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The Toyota Company’s Organizational Profile Essay

Toyota is a motor manufacturing company based in Japan and is widely known around the world as a community organization. The company has several community support programs that depict the company’s involvement and responsibility to the community. Toyota’s team members in collaboration with other environmental conservation agencies have actively been involved in the completion of several green initiatives. Some of the green initiatives that have been facilitated by Toyota’s community support programs include tree planting, construction of footbridges and trail maintenance. Toyota has community outreach programs through which the company makes time and monetary donations towards the completion of community projects. Volunteer teams from Toyota participate in maintenance and cleanup initiatives that are beneficial to the community. The volunteer teams from Toyota maintain community facilities through renovations and upkeep. Toyota is involved in fundraising initiatives that are necessary in funding community development projects. Through these initiatives, it is evident that Toyota has performed well when it comes to corporate and social responsibility. The social responsibility strategies of Toyota are influenced by quite a number of factors. To begin with, globalization is major factor that influences social responsibility strategies for multinational organizations such as Toyota. Governments and International bodies such as the United Nations have guidelines and declarations that organizations should follow when developing social responsibility strategies. Consumers and investors have a great influence on the social responsibility strategies of Toyota because the company needs them in implementing some of its social responsibility strategies especially those that are related to environmental conservation. The growing need to observe corporate ethics is another factor that has influence on the social responsibility strategies of the Toyota Company. Members of the public continually demand for accountability and transparency from corporate organizations and this has a significant influence on the social responsibly strategies of organizations such as the Toyota Company. The social initiatives that have been put in place by Toyota demonstrate the fact that the company if fully committed to making a significant contribution to the general development of the community. The company’s social responsibility initiatives are shared globally and it is estimated that company spends over 14.4 billion yen every financial year in its social responsibility activities. The need to contribute to sustainable social vitality is what motivates Toyota to get involved in social initiatives. Some of the social initiatives facilitated by Toyota include literacy promotion efforts, environmental conservation, traffic safety programs, outreach programs and humanitarian initiatives. All the Toyota companies across the world are guided by the company’s principles and policies regarding social contribution. The social initiatives put in place by the Toyota Company end up having some ethical effects. Toyota has an ethical responsibility to its shareholders and it therefore necessary for the company to maintain a good image that in turn enhances the company’s financial sustainability. Although the company uses a lot of money to fund social initiatives, an act of balancing is needed to ensure that the company does not suffer any financial loses. The Toyota Company has to ensure that it does not go against social norms in the course of its activities. Environmental conservation initiatives put in place by Toyota have an ethical effect in the sense that they might increase the company’s image as a result of the good image that the company portrays. Toyota’s social initiatives have enhanced the company’s reputation in the society.
World View Chart Writing Assignment.

REL212 Weekly World View Chart (1) 2.docx This assignment uses the information you have gathered for your weekly World View Chart Assignments. Choose one (1) category (origin of all things, nature of god, view of human nature, view of good and evil, etc.) from the chart to focus on for this assignment. Consider how the selected aspect relates to each of the religions covered and to your own social or work experiences.Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:Select one (1) category from the completed World View Chart. Provide a rationale for choosing this category.Describe the selected content and explain the significance of the selected category across the religions studied.Provide one (1) specific example of how the selected category is manifested in your social environment.Use at least three (3) quality resources as references for the assignment and document your sources using APA Style for in-text citations and references. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.Write clearly and coherently using correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.Your assignment must:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Analyze what is meant by religion.Analyze the similarities and differences in the primary beliefs held by major religious traditions and the cultures in which these religions evolved.Describe the varieties of religious experience and practice in a wide range of cultures.Recognize how daily life within various religions and current affairs are influenced by religion.Develop written pieces that demonstrate an analysis of a topic relevant to the course.Use technology and information resources to research issues in religion.Write clearly and concisely about world religions using proper writing mechanics.Click here to view the grading rubric.
World View Chart Writing Assignment

New England College General Dehumanize Managerial Activities Discussion Questions.

Complete the following assignment in one MS word document:Chapter 14–discussion question #1, #3, #4 & exercise 2APA in-text citations) to support the work this week.All work must be original (not copied from any source).Questions for Discussion1.Some say that analytics in general dehumanize managerial activities, and others say they do not. Discuss arguments for both points of view.3.What are some of the major privacy concerns in employing intelligent systems on mobile data?4.Identify some cases of violations of user privacy from current literature and their impact on data science as a profession. Exercise 3 Search the Internet to find examples of how intelligent systems can facilitate activities such as empowerment, mass customization, and teamwork
New England College General Dehumanize Managerial Activities Discussion Questions

The story of “Sweat” by Zora Neale Hurston is filled with many moral and religious symbols. This story is about an everyday Black, woman in the South and how she keeps to her faith in God to see her through the hell she endures dealing with an abusive husband. Throughout this story there are several religious symbols that show how Delia and Sykes are two people on a different moral spectrum when it comes to good and evil, and how good always prevails. Delia Jones literally works her hands to the bone, and she uses her beliefs in God to shield her from her husband’s barrage of every type of abuse imaginable. From the very beginning of the story, Delia shows how she takes pride in her work, her small personality, and her strong faith in God. Delia is shown as being battered down and physically weak from the years of work and abuse from Sykes, yet she is still strong in her faith. Throughout the story it talks about her worn hands and knees we can assume its from the weekends washing clothes and the quanity.”She collected the soiled clothes on Saturday when she returned the clean things. Sunday night after church, she sorted them and put the white things to soak. It saved her almost a half day’s start. A great hamper in the bedroom held the clothes that she brought home. It was so much neater than a number of bundles lying around”(Hurston 133). From the years of doing this she has lost the beauty she had once possesed. Completely opposite of Delia’s character is her husband, Sykes. He is physically abusive toward his wife, and he takes advantage of their marriage by spending all of Delia’s money she gets from washing clothes on his mistress, Bertha. While Sykes is physically strong, he is spiritually weak. He shows that he is spiritually weak by belittling Delia every chance he gets. (Hurston 133). This probably the most prevalent case of Sykes trying to compensate from his lack spirituality. Certain objects and situations in the story suggest the influence of religion. The white clothes Delia washes in the story are symbolic of her character. White represents her worth and saintly ways as she handles Sykes’ torture. Whenever Sykes stomps on Delia white clothes and makes them dirty shows his inability to accept anything that is pure and related to the lord. The religious connection of Sykes is his use of snakes and evil, shown twice in this story. Sykes uses a whip to scare Delia by rubbing it on her shoulder and making her think it is a snake. This is when it is first shown how petrified of snakes Delia is. She screams, ‘Sykes, why you throw dat whip on me like dat? You know it would skeer me looks just like a snake, an’ you knows how skeered Ah is of snakes'(Hurston 133). Also, later in the story Sykes places a real snake near the front door hiding it in a soapbox to scare Delia. These two examples of using the snake can be used as a biblical example from the story of Adam and Eve when Satan took the form of a snake. Also, from this reference it shows that the story clearly makes Sykes out to be an inherently evil character. Sykes calls himself a “snake charmer” which could be in relation to the devil being able to take on the character of a snake. The pattern of good and evil in this story comes down to a well set up and clever conclusion. Sykes’ own violent actions towards Delia throughout the story end up being his demise. In the end when the snake that Sykes uses to scare Delia gets loose and she flees the house, Sykes’ enters the house unknowingly and makes way too much noise in the kitchen and the snake bites him. The sun starts to come up rather quickly after he has been bitten. The sunrise is symbolic of Delia’s freedom from Sykes and all the evil and bad things he represents. When Sykes is dead, the sun has finally risen and Delia gets the independence that she deserves. This happening also shows that it is a new day and Delia gets the chance she has always wanted to get her fresh start. “Jurden water, black an’ col’ Chills de body, not de soul An’ Ah wantah cross Jurden in uh calm time.” (Hurston 141). The Israelites had to cross this river to get to the promise land, which is similar to what Delia had to go through when dealing with Sykes.

Single or multiple intelligences

Single or multiple intelligences. Is intelligence best described as a single entity, or as more than one thing? If the latter, how many “intelligences” are there? It is important to note that this question of single or multiple intelligences is not a new one. Many psychologists and scientists have tried for centuries to define the term “intelligence” in a scientifically correct and acceptable manner. It is apparent that many, who have aspired, have arrived at controversial theories that have provoked international debate. The most prevalent theories are those of Spearman’s General Intelligence (1904) and the contemporary Multiple Intelligence theories of Gardner (1983) and Sternberg (1999). Although these theorists maintain divergent ideas, one might be inclined to observe intelligence as Wechsler (1939) did- as a combination of the single and multiple theories. The question is often asked: Why is it that there is a general trend for individuals who are good at one thing to be good at others? Teachers sometimes refer to this tendency as correlation not compensation (Kline, 1991, p3). Charles Spearman wanted to know why human abilities were positively correlated. In 1904, he published an article in the American Journal of Psychology to examine the basic function he termed “General Intelligence”. His aims were to verify it in a specific objective method and to discover accurate means of measuring it (Spearman, 1904, p11). He concluded that a correlation did exist and that it could be attributed to general intelligence or little g. It seemed “g” was universal to all tasks that necessitated ability, hence the correlation. For example: Ability at Latin, required g and a definite Latin factor; mathematics depended on g and a mathematics factor, and so on. Spearman had achieved the invention of a statistical method (factor analysis) which could uncover these structures of ability. However, his theory of single or general intelligence was bound to cause controversy. One of Spearman’s earliest opponents was L.L. Thurstone (1959). By attempting to disprove g, he administered 56 different tests to individuals and identified 7 different clusters (Myers, 2007, p432). His data was subsequently analyzed, and investigators found that a there was a tendency for people who did well in some clusters, to do well in others. Thurstone had in fact provided evidence of g. Interestingly enough, almost 50 years later, Wendy Johnson and Thomas Bouchar (2005) tried disproving g by administering 42 diverse tests of mental ability to 436 adult. Again, evidence of correlation attributed to g was discovered. Psychometricians have adopted and adapted Spearman’s theory and an improved form of factor analysis is used extensively in today’s fields of research. Yet, after replication and further investigation, even Spearman had to admit something in addition to g was assisting in producing correlations. This something was an unusual, additional component in different groups of tests which Spearman recognized as a “group” factor (Guildford, 1967, p56). Although he recognized them, he still did not give much credibility to group factors. Interestingly, the group factors he identified and psychologically interpreted are remarkably similar to today’s multiple factors. In opposition to the general intelligence theory, Howard Gardner (1999) proposed a theory of multiple intelligences. His aim was to define the concept of intelligence more accurately and to investigate whether the current methods of measuring intelligence, were in fact, scientific. Gardner’s theory was aired in his 1983 book,Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In his book he claims that each person has noticeably varying levels of different intelligences and that each person has a unique “cognitive profile.” He originally suggested 7 “abilities” or intelligences but after further refining in subsequent years, is accredited with identifying the following 8 intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal (Gardner, 1983). Currently, Gardner is in the process of identifying his ninth intelligence, namely spiritual/existential intelligence (Gardner 1999). Critics of Gardner have pointed out that without test that can accurately measure all these different intelligences it will forever be impossible to verify his theory. It is also suggested that these “intelligences” are not intelligences but abilities (Myers, 2007, p435). Also, for example: If athletic ability is a bodily-kinestic intelligence- then will someone with physical defects be mentally retarded as well? http://www.howardgardner.com/FAQ (2009) Yet, although Gardner stands firmly behind his theory, he is open to the possibility of rapprochement between multiple intelligence and other contending theories. The most recent and popular of these competitors, is the “triarchic” model put forth by Robert Sternberg. He proposes three different facets of intelligence-which he labels as the componential, the experiential, and the contextual (Sternberg 1999). He has also gone on to devise various measures for each. Alongside his triarch theory, Sternberg has been working on another form of intelligence he describes as successful intelligence (Sternberg, 2002). Critics of Sternberg’s theory argue that his three intelligences are not as distinct as he thinks and that they might in fact share an underlying general intelligence (Brody, 2003). His ideas have repeatedly been criticized in the scientific literature for lacking empirical support (e.g., Deary, 2001; Gottfredson, 2003; Jensen, 1998). Other’s theories of multiple intelligence claim the existence of social or emotional intelligence. As with Sternberg’s successful intelligence, there are numerous theories of other intelligences, yet unproven. This makes it difficult to answer the question: How many intelligences are there? Various and extensive tests have been developed to distinguish different intelligences from one another, yet they still only measure what we intend for them to. Undisputedly, the most popular and accurate form of intelligence testing is that of David Wechsler. By combining the concept of single and multiple intelligences, he separated the concept ofintelligenceinto two main areas: verbal and performance or non-verbal areas. Each is further subdivided and tested with a different subtest. Prominent differences among these scores will alert the test administrator to the possibility of a learning difficulty or brain disorder (Myers, 2007). It is interesting to keep an eye on the neuroscientific research being done on this topic. Brain imaging research using PET, fMRI, and EEG data are helping to establish the functional neuroanatomy ofgeneral intelligence (Haier,White and Alkire, 2003). If in fact, general intelligence were to be proven beyond reasonable doubt, it will irrefutably change the way we view intelligence. The different theories of intelligence are arguably interesting and deserving of appreciation. It is noticeable that no one really has a definitive definition or proven theory. Spearman’s general intelligence theory, although controversial, has been around for over 100 years and is still not disproven. The multiple intelligence theories of Gardner and Sternberg are being incorporated in educational settings and providing teachers with more productive teaching tools. The combi theory of Wecshler is possibly the most comprehensive and relevant to our modern day application of what we presume intelligence to be. It neither refutes a single intelligence nor claims it to be the only intelligence. It allows room for other abilities to be measured even though we currently have no precise number of intelligences. Perhaps, the further development of neuroscientific study just might give us a clearer idea of how the various or single intelligence(s) actually work. References: Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books Gardner, H. (1999) Intelligence Reframed. New York: Basic Books Gardner, H. (2003) Frequently Asked Questions of Howard Gardner. http://www.howardgardner.com/FAQ. [Accessed 23rd October 2009] Gottfredson, L. (2003). Dissecting Practical Intelligence Theory: Its claims and Evidence. Intelligence. 31. 343-397. Guilford, J.P. (1967). The Nature of Human Intelligence. United States of America: McGraw-Hill. Haier,WhiteSingle or multiple intelligences

Film Analysis: “A Girl in the River” Essay

custom essay Table of Contents Introduction Summary Analysis Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The Oscar-winning documentary A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness was directed by Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy and released in 2015. The movie tells a heart-rending story of a Pakistani girl who nearly fell a victim of the so-called honor killing – the concept that does not exist in the West but is still very strong in the Middle East. The problem is aggravated by the fact that the majority of the population believes that honor killings are justified by the intention of the act. People are reconciled with the fact that justice is typically upheld outside the courtroom and do not attempt to change the situation. Despite the potential significance of nonfiction movies, their role in fostering transformations of the society has not been properly studied yet being largely neglected by researchers (Marquis 1). Thus, the paper at hand will use the example of A Girl in the River to prove that documentaries can act as powerful tools, facilitating change even in the communities where the influence of centuries-old traditions is still enormous. Summary The major character of the movie is a 19-year-old Pakistani girl, Saba Qaiser, whose story began when she fell in love with a man, of whom her family disapproved, and ran off to marry him. As soon as the wedding ceremony took place, the girl’s father and uncle convinced her to get into their car. The girl believed them and paid a high price for this. Saba’s relatives took her to the riverbank to murder for spotting the family’s honor. After being severely beaten, she was shot from a pistol, packed into a sack and thrown into the river. The murderers drove away, be sure that the family honor was restored. It seems incredible but Saba survived. The bullet scratched her face but did not kill her; the girl only fainted. Being recovered by the water, Saba managed to get out of the sack and reach the riverbank. When she got to a gas station, people called an ambulance to save her (“A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness”). The film tells the whole story, showing Saba in the hospital when she is having her cheek stitched back together and following her up to the moment when she is already fully recovered and feels relatively safe. The only thing that she knows for sure after all the events are that she will never be able to forgive her relatives for what they did to her although their religion approves of their actions (“A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness”). What is even worse, prosecuting a woman for causing disrespect to her family is a common practice in Pakistan, which is accountable for thousands of murders annually. Thus, Saba’s story is a perfect illustration of how the laws of the country allow its citizen to get away with such atrocious crimes if the protection of their honor can be cited as an excuse. Analysis The movie is breathtaking not only because of the story itself but also due to the director’s mastery to use a well-structured narrative and aesthetic means to highlight its most vivid moments. The reality constructed by the movie is two-fold as it unites the real with the mystical. The director jumps right into the topic by presenting statistics of honor killings on the screen (with the rest of the text fading away) to communicate the importance of the shocking numbers to the viewer. The following night shots of Gurjanwala create mystery, giving you the feeling of loneliness as if you were a silent observer of the tragedy, the outcome of which you cannot change. To aggravate this aesthetic effect, the title is displayed over pitch dark water with only a slim reflection of light. The introduction seems to portray the experience Saba had when she was thrown into the river with only a single light to guide her back to life. After these mysterious shots, you are jolted into full attention when hospital light is switched on with a sound effect loud enough to startle the audience as a way to call everyone to wake up to reality. It feels as if the director was trying to make you experience the story in a way Saba did. The people who helped Saba recover, the doctor, and the police officer introduce the actual events while Saba herself is lying helplessly in a hospital bed surrounded by the hospital staff. This is a perfect way to demonstrate how helpless a delicate girl is when suppressed by a huge system she is fighting against. To bring back the century-old discussion of how much staging is allowed in documentaries, the director has done a great job of picturing it very realistically, even though shots are staged similarly as in Nanook of the North. This speaks volumes about the talent of the film-maker as she leads the interviewers to illustrate the story with great sincerity, almost as if they were reliving the tragedy all over again. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first time we meet the girl and hear her talk about her love story, the sound of her voice is accompanied by images of the running river as if the director wanted us to see how her love is being washed away by the power of the stream. Yet, the most impressive scene for me is the reveal of the scar. Saba, who now looks perfectly normal, sits up on the bed and the camera lingers on her until she eventually turns her head to make visible her horrifying scar and a bloodshot eye. This is the greatest suspense of the movie as it is hard to imagine what a beast could have disfigured her like this. The author has indeed achieved the goal she set out to achieve. The viewer is remained perplexed and deeply concerned, asking himself/herself why in the modern world some human lives are still valued less than others. As far as propaganda and ideology are concerned, critics may claim that the movie uses some propaganda elements. However, this is a re-enactment type of staging, which implies that it shows the sequence of events that took place without distorting the truth to impress the audience (Cardillo 22). The film attempts to struggle with the accepted ideology and start a national discourse about honor killings using the power of the documentary genre. Conclusion What makes this story so significant about the historical trajectory of the documentary is that it managed to attract the attention of the Pakistani government and convince people of authority to review their laws, which is indeed unprecedented. Before the movie was released, no one was concerned with the fact that most victims of honor killings do not survive (as Saba states in the movie, “I have never heard of a girl who has been thrown in the river and lived to tell the tale.”) (“A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness”). This documentary is thereby exposing a situation that triggered a conversation on the international level. This proves the immense power of documentary film-making, which allows telling outstanding stories that otherwise would have received no recognition. Films like this can thereby be effectively used as tools for promoting social change. Works Cited “A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness.” YouTube, uploaded by Universal Facts. 2017, Web. Cardillo, Susan. Interactive Documentaries: Emerging Technologies for Social Change. Dissertation, Colorado Technical University, 2015. Marquis, Elizabeth. ‘Just Act Naturally’: A Poetics of Documentary Performance. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 2009.

DSRT 837 UCB Qualitative and Mixed Research Methods Discussion

DSRT 837 UCB Qualitative and Mixed Research Methods Discussion.

Discussion Posting – Readings:  The
purpose of this discussion postings is for students to read the 
assigned textbook chapters (APA Ch. #9, APA Ch. #10), synthesize the 
information, and then critically think and share the information with 
other students using their own words. 
Initial Posting (Saturday): The assignment requires students to read the week’s assigned reading requirements (APA Ch. #9, APA Ch. #10),  then post a summary of four (4) interesting facts that they learned  from the reading of “each” assigned chapter using their own words by the  Saturday due date. Direct quotes are not acceptable.
The  initial postings must be substantively provided with a minimum of four  paragraphs for each textbook chapter – one paragraph for each  interesting fact from each assigned reading – if two (2) chapters, then a  total of eight (8) paragraphs/facts (four (4) for each chapter). Each  paragraph must contain a minimum of three (3) robust sentences. CAUTION:  It is not appropriate to make postings like “I found the information on  XXXX to be interesting” as this is not a substantive posting. The  postings must be provided informing the reader that you understand the  interesting facts you are posting – as if you are teaching the reader  about the interesting fact. Remember that these postings must be in your  own words.
Response Postings to a Minimum of Four (4) Other Students (Sunday):  Then by the Sunday due date, read and provide a substantive response  posting to a minimum of four (4) other students. These response postings  to other students must be substantive with a minimum of two (2)  paragraphs (minimum of three (3) sentences per paragraph). Remember that  these response postings must be in your own words. Please see the  Course Syllabus for specific due dates.

reply 1

Chapter 9: Reference List
According to the APA 7 publication manual, Chapter 9 covers elements of a reference list in research papers and articles that will be accepted into reference lists (Stringer, 2020). These four elements are author, date, title, and source. For each reference, number of authors to be included are increased up to 20 additional as the number of authors in the journal increases. The name and title of the reference should be removed, and only the source used can be used. These are published as hyperlinks within each work, but are not added as a label to the metadata page (Stringer, 2020).
Digital object identifiers (DOIS) and URLs are mandatory to add for each reference that lists works whose content was generated by an open-access project (see Chapter 7). The first three are optional for this purpose (Stringer, 2020). The last three are mandatory in this example. A reference list should include a title and author along with a date for inclusion into reference lists. The year the reference was first made and the date the reference was last made are also required (Stringer, 2020).
When it comes to the date, the data of references no longer than last few years and the work used as reference for its date are to be included (Murphy, 2020). For example, the original date is given but the author and date of publication are in an earlier version, and the source of the work is mentioned as a link within the reference page. If this data, as the example demonstrates, is not available at the time when a reference list is generated, the data should be given via a URI in a source to be cited (Murphy, 2020).
Moreover, the annotated bibliography guidelines and APA 7 guide for the data that is used should be followed for the date and author, for the reference list (Murphy, 2020). The annotation of the dates, especially for the year and year of the author should be placed under the author. To avoid duplicate content in documents of this type, authors are required to submit a date for the first edition of their paper and a date for the first edition of their data if those are not available (Murphy, 2020).
Chapter 10: Reference Examples
Chapter 10 is the practical view of examples of the references. It shows how to design and create references from reference categories and to construct multiple references with multiple categories (Brar, 2020). However, the initial concept of this chapter is to accompanying parenthetical and narrative in-text citations. This is to make a reference work according to the APA standards. Each reference categories is treated as a small number of reference categories. The reference is presented in terms of parenthetical and narrative in-text citations for each of the reference categories (Brar, 2020).
References are streamlined as a whole, adding a focus on a specific topic. They are simplified into a single reference (Brar, 2020). References, by means, contain a central text that guides the reader. Instead, references are presented in order and with a clear structure. Thus, to create reference categories, a reference is presented in a text, followed by a small text containing a short description (Brar, 2020).
Audio-visual materials receive expanded coverage, with new examples for video, audio recording, lectures and video game demos. In contrast, the content of the article is not included. Each audio visual material is part of the list of video visual materials (Stringer, 2020). Each video visual material is also included in one or two of the three categories. A reference should be used as a first reference in a formal structure. It should be a concise statement or summary of a set of facts, facts that are important for the student or the instructor (Stringer, 2020).
For consistency and ease of formatting, blogs and other online platforms that publish articles are part of the periodicals category (Stringer, 2020). For example, on YouTube all other content is addressed. For consistency with the textbook chapters, videos and audio recordings are treated as separate materials in the periodical’s category. References are outlined as the text for books of the same name, with bolding in the case of books. Other content was not treated as different materials (Stringer, 2020).
References
Brar, R. (2020). University Library: APA Referencing 7th Edition: Journals, Newspapers & Magazines.
Murphy, C. (2020). LibGuides: APA 7th Referencing UniSkills: Author variations.
Stringer, L. (2020). Subject Guides: Referencing Styles-a Practical Guide: APA. https://subjectguides.york.ac.uk/referencing-style-guides/apa.

reply 2

Characteristics of qualitative research: Usually, qualitative research engages the gathering of information from the master source by direct examination of the researcher rather than involving the members in the research room for learning. The natural setting environment through which the qualitative research is designated. The second important characteristic of qualitative research is researchers who normally involves in gathering the data by themselves directly from inspecting certain actions, interrogating the candidates, and analyzing the documents and files (American Psychological Association, 2020).
This implies that qualitative research does not depend on the data or information provided by the other investigators. Various sources of information or data is another characteristic of qualitative research which states that the researchers depend on a wide range of data types, namely audiovisual, files, interviews, and documents in order to acquire the required data.
Qualitative design: Besides having the common characteristics of qualitative research, the qualitative design incorporates particular techniques such as methods, designs in the practice of carrying out qualitative research, and inquiry strategies. Some of the qualitative research designs that are chosen by researchers are case study, ethnography, phenomenology, ground-theory, and narrative (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).
Roles and reflexivity of the researcher: Usually, the researchers will mainly control the qualitative research because they expend a huge amount of time with the respondents or contributors. At the time of interpretive practice of researchers with the respondent, they have to think regarding issues such as unfairness, principles, and also individual conditions such as history, culture, and social-economic position that help the researcher’s analysis at the study.
References
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc.

reply 3

Characteristics of qualitative research: Usually, qualitative research engages the gathering of information from the master source by direct examination of the researcher rather than involving the members in the research room for learning. The natural setting environment through which the qualitative research is designated. The second important characteristic of qualitative research is researchers who normally involves in gathering the data by themselves directly from inspecting certain actions, interrogating the candidates, and analyzing the documents and files (American Psychological Association, 2020).
This implies that qualitative research does not depend on the data or information provided by the other investigators. Various sources of information or data is another characteristic of qualitative research which states that the researchers depend on a wide range of data types, namely audiovisual, files, interviews, and documents in order to acquire the required data.
Qualitative design: Besides having the common characteristics of qualitative research, the qualitative design incorporates particular techniques such as methods, designs in the practice of carrying out qualitative research, and inquiry strategies. Some of the qualitative research designs that are chosen by researchers are case study, ethnography, phenomenology, ground-theory, and narrative (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).
Roles and reflexivity of the researcher: Usually, the researchers will mainly control the qualitative research because they expend a huge amount of time with the respondents or contributors. At the time of interpretive practice of researchers with the respondent, they have to think regarding issues such as unfairness, principles, and also individual conditions such as history, culture, and social-economic position that help the researcher’s analysis at the study.
References
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Finding from Chapters 9 and 10
There are very interesting findings that I found informative from both of those chapters. Some of the concepts which I felt interesting from chapter 9 are as follows. The research report is the topic that grabbed my attention and the report should comprise of various concepts like selection of topic by identifying the problem, formulating research questions (Odo et al., 2021). Gathering information based on the research questions framed. Analyzing data by using various data analysis tools. The second topic which I felt interesting si variants in qualitative structure study. There are different approaches in which a qualitative method can be conducted some of them include the descriptive approach which is most widely adopted. Storytelling approach, thematic approach, experimental or performance approach. There are very interesting and I have found very valuable information through those topics which have been listed. Depending on the population that needs to be selected and the point of view and flexibility and scope of the research this selection of variant is done in general (Lee et al., 2020).
Some of the interesting facts which I felt informative from chapter 10 to include as follows. The mixed-method process research description is the one that I felt informative. Depending o the accuracy of the results and analysis report this selection is done. It combines qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some of the research questions are based on the qualitative method and some are quantitative-based (Lee et al., 2020). The approaches and tests conducted are also involved the combination of both methods. The data which is collected is analyzed using both forms of analysis tools. Mixed method design is one more topic that attracted my concentration. This clearly explained the various mixed methods which include sequential exploratory, sequential transformative, sequential triangulation, concurrent embedded, and concurrent transformative. These methods and approaches are can be selected based on the flexibility of the author as they play a very vital role in the obtaining of information related to the topic selected for research conducting (Debnath et al., 2021).
References
Debnath, F., Mondal, N., Deb, A. K., Chakraborty, D., Chakraborty, S., & Dutta, S. (2021). Determinants of optimum exclusive breastfeeding duration in rural India: a mixed-method approach using cohort and content analysis design. International Breastfeeding Journal, 16(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13006-021-00359-3
Lee, H.-Y., Yoon, N.-H., Oh, J., Park, J. S., Lee, J.-K., Moon, J. R., & Subramanian, S. V. (2020). Are “Obstetrically Underserved Areas” really underserved? Role of a government support program in the context of changing landscape of maternal service utilization in South Korea: A sequential mixed-method approach. PLoS ONE, 15(5), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232760
DSRT 837 UCB Qualitative and Mixed Research Methods Discussion

Purdue University SLegal Roles of Subject Legislator and Judge Essay

Purdue University SLegal Roles of Subject Legislator and Judge Essay.

Answer the following questions in detail in your own words, based on the reading assignment for Units 4 and 5. Support your explanations with in-text citations to the source and if you quote any language from the digital book or other source, use proper quotation marks, followed by a citation. Each response should be detailed and substantive and at least two paragraphs each.Describe John Rawl’s “Principle of Fair Play” in detail and explain how this theory supports a subject’s duty to obey the law.Describe the difference between the objective benevolence theory of lawmaking and the representative rulemaking theory of lawmaking and provide an example to illustrate the difference between these two theories.When the law “runs out” in the sense that the judge must decide the meaning of a vague statute when there is no convincing evidence of the legislative intent behind such law, it is said that there is “legal indeterminacy” and the judge must use his or her discretionary decision making power. What are the opposing views between Ronald Dworkin and American Legal Realists regarding how common it is for judges to decide cases based on discretion (judicial discretion)?
Purdue University SLegal Roles of Subject Legislator and Judge Essay

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