any safety issues. There is always difficult to have a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of technology. “IT for older adults” might become a future trend in Hong Kong with the ageing society and the need of the evolving information society. However, the cooperation between the government, social workers, older adults and any other stakeholders would be challenging. It is important to understand and to update the knowledge while implementing programmes as well as developing some unique technologies for older adults in Hong Kong. Last but not least, to assess the possible issues or problems that could cause by the advancement of IT. Social workers should try to intervene in different levels and understand their responsibilities in helping older adults to establish social networks or their status in the information society. Referred to the social stratifications, the three elements are crucial and one of them would be the status. The status that would be established in the information society might have an important effect in confirming older adults’ social status in the society. Consequently, to redefine older adults as worthies as other people in different age group and to reduce the possible status declining situation. Micro level Counselling online, in which internet would become a platform for older adults to express their opinions and to find social worker to talk to. There is no doubt that some older adults tend not to seek for help from social workers as sometimes they believe that social workers are working for those that are in poverty or disables. Some older adults do not understand the nature of social work profession. By using IT, social workers might be able to develop a more diverse social function in the society. Mezzo level IT programmes for older adults could allow older adults to have access to computers and also to build up social networks through the use of computers as well as being involved in the classes satisfying the description of activity theory. In addition, older adults who join the IT programmes would exchange something of valuable to them, for example new relationship (friendships). Macro level Social worker might need to consider and assess the accessibility of IT to older adults. Because of that, social workers would need to understand and equip themselves with the up-to-dated technologies. In addition, there is a need for better communication between social workers and the Hong Kong government, because when the society is changing and developing into an “information society”, there is a need for the government to consider evolving the welfare. By developing welfare services with IT for the older adults, social workers might need to raise the importance of this new concept. Social Movement and Social Campaign – Changing the stereotyped perceptions Following the previous part – the macro level intervention for IT, social workers should act as a helping professional to help organising social movement to fight for the welfare for older adults. At the same time, they should highlight the importance of such movement or campaign to the government and the general public. It is not only the responsibility of the government to provide adequate resources to the older adults; it is also the responsibility for the society. The Hong Kong society seems to neglect the special needs of older adults with the limited facilities that the society has provided for older adults. I believe by changing the perceptions and consolidate the understanding of demographic change and ageing to the general public, the awareness could be raised. Social movement and social campaign could serve as a form of community education and a catalyst to influence policy development in Hong Kong. 4. Conclusion Theories help to explain ageism however they could also be served as an emphasis of ageism and providing the negative image of ageing. Social workers should always equip themselves with related theories to understand such inequality in a long term perspective. Furthermore, social workers should also have up-to-date information on such social phenomenon which allows them to integrate theories with current situations. Consequently, social workers would provide precise or related intervention. For this paper, one of the main conclusions is that social workers in Hong Kong should try to change the present negative perception of ageing for both the older adults and the general public as a primary step to solve ageism. Providing job opportunities for older adults, integrating older adults with IT as well as organising social movement and campaign could be some possible area in which social worker could work on cooperating with theories. 5. References Currey, R. (2008). Ageism in healthcare: Time for a change. Aging Well, 1(1), 16. Dozois, E. (2006). Ageism: A review of the literature . Alberta: Word on the Street Consulting Ltd.. Harper, S. (2004), Families in Ageing Societies – A Multi-Disciplinary Approach. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4th December 2009 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199251169.001.0001 Moberg, D. (2001). Aging and spirituality: Spiritual dimensions of aging theory, research, practice, and policy. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Pastoral Press. National Master (2003). Hong Kong Population Pyramid 1990 – 2050. Retrieved 1st December, 2009 from http://www.nationmaster.com/country/hk-hong-kong/Age-_distribution Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Fredrickson, B.L., Loftus, G.R., Wagenaar, W.A., (2009) Atkinson and Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology (15th ed.). Thomson: Wadsworth. Palmore, E. . (1999). Ageism: NegativeThree categories to Aging
National Standard of Care and Healthcare Licensing Essay
National standard of care from a legal perspective definition is a parameter utilized as a benchmark for evaluating a doctor’s real work. This illustration is considered in a case concerning a medical malpractice. The doctor’s lawyer would insist on proof that activities by the doctor conformed to the expected standard of care. On the other end, it is expected that the complainant’s lawyers reveal what violation of the standard of care or the extent of negligence was committed by a doctor. From a legal perspective, the standard of care definition is based on the concept of “custom” in legal terms. National standards on a clinical perspective mean a formal process of diagnosing and treatment by a doctor, which usually follows. This particularly applies for a sick individual with a specified disease or exhibiting certain patterns of symptoms. The standards of care thus have to be in line with the guidelines that are considered by experts as most appropriate (Grol, 1990). Licensing of institutions, providers, and accreditation play an important role in quality control of healthcare. Licensing is regarded as a non-voluntary process whereby an agency or department in the government regulates the practices in a certain profession. Giving licenses to individuals in healthcare practice provides them with permission to participate in activities associated with healthcare. Licensing of nurses means that practicing nurses qualify with a given degree of competency that is expected of the nurses in their duty of ensuring that welfare, health status and safety of the patients are appropriately protected. Licensing is usually based on actions by legislative bodies that qualify individuals to practice nursing within a given local state or federal level. A licensing law legitimizes healthcare actions performed by individuals in engaging in the occupation depending on possession of a license in the healthcare profession. Nurses are usually licensed within the state so that they may work as registered nurses (RN) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). Licensing usually aims at eliminating unqualified people to reduce unsafe performance. In licensing, tests are undertaken to gauge performance (Varkey et al., 2007). Accreditation, on the other hand, is different from the licensed RN/LPN testing in certification. This process usually judges and evaluates institutions, which offer healthcare instead of individuals. Many accreditation programs reveal a merit of institutions as opposed to only providing a guarantee regarding an individual’s safety. The process of nurses’ accreditation can be performed voluntary just like certification but in some cases it is not. Hence, accreditation is needed for such a healthcare institution that presupposes collecting Medicaid bills. Thus, as a process, accreditation evaluates the merits of agencies and institutions, as well as programs meant for educating people on health. In this case, accreditation of healthcare institutions ensures that they are granted with certificates. The licensing and certification engages individual practitioners (Varkey et al., 2007). The tort law will assist in avoiding errors and, at the same time, promote the quality of higher healthcare. The legal system tries to offer health in a safe manner, with the highest quality and incentives on delivery of healthcare through the tort law. The law moderates specific medical malpractices by the negligence rule (Kessler
Agriculture In Deforestation And Desertification Environmental Sciences Essay
online homework help The World Resources Institute estimates that more than 50 percent of the earth’s natural forests have already been destroyed (Hermosilla 2000). The United Nations Environment Programme (2009) states that “forests cover 30 per cent of the planet’s total land area. The total forested area in 2005 was just under 4 billion hectares” As a result a United Nations report has stated that “deforestation and forest degradation are widely recognized as one of the most critical environmental problems facing human society, with serious long-term economic, social and ecological consequences” (UN 1999). The causes of deforestation are widely debated and are attributed to many causes such as over population and urbanisation such as new settlements and transport extensions (Geist and Lambin, 2002). However one of the main causes of deforestation is attributed to agriculture. The ‘arc of deforestation’ along the southern and eastern extent of the Brazilian Amazon is the most active land-use frontier in the world in terms of total forest loss” (Morton et al, 2006) and “Globally, the main forest conversion process in the humid tropics was the transformation of closed, open, or fragmented forests to agriculture” (Achard et al 2002). Deforestation originally occurred on a small scale level due to subsistence farming or timber collection. However the Amazon rain forest has seen a recent increase in industrial agriculture “intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares during 2001-2004” (Morton et al, 2006) and this has been a significant source of deforestation in recent years. “In 2010 cattle are projected to be grazing on some 24million hectares of Neotropical land that was once forest in 2000” (Wassenaar et al, 2006). Figure 1 shows the causes of Amazonian deforestation from 2000- 2005. The pie chart shows that cattle ranching, a part of agriculture is the main cause of deforestation. Cattle ranching accounts for 65-70% of deforestation; vast areas of land are cleared by commercial farmers to raise cattle (for meat and dairy) and to provide pasture land for the cattle to graze. Moreover another major cause of deforestation is small scale agriculture by subsistence farmers. Subsistence farmers are causing deforestation because of poor practices (Butler 2008). Farmers burn the trees to clear them, and then over-exploit the land causing the soil quality to decline which results in the farmers having to find new land (shifting cultivation) and thus destroy more trees. In addition government policies can lead to deforestation. In Brazil the government allows farmers to claim a piece of unclaimed public land which they must use for over a year; and after 5 years they become the official owners of the land and so can sell it and claim new land (Butler 2008). In addition population growth and subsequent food demand is also a cause for expanding agriculture. Figure 1. (Butler, 2008) However research has also shown that agriculture is not the main cause or contributor to deforestation. Instead the main cause of deforestation if attributed to population growth, and its subsequent need to find new land for settlements to be built on. Myers, 1984 says that the main reason for deforestation “in the tropics is human population growth. In the African and Asian tropics, it is generally associated with high rates of natural increase (i.e., high net rates of population growth due to high fertility) and, in the Amazon, it is assumed to be the high rates of in-migrationâ€¦ followed by subsequent intergenerational high rates of natural increase”. In addition another primary cause of deforestation, particularly Indonesia is the logging industry. The World Bank (2000) and WRI (2000) state that “the leading cause of Indonesian deforestation in the 1990s has been large-scale commercial logging” (Palmer 2001). Palmer (2001) continues to say that logging causes areas of forest to be cleared, “allowing access to new areas of forest and as a result previously unexploited forest, thus allowing other economic activities such as agricultural conversion and shifting cultivation to take place”. Consequently the logging industry can be seen as a major, if not the major contributor to deforestation and not agriculture. Agriculture has been linked to being a cause of desertification, however a variety of other factors are also causes of desertification and a combination or interaction of processes leads to desertification. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development defines desertification as “land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities” (UNCCD, 1992) The UNCCD states that “Desertification does not refer to the expansion of existing deserts. It occurs because dryland ecosystems, which cover over one third of the world’s land area, are extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation and inappropriate land use. Poverty, political instability, deforestation, overgrazing and bad irrigation practices can all undermine the productivity of the land” (UNCCD 2005). Agriculture plays a large role in desertification, the over grazing of land by animals particularly damaging to the soil and is a major factor contributing to desertification; “overgrazing is by all measures the principal cause of rangeland degradation (Dregne and Chou, 1992). Over grazing can occur by having too many animals, or by not managing and controlling the animals grazing activities (Rayburn, 2000). “Overgrazing reduces plant leaf areas, which reduces interception of sunlight and plant growth. Plants become weakened and have reduced root length, and the pasture sod weakensâ€¦ Overgrazing can increase soil erosion. Reduced soil depth, soil organic matter, and soil fertility hurt the land’s future productivity” (Rayburn 2000). Darkoh (2006) highlights that overgrazing in North Africa has led to the desertification of land “led to moderate to severe desertification of rangelands in arid and semiarid zones of Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia” Moreover it is not just overgrazing that can lead to soil degradation and desertification. Poor farming techniques such as over exploitation, and constant crop growing without a fallow field can lead to degradation. “Arid and semi-arid regions may initially support agriculture, but repeated cultivation frequently leads to a loss of a soil’s nutrients and water-holding capacity. (Global environmental Governance Project, 2009). Over cultivation removes nutrients from the soil which can lead to the soil becoming derogated and infertile, therefore nothing can grow on it which can lead to soil erosion. In addition to this, poor irrigation systems can lead to salinzation of the soil due to groundwater dissolving salts in the soil. When evaporation takes place, this leaves concentrated amounts of salts in the soil which are toxic to plants and thus the land becomes barren. However agriculture may not be a direct cause of desertification, it can be caused due to knock on effects of population growth and the subsequent increased demand for food. “In Africa, a leading cause of desertification is human population pressure which leads to overexploitation and intensified stresses on the natural environment. Africa’s population has doubled in the past three decades to about 708 million (1994) and continues to expand at a rate of some 3 per cent a year. This means that Africa’s farmers must feed an additional 21 million people every year” (Darkoh, 1998). Moreover population increase can lead to urbanization and more resources being demanded, such as fuel wood which is a common fuel in third world countries; deforestation is also a primary cause of desertification as tree roots bind the soil together, preventing erosion. As a result population pressure has lead to the need for intensive agriculture which can lead to desertification “Increased population pressure on the fragile and vulnerable soils of Africa’s dryland regions, leads to overexploitation of water, land, forest and pasture resources through over cultivation, overgrazing and deforestation. These practices therefore constitute the principal threats to the livelihood of millions of people. These are the foremost causes of soil erosion, the rates of which in Africa are among the highest in the world.” (Darkoh,1998). Agriculture plays a large role in deforestation and desertification, but it may not be the main causes of both. Shifting cultivation leads to deforestation as farmers move to new areas of land, often forests which need to be cut down so that the land can be used for agriculture. In addition over grazing and cultivation as well as as poor farming techniques and can lead to desertification. However the real cause of deforestation and desertification can be attributed to government policies and government mismanagement. If governments encourage farmers to seek out new land in the Amazon rain forest, and also do not stop practices of illegal logging. In addition if governments act in their own economic interests and issue policies that lead to environmental harm such as deforestation and desertification then it is not the practices of its people and their techniques (farmers) that cause the damage to the planet, it is the consequence of poor, and often myopic, government policies seeking economic gain; instead of addressing the real causes of the problems of desertification and deforestation. In addition many LEDC’s rely on agriculture for economic growth; therefore a balance needs to be met between economic development and sustainability.
BCU Criminal Justice System Challenges Discourse Are Prisons Obsolete Discussion
BCU Criminal Justice System Challenges Discourse Are Prisons Obsolete Discussion.
I’m working on a other report and need support to help me study.
We have read Angela Davis’s essay about alternatives to incarceration, and we have read a memoir by John Edgar Wideman that looks at how his brother’s imprisonment affected him. One work is an essay written by an academic and activist; the other is a very personal story told by a critically acclaimed writer of fiction and nonfiction. Both works attempt to make a case about criminal justice reform as they confront a set of challenges that have been created by America’s criminal justice systemNow it’s your turn. For this writing project, all students will write a letter that addresses one or more challenges in our criminal justice system. Your letter will need to be addressed to Davis, Wideman, or one or more of the people who are referenced in the works of theirs that you were required to read. You may personalize your letter if you think being personal will help you communicate ideas effectively. In addition, your finished writing project must include the following:*At least 1800 words of double-spaced content that is written in a 12-point, Times New Roman font.*At least one in-text citation from the Davis essay and at least one in-text citation from the Wideman memoir (so you’ll be quoting or paraphrasing both writers in your letter).*A thesis or position statement in the first paragraph of your letter.*Proper paragraphing. Every paragraph should therefore have a topic sentence and other sentences that provide supporting details.*A separate Works Cited page that is in addition to the letter you are required to submit.Also:Your paper should be original. Your paper should not merely be a plot analysis or something akin to a book report..Ultimately, the format for the final draft of this writing project will be a letter that is at least 1,800 words and is double-spaced and written in a 12-point, Times New Roman font. This final document should also include a Works Cited page that is IN ADDITION to your letter. Therefore, you will be submitting at a minimum a final document that is a total of seven pages — a letter that flows over to page six, plus a Works Cited page. This final document must be uploaded to the proper spot in Canvas no later than 11:59 p.m. on Friday, February 12. Do not submit a document that is formatted as a PDF, odt, or as Google docs document, as I will not accept a paper that uses any of those formats. You will instead need to use one of the following formats for Microsoft Word: doc, doc.x, or rtf.
BCU Criminal Justice System Challenges Discourse Are Prisons Obsolete Discussion
Your book contains many pictures of worship spaces (scattered throughout pages 123-154). Choose the one that you like best
Your book contains many pictures of worship spaces (scattered throughout pages 123-154). Choose the one that you like best and in a minimum of 500 words explain why you chose it. Or choose the one you like least and explain why. liking and disliking something requires feelings. Therefore, you will need to imagine yourself within the space you select (no field trips, sorry). Picture yourself entering the space and walking through it. What feelings do you get, are they positive or negative feelings? Try to pin-point what it is about the space that gives you either the positive or negative feeling. When discussing architecture try to use design vocabulary like, line, shapes, colors, volume (height and width), mass, balance, repetition, and light/shadow as starting points. These concepts are defined on page xxvi in the Starter Kit section of your textbook. Also, architecture in general is further explained on page xxx in the Starter Kit. For example: As I imagine entering this space with high vaulted ceilings, I would look up and see light streaming through the stained-glass windows. The act of looking up is like looking up to heaven and would make me feel like I am seeking God. The contrast of the colored windows against the dull cold stone would draw my eyes to the story being told there. The repetition of the pillars makes my eyes follow a visual path, where I end up finding a holy object, much like a pilgrimage. Here is the list of the 20 places/spaces from the textbook. Please pick from this list: Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 350 C.E. (interior) The Wine-Making Scene, ambulatory vault of Santa Costanza Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, ca. 359 C.E. (Museo Petriano, St. Peter’s, Rome) Dome of Heaven, catacomb of Santi Pietro e Marcellino, Rome, 4th century C.E. San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47, (exterior) San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 (interior) Theodora and her Attendants, San Vitale, Ravenna, ca. 547, mosiac Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532-37, (exterior) Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532-37, (interior) St. Mark’s, Venice, (exterior) St. Mark’s, Venice, (interior) Creation Dome, narthex of St. Mark’s, Venice Madonna and Child Enthroned, ca. 1270, tempera (National Gallery of Art) Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, Late 680s-692 (exterior) Jesus Watching Muhammad Leave Mecca, from a medieval Persian manuscriipt from Al-Biruni Mosque, Cardova, begun 786 (interior) Sinan, Mosque of Sultan Sulayman, Istanbul, 1550-57 (exterior) Sinan, Mosque of Sultan Sulayman, Istanbul, 1550-57 (interior) Court of the Lions, Alhambra Palace, Granada, 1354-91 Harem Courtyard, late 16th century, Topkapi Palace, Istanbul This announcement is closed for comments HELPFUL HINTS: READ THE INSTRUCTOR’S ANNOUNCEMENT which lists all the worship spaces found on pages 123-154 in your textbook. Liking and disliking something requires feelings. Therefore you will need to imagine yourself within the space you select (no field trips, sorry). Picture yourself entering the space and walking through it. What feelings do you get, are they positive or negative feelings? Try to pin-point what it is about the space that gives you either the positive or negative feeling. When discussing architecture try to use design vocabulary like, line, shapes, colors, volume (height and width), mass, balance, repetition, and light/shadow as starting points. These concepts are defined on page xxvi in the Starter Kit section of your textbook. Also, architecture in general is further explained on page xxx in the Starter Kit. For example: As I imagine entering this space with high vaulted ceilings, I would look up and see light streaming through the stained-glass windows. The act of looking up is like looking up to heaven and would make me feel like I am seeking God. The contrast of the colored windows against the dull cold stone would draw my eyes to the story being told there. The repetition of the pillars makes my eyes follow a visual path, where I end up finding a holy object, much like a pilgrimage.