Dissociative Identity Disorder as a Phenomenon Research Paper
A dissociative identity disorder or DID is a psychiatric disorder in which one person has two or more personalities. Since the discovery of this disorder, scientists have believed that the first alter (personality) has little or no access to new information that the other receives. Morton’s research article “Interidentity amnesia in dissociative identity disorder” (2017) raises the question of the connection between two alters coexisting in one person, based on episodic memory. The author argues that some of the information may break the barrier between the two alters and become common to both individuals. This statement is based on the results of a study presented in the article, which describes an experiment with three patients with DID, each of whom had two or more alters. The original research was previously conducted by the previous researcher with 20 DID patients with other purposes but using the same experimental model. Each of the patients’ personalities was asked to learn several unfamiliar nouns, and the set was different for each of them. A week later, the alters passed a small test for memory training, and it contained tasks to determine the studied words; both groups of studied nouns and additional distracting words were used in the tests. In the first and second cases, the researchers simultaneously involved control groups to compare the results with the indicators of healthy people and the so-called simulator group. The latter was asked to pretend that they had not seen the first list of words. In two DID patients, the intersection of knowledge was not observed: each person only knew his or her set of words. On the contrary, there was discovered a breakthrough of information between two alters in the test results of the third patient. The author of this article argues that the recognition of a large number of words of the different list by both alters of the patient has vital meaning for a better understanding of the disorder. According to Morton (2017), it proves that the forms of the disease in DID patients are “not homogeneous concerning the depth of the blocking of episodic material from one alter to another” (p. 17). Morton also discusses the nature of dissociative identity disorder, raising the question of the relationship of the disorder with the patient’s psychological or physical trauma. Citing different opinions of colleagues, the researcher notes that inner identity amnesia is most often associated with the subconscious desire of a person to displace traumatic memories, pass them to someone else. Dissociative amnesia is an acute memory disorder in which a person forgets personal information associated with severe destructive stress, but retains other types of memories. The degree of memory impairment can vary – from minor gaps to the complete loss of memories of events that occurred during a certain period (Ashraf et al., 2016). Amnesia is a protective mechanism, an attempt to protect the psyche from unbearable loads (Brand et al., 2016). The cause of memory disorders can be any severe psychological stress. Amnesia with obvious clinical symptoms usually develops when the patient enters the conditions that pose a direct threat to life. It can be natural disasters (floods, earthquakes), fires, industrial disasters, staying in a war zone, or criminal incidents. It can also occur in the background of physical, psychological, emotional, and sexual violence in the family. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the peculiarity of dissociative identity disorder is that it encourages scientists to call different phases of the patient’s behavior different personalities. All the alters have their character, thinking, memory, which is also consistently preserved and transmitted from episode to episode, as well as the characteristics of the main personality (Ashraf et al., 2016). This is the critical difference between dissociative identity disorder and usual amnesia. It seems most likely that dissociative disorder is presumably caused by the combined effects of external and internal factors. It might be severe stress, the predisposition of some people to dissociation, or the implementation of the psychological defense mechanism in the process of living organism development. The researcher believes that the formation of a unified identity occurs in the process of human development, which means that self-determination in humans is not innate (Morton, 2017). If the child’s development is affected by some traumatic factors, the process of integration of a unified personality is disrupted, and dissociative disorder occurs. This study and its subsequent discussion in Morton’s paper opens up new horizons for scientists who study DID as a phenomenon that demonstrates the lack of knowledge about the human mind. Morton’s conclusion that personalities in one body can not only influence one another but also unconsciously transmit the information received seems to be fair and shows that the barrier separating the alters is not as strong as it seemed. Of course, the study has some limitations, such as a relatively small number of DID patients participated. However, the precedent demonstrates a deep connection between the personalities of DID patients. The results of this study can be used to improve the diagnosis and treatment of DID in the future, as well as to influence the revision of the classical understanding of this disorder. References Ashraf, A., Krishnan, R., Wudneh, E., Acharya, A.,
Reenactment and Simulation of Legal Action Questions
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Reenactment and Simulation of Legal Action Questions
Effect of Same Sex Parenting on Adolescent Developement
Effect of Same Sex Parenting on Adolescent Developement. Outcomes for children with gay and lesbian parents: A review. What evidence is there to support the assumption that gay or lesbian parents have a negative impact on child and adolescent developmental outcomes? Same sex parenting remains a controversial topic; the most important assumption being same sex parenting has a negative impact on children and adolescent developmental outcomes. The term “same-sex parenting” is intended in this paper to include families headed by gay and lesbian couples. The literature in this review is limited to studies of children from divorced lesbian and gay parents, as well as studies conducted on children of gay and lesbian families that are planned. The paper will consider whether the evidence suggests a negative or positive impact on children, or none at all in terms of gender role, behavioural and emotional development of children raised with gay and lesbian parents in contrast to heterosexual parents, to ascertain whether sexual orientation of parents is a key indicator to the impact of development. The scope of this review will cover all children from a life-span perspective (0-24 years) to include those born into a divorced lesbian, those adopted or conceived through artificial insemination. This review will begin with an overview of previous research in the results section of this paper. A critique of the assumptions guiding this area of research will follow in the discussion section together with highlighting the limitations of these studies and provision for further research before a conclusion is drawn to ascertain whether same sex parenting has a positive or negative impact on developmental outcomes. Findings from the research on long term development of children and adolescence raised by gay and lesbian parents is of high relevance to both theoretical debates; particularly the importance of mothers and fathers and their effects on child development, and also public debates to provide assistance concerning parental rights of gay and lesbian parents (Patterson, 1992). Historically, lesbian mothers were denied artificial insemination and same sex parents were denied the permission to adopt children on the grounds that they were unable to provide an optimal family environment in contrast their heterosexual counterparts with the assumption gay and lesbian parents have a negative impact on the long term developmental well-being of the child. Commonly, women who had bourn children in a heterosexual relationship which broke down irretrievably, were denied custody of their biological children on the grounds that the children would show atypical gender development, causing behavioural and emotional problems in long term development due to the mother not been an affective parent. However, (Patterson, 1992) has provided research on the psychological development of children raised in lesbian mothers and has failed to provide empirical evidence which supports the assumption that same-sex parenting has a negative impact on long-term development, suggesting that they are developing well psychologically, behaviourally and emotionally in positive directions across the lifespan Method A comprehensive review of the literature on the outcomes for children with same-sex parents was conducted in an attempt to understand the key patterns in the body of literature to consider the development of gender role, behavioural/emotional outcomes of children with same-sex parents. A search of the literature was limited from 1990 and up to 2014. A search of the following databases was conducted; Summon, Academic Search and Google Scholar and sought to identify key patterns found in case studies, research studies, peer reviews, journals and books. Key words were chosen with the purpose of the literature review in mind and modified on the basis of the demonstrated location of the pertinent literature. Examples of keywords used are as follows: (“same-sex parenting” or “gay” or “lesbian”) (“heterosexual parenting” or “mothers” or “fathers”) (“lesbian families” or “gay families”) (“child rearing” or “child adjustment”) (“prenatal” or “children” or “adolescence”) (“divorced” or “planned” or “adoption” or “surrogacy) (“psychological” or “behavioural” or “emotional outcomes”). A review of the literature was carried out on all works located through the limited search and which were relevant to the topic under discussion. Additional materials referenced in the works were read which appeared relevant to the topic. Results Gender development Many discussions surrounding the controversies of same-sex parenting is headed by the assumption that gay and lesbian parents have negative effect on gender development of a child. For the purpose of this paper, “gender role” is intended to include; gender identity, gender-role behaviour and sexual orientation. Tasker and Golombok, (1995) conducted a follow up study of 46 young adults aged 17-35 and concluded there were no significant differences between young adults from lesbian mothers in contrast to those headed by heterosexual single-mother households. From the 46 participants, 6 youngs adults (five daughters, one son) raised by lesbian mothers, reported same-gender sexual attraction and had entered into a same-gender sexual relationship. However, due to the in semi structured method adopted in the follow up study, this figure may be underestimated. Moreover, all the young adults from the study had experienced at least one opposite-gender sexual relationship but none of the adults from households headed by a heterosexual single mother reported same-gender sexual attraction. From the sample, only two women were currently in a lesbian relationship with the majority identifying as heterosexual. Bos, van Balen, Sandfort and van Den Boom, (2006) strenghtened these findings when they suggested daughters (around 10 years old) concieved through aritificial insemination by their lesbian mothers were less likely to have heterosexual idenitity than those who where conceived conventionally with opposite-sex parents. Although, these findings are relatively low, they do provide evidence against homosexual families, notwithstanding, it would not be proper to conclude same-sex parents have a negative impact on child development, without reviewing further research from advocates of same-sex parenting. In contrast, (Crowl, Ahn, and Baker, 2008) conducted a homogeneity test across 19 studies in relation to include six developmental outcomes (parent-child relationship, cognitive development, gender role behaviour, gender identity, child sexual preferences and psychological adjustment). The study adopted the fixed effects model with 64 effect sizes between same-sex and opposite-sex parents. 564 same-sex participants and 647 heterosexual participants concluded the sample; the children’s age was from 5-24 years. In comparing the groups, the study concluded heterosexual parents reported having a significantly better relationship with their children. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in parent-child relationship reported by those children living with same-sex parents and those living with opposite-sex parents, the findings concluding that there is no significant difference in gender role development between children of same-sex parents and opposite sex parents. Bailey, Bobrow, Wolfe, Mikach, (1995) recruited a sample of 82 sons of 55 gay and bisexual fathers to conduct a study of sexual orientation. In their report, clear indications were concluded that 90% of sons are heterosexual which implies, gay fathers do not impact on the sexual orientation of their sons. The study also concluded, there was no positive correlation between the likelihood of being gay and the time which the sons lived with their fathers. However, the study has the limitation of no control group, partly as a result of population-based surveys being inappropriate in comparision due to underestimations of homosexuality due to underreporting of noncoporation. Notwithstanding, its limitations it is clear from this conclusion, that a large number of sons lead by gay parent households are heterosexual which in turn dilutes the theory that sexual orientation is lead by environmental factors. Bailey, Bobrow, Wolfe, Mikach, (1995) study can be concluded as an advocate for positive gender role developmental outcomes for children with same-sex parents. Turning to another dimension of gender development in children of same-sex parenting, (Fulcher, Sutfin, and Patterson, 2008) conducted a study of 4 to 6 years old boys and girls from lesbian parent and heterosexual parent families and reported no significant differences in preferences for traditional masculine and feminine activities and occupational preferences between the two groups. The study concluded that children found with parents who had less stereotypical attidudes held less gender-stereotypical attitudes creating a healty structured environment. The conclusions raised in this study, is that same-sex parenting does not create less masuline and feminine environments, rather it highlights the importance that non-traditional gender stereotypical environments can create a healthy child and their attitudes towards gender. Effect of Same Sex Parenting on Adolescent Developement
Apple Inc Products Research Paper
Executive Summary Apple Inc is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products globally. Besides the production of computers and other electronic products, this firm is also known for the production of phones. IPhone 5 and iPad are some of the newest series of products that this firm has produced in the market. This is one of the Apple’s products, which have been very successful in the market today. This firm was able to sell 2 million pieces of iPhone within 24 hours after the launch. On the third day after launching this product, the sale of this product hit five million. The purchase of this new product within the initial stages was in the United States markets. There is a need to take this product to other parts of the world. It has been a success in the home market. It must be taken to the global market. The management must therefore come up with a supply chain strategy that will ensure that this product reaches the world market using the least possible costs. The supply chain strategy that this firm should apply must enable the firm to distribute its products efficiently and at the least cost possible. The management should try to predict, and determine the markets where these products are popular. The management should then assess the purchasing power of the market before determining the volume of the products that should be taken to the market. This will ensure that products are distributed successfully in the global market. It should also embrace the modern technologies as a way of reducing costs of operations. Introduction Apple Inc. is one of the most prosperous electronic firms in the world. Two scientists, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, started this firm on April 1, 1976. These two individuals were electronic enthusiasts. They were interested in turning their skills in electronics into a large business unit. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steve Wozniak, popularly known as Woz, was an astute electrician with a keen interest in computers. It was during this time that computers were started. Steve Jobs on the other hand was a shrewd businessman. Although Woz was more knowledgeable than Jobs in the art of designing computer hardware, Jobs was smatter in entrepreneurship. While Woz considered his skills in making computers as a hobby, Jobs saw a huge potential of stating a computer firm that would rival the then leading computer firm, the IBM. Jobs managed to convince Woz of the importance of commercializing their skills, and together, they started this company. They later incorporated Ronald Wayne, a rich businessperson who came in to help the two financially. The trio formed a formidable force, which culminated into a company that is prosperous and very profitable. Although this company had various challenges that saw it eliminate its Chief Executive Officer, who was one of the founder members, in 1985, the firm was able to overcome these challenges using a number of strategies. Steve Jobs, having been forced out of the firm in 1985 as the chief executive, made a came-back in 1997 with strategies that transformed this firm to what it is currently. Lafuente (2005) says that Apple is one of the firms that were able to overcome the wave of.com crisis of the early twentieth century that brought down many firm, especially those that were computer based. We will write a custom Research Paper on Apple Inc Products specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This firm has a number of electronic products that have received a lot of acceptance in the market. IPhone 5 is one of the most recent products that this firm has introduced into the market. This product has received a huge success in the American market. Within the first three days that this product was introduced into the market, the firm was able to sell 5 million pieces majorly in the American market. The management had to find the best approach of making this product reach other parts of the world. It has to develop a strategy would make it possible to distribute the product globally using the least cost possible, and at the fastest speed ever. The management must determine the market size and purchasing power before releasing the products. It must also determine other factors that may hinder successful operations in all the markets it targets before releasing the products. This research paper focuses on the operations of Apple Inc in the global market, and how this firm can ensure that the costs are minimized in order to increase its profitability. Evaluation of the Financial Condition of Apple and its Ability to Achieve its Strategic Objectives as Discussed in the Annual Report In order to understand the financial position of this firm, it is important to look at the financial statements of this firm for the last three years. Below are the income statement, cash flow and the balance sheet of this firm for the last three years. The financial reports above show that this firm has had a consistent growth in its asset for the last three years. The net tangible asset of this firm has grown by about three times within the last three years. The Total Stockholders’ equity has also expanded by about 150% within the last three. This is a clear sign that the firm has had a stable financial growth for the last three years. This firm has a capacity to meet its objectives given the growth of the firm’s asset base. The income statement and the cash flow statement show that this firm has a capacity to meet its short term financial obligations. This firm can achieve both the long term and the short term financial obligations given the fact that it has been able to maintain a healthy cash flow into the firm. With its financial strength, this firm can easily undertake various activities that would help it realize its dream. Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Inc Products by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Company’s Profitability Trends and Recommended Strategies to Improve or Capitalize on These Trends The financial status of this firm shown above is a clear demonstration that this firm has been successful in its operations for three years. The firm has been very profitable and this explains the massive growth it has had within the three years. This firm uses various competitive strategies in the market in order to manage competition that is very rife in this industry. First, the firm has employed two of the porter’s competitive strategy of low cost and differentiation. The firm moved its production from US to China in order to cut the cost of production. China, unlike the US, has cheap labor that would eventually translate to lower cost of production. This makes it easy for this firm to sell its products at lower prices but still make profits (Helfert, 2001). Other than the cost strategy, the other strategy that this firm has employed is the differentiation strategy. This firm has made their products unique. Some of its present products are differentiated from other conventional products in the market, making it acquire a special niche within the industry. The iPhone 5 is a product that is yet to find its rival in its special niche. The timing tactic of this firm in launching new products has also been superb. This firm always come with a new product at such times that the market feels that they need a better product to serve their current needs. It introduced the iPhone when the market needed a better phone with so many integrated features. This has seen their new products receive huge acceptance in various markets when introduced. The firm has also been keen to employ cooperation strategy whenever needed. During its early years, it formed a joint venture with Microsoft when it realized that its computer languages were not efficient enough to make competitive products in the market. This strategic alliance saw it gain market share both in the home markets and abroad. It also enhanced its distribution process. This firm has also been able to implement Porters five forces. To tackle the threat of new competition, the firm has been keen on producing new products to rival those of new competitors. To manage the threat of substitute products, Apple has developed different lines of products to satisfy different markets so that it may not be adversely affected if one line is invaded by substitute products. To increase its bargaining power with the buyers, it has continued to produce high end products with qualities that make it easy for the customers to appreciate their high prices (Gill