President Harry S. Truman defined United States foreign policy in the context of Its new role as a world superpower. Many historians consider his speech to Congress as the words that officially started the Cold War. The Truman Doctrine was a major break from U. S. Historical trends of isolationist foreign policy.
His speech led to the Cold War policy of containment. Moreover, it served as a precedent for future U. S. Logic of interventionism. According to Stephen Ambrose, an important quote from Trauma’s speech, “l believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures,” stands as “all encompassing” and would “define American policy for the next generation and beyond. “l Faced with Strong opposition, Truman Was still able to achieve a consensus in Congress aimed at quelling the communist threat through active foreign policy and involvement.The Truman Doctrine not only demonstrated the new foreign policy of the U.
S. But also helps to explain American foreign policy since the Doctrine’s inception. At the end of World War II, the military and foreign policies of the White House were moving in opposite directions. Militarily, the U. S. Adopted a position of rapid demutualization after the war. Meanwhile, Truman had a strong desire to meet the communist ‘threat’ head on.
Congress, however, did not share Trauma’s view of needing “to meet the Communist challenge wherever it appeared. For example, Senator Robert Taft, a prominent Republican senator, “expressed the current mood when he objected to any attempt by the Administration to divide the world into communist and anti- communist zones, for “he did not want war with the Soviet Union. ” As for the sentiment of the American public, “there was no denying that the majority of the American people did not want to embark on a Crusade. ” With opposition from not only the American public but also from Congress, President Truman had to take action in order to convince Americans of the reality of the Soviet threat, in addition to the threat of communism in general.In fact, Truman was even told that he would need “to scare the hell out of the American people. ” He did just that with the Truman Doctrine. Truman showed the American people a legitimate threat to their way of life by creating the idea of us-versus-them, the communist way of life versus the American capitalist lifestyle.
From that point on, everyone was classified as either a IS. S. Supporter or as a communist. The Truman Doctrine fulfilled the American desire for all wars to be epic battles between light and darkness, good versus evil, which in the end unified most dissenters to Trauma’s cause.Nevertheless, the stipulations outlined in the Truman Doctrine did not accurately depict the development Of American society. In 1947, the U. S.
Was a place of free institutions, representative government, and freedom of religion, in which society direction was strongly influenced by the will of the majority. However, the U. S. Was not a place that guaranteed individual liberties for everyone nor freedom from oppression. Yet even if Trauma’s words were not an accurate depiction of the direction of American society, they undoubtedly affected its progress.The Truman Doctrine facilitated future foreign entanglements such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War, which were justified by the need to defend inherent freedoms of foreigners, even though the freedoms of America’s own citizens were not guaranteed for all. Surely, when black soldiers were sent to these places of conflict to help fight for the freedoms of others, freedoms that they themselves did not possess at home, the irony did not go unnoticed.
Another example of the Truman Doctrine’s inconsistencies with American society is found in the witch hunts of Senator Joseph McCarthy.Once again, while Truman spoke of protecting other peoples of the world from political oppression, he did not rotate US. Citizens from those very oppressions. In the Tidings Committee Report, which criticized McCarthy, it is written that: “The spectacle (McCarthy) is one we would expect in a totalitarian nation where the rights of the individual are crushed beneath the juggernaut of static and oppression; it has no place in America where government exists to serve people, not to destroy them. S This statement demonstrates the extent of the problem in American society just a few years after Truman gave his speech concerning the superior freedoms present in the American way of life. Although developments in American society contradicted what Truman articulated in his 1 947 doctrine, the ideals he highlighted are, and have always been, ones that Americans like to think are deeply rooted in what it means to be a U. S.
Citizen living in ‘the land of the free. At the time Truman gave his speech, the three most important factors influencing his policy formation were the American monopoly on the atomic bomb, the disastrous state of Western Europe due to World War II, and the domino effect. It is debatable whether or not the U. S. Monopoly on the atomic bomb in the late 1 sass really put Americans at an advantage when dealing with the Soviets, however, its effect on the formation of U. S. Foreign policy is not.
The creation of the atomic bomb, coupled with the idea that the Soviets could get their hands on this weapon, amplified the consequences of going to war with the Soviet Union.In fact, it alluded to the possible mutual destruction of the U. S. And the U. S. S. R.
, as well as the planet, in doomsday scenarios feared by many. The state of Europe at the time was also an important factor because if the LLC . S. Did not take on the communist challenge there would be no one left to defend the free world. Since Western Europe played that same role earlier during both World Wars, it was time for the U. S. To take over, as Western Europe was devastated by WI.
THE FRENCH RENAISSANCE 3 Running Head: THE FRENCH RENAISSANCE 1 The French
THE FRENCH RENAISSANCE 3
Running Head: THE FRENCH RENAISSANCE 1
The French Renaissance Era
The French Renaissance Era
The French Renaissance covered the period between the 15th and 17th centuries and was characterized by great artistic and cultural movements in France. The era extends from the 1494 French invasion of Italy under the ruling of Charles VIII to 1610 when Henry IV died. Among the major causes of the French Renaissance is the French invasion of Italy where art and architecture were already developing. During the invasion, the French were introduced to the creative paintings and art introduced by the Italian renaissance which were brought to France. Additionally, France was lagging in art and architecture and thus had to put effort to develop them. The proximity of the Burgundy Court and the existing religious shifts also encouraged the renaissance era. According to NCSU, the most notable influencers of the French Renaissance include the Flemish and Italian artists such as Jean Clouet and Leonardo da Vinci, the schools of Fontainebleau, and mannerism.
The French Renaissance led to several accomplishments including the Châteaux of the Loire Valley which is amongst the greatest of them all. Other castles were also rebuilt during the era such as the louver castle in Paris and the renovation of Pierre Lescot. Additionally, Catherine de’ Medici also built the Tuileries Palace that had extensive gardens with a grotto which made other gardens in the era following the same styles (Wardropper). Literature in the era included the use of vernacular by the Johannes Gutenberg printing press. Additionally, the author William Shakespeare was active during the era and the development of the French short story was also witnessed. The theatrical works of the era involved several themes such as farces, soties, mystery, and morality. There was a regulation of public plays with the classics being translated to French. During the French Renaissance, the available food illustrated a social class since some foods such as meat could not be served daily. The staple foods included bread and wine. Generally, the era was characterized by great artistic and cultural concepts in France that made its history.
NCSU (North Carolina State university). The French Renaissance. Accessed 25th February 2021 from https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/marchi/fl_216/FdR.pdf
Wardropper, I. Gardens in the French Renaissance. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.