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The Un and Their Involvement in the Rwandan Genocide essay help online Marketing

In this paper I will give a brief history of the Genocide in Rwanda, and then I will focus on one key question: What responsibilities did UNAMIR have to help, and did they successfully accomplish those responsiblities? History of Rwanda: After the start of the First World War the Belgians moved eastward and took over Ruanda-Urundi (The colonies that were previously occupied by the Germans). In 1924, the League of Nations officially awarded that land to the Belgians.

The Belgians saw the differences and problems between the Hutus (the lower class farmers) and the Tutsis (mostly upper class herdsmen), and they decided to give control of the country over to the Tutsis. From then on the Tutsis began to abuse their power and they were dominant and abusive to the Hutus. In 1933 all citizens were required to have racial identity cards, which separated the two races even more. July 1962, Ruanda-Urundi gained their independence. The Urundi and Rwanda governments split and each formed separate countries.

Urundi became a monarchy and changed its name to Burundi. Rwanda continued to have ethnic struggles and there was much violence. The first president elected was of the Hutu race. His name was Gregoire Kayibanda; after the election the Tutsis were made out to be the bad guys, and they were blamed for everything. Things continued to get worse for the Tutsis, and in December 1963, after a few Tutsi militias entered into Rwanda, 14’000 Tutsis were brutally murdered. In 1973, Kayibanda was removed from the Government and Juvenal Habyarimana was put in as the new president.

Habyarimana was very much anti-Tutsi and in 1986 he closed the Rwandan boarders to all Tutsis and even moderate Hutus. As opposition to the Habyarimana regime many Tutsi officers from the Ugandan army, grouped up with Rwandan Tutsis and they formed the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front). On October 1, 1990, the officers deserted their army with all weapons and equipment in hand and moved into Southern Rwanda. This act begun what would be 4 years of the worst genocide in history. After the invasion of Southern Rwanda, the RPF moved North-East.

Habyarimana defeated them with the aid of French paratroopers, provided by President Mitterrand. In December of 1990, an extremist newspaper prints “The Hutu Ten Commandments” which show the extreme hatred that the Hutu people had for the Tutsis. From that time on, the slaughtering of Tutsis continued, but there was pressure from many different countries for Habyarimana to make peace with the RPF and the Tutsi people. In 1993, there was a meeting held in Arusha, Tanzania with the hope of bringing peace to all; this was when the “Arusha Accord” was established.

The “Arusha Accord” officially states that the war is over and that the remaining Tutsi refugees may return to Rwanda. The UN is called in to make sure that everything is carried out smoothly and they appoint a chapter 6 peace keeping force, UNIMAR, to see that out. On the 6th of April, 1994, the airplane carrying President Habyarimana and the President of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, was shot down. Both Presidents were killed. This marked the end of negotiations for peace and, to put it lightly, all hell broke loose in Rwanda.

Between April 6th and the beginning of July, 1994 a genocide occurred that is easily one of the biggest disasters in the history of the civilized world. UNAMIR: The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was deployed during the time that peace talks were taking place. It was a Chapter 6 UN mission and was sent to keep the peace between the two rivaling groups, oversee government activities, and ensure safety until elections took place. The United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) also played a role in the mission for Rwanda and they were treated as a Sector within UNAMIR.

UNOMUR was stationed in Kabale, which was on the Ugandan side of the Uganda/Rwanda border opposite the area under RPF control; they were to monitor the flow of men, arms, and supplies from Uganda to the RPF in Rwanda. Their force consisted of MILOBs. A Chapter 6 mission mandate states: “First of all, seek a resolution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their choice”.

That was another major problem, because when the killing was going on the troops were not allowed to defend themselves because they were only there to enforce peace by negotiation and not by way of force, as stated by the mandate. The ROE also stated that the military personnel were to, “Only fire when fired upon. ” UNAMIR was an ill-equipped, undermanned, and severely limited mission. The troops in Rwanda totaled 2’584 people; they had virtually no means of transportation, very limited supplies, and very few weapons.

Most of the equipment that they had was out-dated and virtually unusable. The mission had to put in requests for everything ranging from toilet paper to ammunition; much of which was never provided. This was a large part of what made UNAMIR a complete failure. There was a complete lack of attention to the mission in Rwanda and no country wanted to provide resources to help. The reason that they could get no reinforcements or supplies was because of the unwillingness of Western countries to contribute anything.

The exception to that is Belgium, who contributed most of the troops that were deployed into Rwanda. The different countries around the world saw the mission in Rwanda as a sideshow to the other things that were going on, for example, in the former Yugoslavia, in Somalia, etc. This unwillingness and unconcern was what allowed the Genocide to occur and what facilitated the deaths of 800,000 people in Rwanda. There are many reasons why UNAMIR failed, most of which I have attempted to explain, but it is impossible to point the finger at just one group.

There were many different factors that contributed to the Genocide. UNAMIR itself tried as hard as it could under the limited supplies and the mandate that they had. Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire did what he could with what he had, and he with the small contingent that he had saved the lives of many, but had he been given the things that he needed many thousands more could have been saved. This was not an organization, or a mission that failed; it was the failure of humanity.

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PESTLE Analysis

This as a tool or framework which marketers use in monitoring and analyzing the macro-environmental (external marketing environment) factors which pose an impact in an organization. Ireland’s economy has been dominated by the service sector, and which approximately it contributes to about 73% to the total GDP. In the year 2009, the country underwent through a global recession but its strong fundamentals led the country to survive the crisis. Ireland has presented strong opportunities for investment in the Information Technology business and it has been one of the leading exporters of Information Technology Business services across the globe (Aithal & Sreeramana, 2016).

For the ShareCar App, the PESTLE analysis which they will follow and due to which they have to gain profits while increasing their customers.

Political Analysis

Ireland is a democratic, independent, sovereign state with a parliamentary government system. Politically, it is a stable country and a net exporter country. Its economic growth is mainly driven by exports and it is intensively involved win trade hence the best place to invest in.

Economic Analysis

Although the economy of Ireland has been through transformation in recent past, it has evolved from agriculture focused economy to IT economy based on high-tech industries and services, investment, constrained in trade and industry.

Social Environment

Ireland’s official languages are English and Irish although most of the public notes are in English as most of the press, and this is favorable for the business plans and investments. The country is considered progressive in terms of social issues.

Technological Environment

Ireland has excellent infrastructure and which meets the requirements of the job market.

Legal Environment

The Ireland government actively promotes investments and this has fueled the growth of the economy. Its investment promotion goal is creation of employment especially in high-skill and technology-intensive industries.

Environmental Analysis

One of the Ireland’s most attractive business environment features is its low corporate tax and this makes it an attractive destination for investment.

Target Market for carpool and kid’s pick-up

ShareCar App Carpool services is a technology platform which will provide children a secure and safe ways to travel; our solution will solve traffic problems especially in school’s drop off lanes by providing families with carpool options and which may forgo sending their children to particular schools due to lack of transportation. Schools will be our customers as they will subscribe to our platform and offer parents a secured online resource and collaborate in determining carpool and shared rides schedules. Parents need to send their kids to school on time. Parents are always fighting traffic jams after 7 am and this service will be able to ease the peak hour congestion.

SWOT Analysis


The ShareCar business will promote carpooling using innovative technology and it is a way of complimenting the public transportation system. It is definitely going to improve mobility.


The business may take time to fully develop in the region due to high competitive environment. It may also require strong communication channels to be established with the target community.


Smart phone applications daily keep on improving and offer additional options for users hence the business will fully utilize the opportunity. Recent dynamic carpool companies have been expanding across Ireland successfully.


Local policies and regulations may delay the business to fully run in the region and demand for the services may be low if the business is not properly marketed and advertised.


Customers are split into segments based on either they require Carpool services or children who will be picked and dropped to their respective schools and picked and dropped back to their homes.


This will categorize customers according to their social class, lifestyle, values and attitude to the consumption of the service.

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

Our potential customer’s main concern is saving time and ensuring that they get to their destinations safely. In order to increase the sales in the market, the business will engage in aggressive marketing in order to attract the competitor customers directly. Advertising will ensure that new target customers are reached within the region. The business will take in to consideration four important aspects which are; the type of product it will offer to the market, how to meet the customer needs, the type of customers it will be dealing with and the regions it will be operating in. In this case, the customers are parents and their major needs are time and safety. The region which the ShareCar business will operate from is Ireland.

The business will adopt the single target market approach where it will select a market segment and try to own the space. This will be the appropriate solution. The business will deal with kid’s transportation and Carpool thus taking care of all transportation problems in one place.

Unique selling Propositions

ShareCar App provide parents with a friendly service which will solve most of their daily commuting woes especially to parents with many children and who are engaged in other various activities.

With all the features which the ShareCar App has, connecting to the app is very easy. It only requires one to first download the app, register and accepts the terms and conditions, where after that, one has to invite some other people to the app so that he or she can create a group and a roster. Finally, one has to have a drop off and pick up service according to the roster scheduled between parents.

Marketing Objectives

Marketing strategies will be adopted to inform the potential users in an effort of creating the largest as possible pool of users. The service will be flexible enough to ‘meet the customer needs including pickups and connecting drivers with parents who would like to share the service but may not yet know each other. Understanding that more public schools have some different pain points as compared to the private schools, doing some more discoveries with the school administrations to make them understand what technology platforms can tie in; the business will aim at targeting schools which have a high walker student percentage and who do not have any service.

Brand Positioning

The ShareCar App will be a geo-locating technology and which will allow parents to create their car routes with other families. The rides minimum cost will be 7 Euros although it will be representing a saving of 20% to 40% off the cost of a ride with only one child in a single car. The rides will be consisting up to six children with the driver and the riders will be sharing the same drop-off locations, pick up locations or even both. Other features for the ShareCar services will include; Real-time tracking system which will allow parents to exactly know where their children are at, Creating groups and inviting people over through social media platforms, Chatting live with the groups while staying in touch with them all the time, Tracking the estimated arrivals and drop-off times right from the app, Sharing locations with other individuals, Using filters to identify which member is closer to you or the vice versa and creating rosters between individuals which you have invited in the group.

Marketing Strategy (4P/4C’s)

This marketing strategy is essential to internet marketers and allows the business to prioritize its customer interests first. From being business oriented to being customer centric. The ShareCar business will provide kid’s transportation together with Carpool services within the republic of Ireland. The business will put in to consideration the client’s needs and ensure that all the needs are met, consider the costs which will be involved in satisfying the client needs, come up with the best ways to interact with customers and make the service more convenience in accordance to customer needs.

Porter’s 5 Forces

Porter’s 5 Force model an analyzing tool which utilizes five forces in determining the profitability of a business and its competitive strategy. It analyses and classifies very important forces which affect the competition intensity of a business and its levels of profitability.

Rivalry among Competitors

Competition among the market players will be high and rising like the Uber Company which provides almost the same services as the ShareCar. Our pricing will be the differentiating competition aspect and the App will enable the business attain its competitive advantage.

Threat of New Entrants

Major threats of new entrants will be the initial investment and the economies of scale. The industry is growing fast and economies of the existing players are also reducing which also is expected to affect the profitability level. Barriers to entry like getting skilled drivers and government regulations will also affect the same.

Threat of Substitutes

The biggest threat to this services the substitutes like the public transportation, taxis, and the school based transport services. With the ShareCar App, the technology will allow the group chats via phone rather than meeting in person.

Bargaining Power of Buyers

The prices will be fixed by the business as there is no government interference and they will be pocket friendly.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Major suppliers in the industry will be the car dealers, skilled drivers, and fuel and technology products (Anton & Roman, 2015).

Promotional Plan

The needed scope of work for ShareCar App address the need for an effective ridesharing in order to meet the challenge of people mobility. The promotional plan will aim at reducing the number of vehicles in the road which will reduce the traffic issues and also conserving the environment by reducing emissions. Sharing ride with other persons also reduces the transportation cost to the user by high multiple. These are large intensives to the broader society and in long-run; it may even cause a dramatic turn from the existing individual car ownership.

Action plan

The action plan will represent the next best steps towards reaching people’s transportation goals. It will provide increased safety of the users, reduced vehicle emissions, maintaining the current community transit network and providing new services and providing real-time roadway system information and carpool matching services. The effectiveness of the business will be measured quarterly to allow comparison of the business progress.

Competitive Analysis

Ride sharing is becoming increasingly popular in Ireland, and which has contributed to millions of people now using the service. This has led to high levels of competitions with companies like Uber and Lyft dominating the market in Ireland. They both offer similar products. They are cost effective and environmental friendly too and they do not allow drivers to set prices. Other competitors include Carma Carpooling and WunderCar.

The competitive landscape in which ShareCar will operate is currently occupied by these other companies and which have experienced rapid growth overtime. Such companies have been able to procure users through high-adoption rates through offering industry-disruptive services in the Carpool business. ShareCar will disrupt such incumbents through provision of better and value added services to the already widely adopted rideshare ecosystem. Uber also have well developed applications and who overtime have been credited with providing convenient transportation system, they will pose a great competitive challenge to the ShareCar services. The SharCar App has even more advanced features than those of the major competitors like; private chats, variety of payment options, luggage options, passenger contributions, location sharing, driver rating cancelling requests and many other options which are user friendly and convenient to the customer.

Website and Keyword Analysis, Social Media Profile Analysis, and Online and Offline Strategy

Online marketing will be an essential tool. A professional online social marketing will be required to set up and actively promote the business Website, YouTube, Face book, Tweeter, Blogs, Forums, Discussion boards and other online platforms, and this will be taken over by the in-house staff. It may include carrying out promotional campaign networks and competitions. Online banner and competition advertising on websites which deal with entertainment, local news, job searches, events, dating and media will be explored and implemented (Hanks & Emily, 2016).

Work cited

Aithal, P. Sreeramana. “Study on ABCD analysis technique for business models, business strategies, operating concepts & business systems.” Browser Download This Paper (2016).

Anton, Roman. “An Integrated Strategy Framework (ISF) for Combining Porter’s 5-Forces, Diamond, PESTEL, and SWOT Analysis.” (2015): 21-26.

Hanks, Emily Kay. “Same industry, same rules?: When rideshare comes to town.” (2016).