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The Symbols In The Awakening English Literature Essay

In Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, the underlying meaning is imparted to the reader through the use of explicit symbolism. The major role of the use of symbolism in the novel is to attempt to draw a link between the world that Edna knows and her several awakenings and make that link more powerful and compelling. Analyzed in this essay are three prominent symbols of interest which are birds, the ocean and the houses Edna resides in. The avian allusions and symbols that are present throughout the story serve to represent the ability to fly and the freedom it enables. The references to oceans and seas within the novel are symbolic of freedom and empowerment as it relates to Edna. Further houses allow the reader to observe the different transformations that Edna undergoes. The Awakening, written by Kate Chopin, is filled with numerous symbols and motifs that allow the reader to develop a deeper understanding of its message. The first symbol to be analyzed is the recurring sign of birds present throughout the novel. When birds appear in the novel they serve as a reflection of Edna’s self, and her thoughts. The novel opens not with a main character speaking but with parrot, “Allez vous-en! Allez vous-en! Sapristi!” (pp. 3). This declaration from the bird translates to “Go away! Go away! For heaven’s sake!” It can be inferred that these lines are representative of the thoughts that are passing through Edna’s mind for much of the novel. Much like the parrot which “could speak a little Spanish, and also a language which nobody understood,” (pp. 3) Edna is unable to communicate her true desires and her true feelings to anyone else because they could not understand. Edna wishes to abandon her role as a compliant wife, and acquiescent mother that the Creole society demands she be. Further the bird discussed above is caged symbolizing the entrapment of Edna by society and its expectations for females of that era. Perhaps the only other character in the novel that understands Edna is Mademoiselle Reisz, who stirs Edna’s soul with music, and gives advice to her. Edna informs Arobin that Mademoiselle Reisz: Put her arms around me and felt my shoulder blades, to see if my wings were strong, she said, ‘The bird that would soar above the level plain of tradition and prejudice must have strong wings. It is a sad spectacle to see the weaklings bruised, exhausted, fluttering back to earth.’ (pp. 103) It appears that Reisz knows beforehand that Edna will attempt to fly and expresses an uncertainty as to whether or not Edna is strong enough to succeed. Mademoiselle Reisz is warning Edna in this passage that her flight may ultimately end in failure but Edna does not receive this message for she is “not thinking of any extraordinary flights. I only half comprehend her.” Reisz is attempting to help her with this flight by inferring that she is perhaps not strong enough, and may fail but it falls on deaf ears as Edna does not comprehend what Reisz is trying to do. The reader encounters birds towards the conclusion of the novel during a pivotal moment in Edna’s life, “All along the white beach, up and down, there was no living thing in sight. A bird with a broken wing was beating the air above, reeling, fluttering, circling disabled down, down to the water.” (pp. 113) Edna observes this as she is about to walk into the ocean and go through her final awakening. This bird with a broken wing embodies Edna representing that she, much like the bird, is unable to fly away and escape from the things that confine her. Further it also illustrates that Edna is already dead before she enters the water like the bird that is doomed to death. The second symbol to be analyzed is the frequent appearance of the ocean/sea. Of all the symbols in the novel, the ocean appears most regularly. Edna consistently connects the ocean with a certain personal free will even when she is a child, “[a meadow] seemed as big as the ocean…she threw out her arms as if swimming when she walked.” (pp. 21) Clearly Edna feels freedom and excitement in the above passage illustrated through the reference to the wide open ocean. Further, it is in the ocean located off from the Grand Isle where we observe on of Edna’s awakenings. Before this awakening she has already learned how to swim, and when she attempts to swim out into the ocean for the first time a certain metamorphosis occurs, “A feeling of exultation overtook her…She grew daring and reckless, overestimating her strength. She wanted to swim far out, where no woman has swum before.” (pp. 37) This scene is critically important in the progression of the novel because with her discovery of her ability to swim she also realizes that her life is an empty shell. Perhaps this realization serves to assist her in the changes that she will encounter later in the novel. But there is an aspect of foreshadowment in the line “she grew daring and reckless, overestimating her strength.” Though swimming in the ocean gives her many positive feelings of freedom she has not the strength to swim for longer periods of time and as a result will drown. Her desire to “swim far out, where no woman has swum before” is a noble desire to escape from her entrapment due to Creole society, and she somewhat accomplishes this wish but ultimately fails with her demise. The ocean in the novel allows Edna some of the feelings of freedom, but it also serves as an instrument of her demise; “Exhaustion was pressing upon and over possessing her. Good-bye, because I love you … He did not know; he did not understand. He would never understand … it was too late; the shore was far behind her, and her strength was gone.” (pp. 116) Edna believes that the ocean allows her to express herself and escape from the power that is exenterated over her by society. But she realizes that no matter what she attempts to do she will always be trapped by society, for she lacks the ability to change the way her life is. After coming to this realization she decides that she will retire where she feels the most free and away from being influenced; into the ocean. The third and final symbol to be analyzed in this paper is the dynamic symbolism of the houses that Edna resides in. These houses are a direct reflection of the numerous mental and emotional states that Edna experiences throughout her journey. The cottages that are located on the Grand Isle have several symbolic meanings. They serve as separate cages for Edna and also are a reflection of the families that reside within them. Further, all of the cottages at places like this are nearly identical suggesting that all families that dwell in them are identical according to the traditions of the Creole society. Perhaps the most iconic and important house that is encountered during the novel is Edna’s “pigeon-house.” The imagery relating to this house instantly gives the reader insight into why this house is so important to Edna, “In a little four-room house around the corner. It looks so cozy, so inviting and restful.” (pp. 79) This pigeon house serves to provide Edna with the comfort and independence that her old house with her husband never provided. Her freedom she experiences allows her to realize how much control she can have over her life, “she had resolved never again to belong to another than herself.” (pp. 80) This can be considered one of her many awakenings for she realizes that she does not need a man in order to fulfill and complete her life. It is also important to note the contrast from her previous feelings to the new feelings and abilities that arise after Edna moves into the pigeon house; before when she kisses Arobin in the house of her husband she has feelings of “reproach looking at her from the external things around her which he had provided for her external existence.” (pp. 84) Yet when she engages with Arobin at her new “pigeon-house” she experiences no feelings of reproach or regret. This illustrates how she is now more free in this house than she has been in any other setting. There are many symbols in the novel The Awakening, and in this essay three of the most prominent have been examined leading us to a huge conclusion. Clearly it is necessary in this novel, and most others to analyze and apply the occurrences and meanings behind symbols scattered throughout the work. Birds serve as an allusion to Edna herself and as an instrument of foreshadowment in regards to her own demise. The ocean is used numerous times throughout the novel as a source of freedom and self expression that allow Edna a release from everything going on in her life. The last symbol was the many houses that Edna was in during the novel that were representative of her current feelings and were a reflection of her. Without the analysis and acknowledgment of these symbols the story becomes just a simple piece of writing and lacks significant deeper meanings.
What is a Criminal profiler? Many people have mistaken what a real profiler does and who they are. They are not the normal person that works for the police; there is more to a criminal profiler than you might think. Catching serial killers and murderers is a 24 hour job for many of the profilers that work for law enforcement or the FBI. Some ask the question “How do I become a Criminal Profiler”? The road isn’t easy but once you reach this career goal it is more worth it than you think. Learning more about this profession will help you want to learn more and more about whom? What? Where? How? There is so much information out there on how to become a criminal profiler and what a criminal profiler really does. The information helps open a whole new world to what Criminal Profiling really entails. What is profiling? Criminal Profiling was very well known by the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), though a criminal profiler in the FBI doesn’t technically exists they are recognized in the FBI. What’s in a profile? Generally a profile consists primarily of, age, and previous convictions that were likely to be possessed by the unknown offender of the crimes being committed. This became more sophisticated in two ways, such as, Profiles were used to create a shorter list of potential suspects, also it helped focus investigations, and help create a more stable interview technique. The potential forms that a profile can take, in which it can be used within a criminal investigation have expanded in recent years. (Nov 2, 2008 Granfalloons and Gobbledygook pg. 1) Criminal profiling is used many times to eliminate suspects and identify future criminals. A criminal profile is not always pertinent when traditional investigative methods have failed to solve a murder. Mr. Brubaker a retired FBI agent explained the elements that go into a criminal profile. A criminal profile consists of the psychological and behavioral characteristics of a murder according to a lot of information gathered from other Criminals. (April 13, 2005 Larry Brubaker pg. 1) This profile includes: Age, behavioral age, mental status, intellectual ability, scholastic achievement Lifestyle, rearing environment, social adjustment, personality, demeanor, Appearance and grooming Intellectual adjustment, mental adjustment, employment history, work ability, Residency in relation to the crime(s) Social Economic Status, sexual adjustment, sexual perversions, arrest record and Possible motive (April 13, 2005 Larry Brubaker pg. 1) Another source of research and development on criminal profiling is the Investigative Support Unit, started as the “Behavioral Science Unit” in the late 1950’s, by two FBI employees. This is a part of the National Center for Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC) this is very important to the Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG), these agents train in behavioral studies. There is an immense amount of data on family characteristics and serial murderers kept in this unit. (ISU) has specific training to professionals such as detectives, psychologists, and lawyers from all walks of life. (May 5, 2010 Criminal Profiling Research Site pg. 1) Assessing the behavior of any unknown suspect is always vital to separate their “Modus Operandi” from their “Signature”. Modus Operandi is what an offender has to do, in their mind, to accomplish a crime. A Signature is something the offender has to do to fulfill himself emotionally. The signature makes the crime typical and distinguishable (May 5, 2010 Criminal Profiling Research Site pg 4-5) Criminal Profiling is used by behavioral scientists and the police to predict the suspects who possess certain behavioral and personality traits. The primary goal is to aid local police in limiting and refining their suspect list. To go proactive, which means letting the public, become partners in crime solving? The public becomes more aware of people around them, and close to them. The public has been known to help police and other agencies find the ones they are looking for. The police keep a close relationship with the public just so that in case they need to find someone they are able to do it in a more calm and civilized way. (May 5, 2010 Criminal Profiling Research Site pg. 2) Fun Fact Personality profiles are based on the way a crime is committed, also known as the “Method of Operations” or M.O. The M.O consists of several things such as the Identity and commonality of the victims. Analyzing the crime scene, an investigator can determine the motives of the suspect, which leads to a description of the suspect’s personality. (May 5, 2010 Criminal Profiling Forensic Psychology pg. 1). Criminal profiling exists to the work for the FBI, Brent Turvey created the “Behavioral Evidence Analysis”(BEA) in response to his analysis of “Things such as the fact that offenders will lie about their actions, and that sometimes the most objective record of what happened in a criminal event is a reconstruction of offender behavior”(Petherick, 1999). Turvey’s BEA is the analysis of the crime in four ways: Equivocal Forensic Analysis, Victimology, Crime Scene Characteristics, and offender Characteristics. This method is used in crime when the identity of the offender is known and unknown. (Brent Turvey 1997 pg. 3) Who can be Criminal Profilers? Criminal Profilers are Psychiatrists that are doctors of medicine who have postgraduate training in psychiatry. Psychologists have undergraduate and post graduate degrees in their specialist area. Police officers who profile work have studied psychology as a postgraduate. (May 5, 2010 John Mcklean “A Knol” pg. 1-2). If you want to become a criminal profiler, you are able to become one if you put your mind to it. Anyone who is willing to get the education and the experience is able to become a Criminal Profiler. Even though you achieve the title of profiler, you are always learning everyday and you are experiencing so many new theories and things that you never thought possible. When you have the abilities and the experience you can become anything you choose to be, not only psychiatrists and psychologists are criminal profilers, they are the most likely candidates that become profilers, but that isn’t always the case. Many come from law enforcement and other related fields. When you have the determination to become a profiler that is how you can achieve to become one. FBI Crime Scene Analysis Steps In the FBI there are steps that are followed that help them put all the information into a conclusion? The FBI has been around for a long time and they have come up with the FBI crime scene analysis that has six steps: (n.d Criminal Profiling Forensic Psychology pg. 2) 1. Profiling Inputs: This is basically a collection of all evidence. 2. Decision Process Models: The evidence is arranged to locate patterns. 3. Crime Assessment: The evidence is organized, the crime scene is reconstructed. 4. Criminal Profile: The first 3 steps are used in creating a criminal profile incorporating the motives, physical qualities, and personality of the perpetrator. 5. The Investigation: The profile is given to investigators on the case and to organizations that may have data leading to the identification of a suspect. 6. The Apprehension: This stage only occurs in about 50% of cases. ( n.d Criminal Profiling Forensic Psychology pg. 2) With the steps above the FBI is able to come up with a pretty accurate profile and they are able to gather more information and have a direction to go in. With knowing the pattern and the collection of evidence along with all the other steps they are able to complete a profile that will lead to the serial killer or murderer. Not always does step 6 occur, but it is more probable when there is a complete profile and the law enforcement is going in the right and probable direction. Expert Profilers Dr. Schurman-Kauffin a world renowned expert criminal profiler has studied and investigated serial killers for over 20 years. Dr. Schurman-Kauffin has profiled hundreds of serial murderers, aberrant sex crimes, sadistic murders, serial rapes, stalking, abductions, and many other unusual cases. Dr. Schurman-Kauffin is highly regarded for providing specialized training on criminal profiling to the police agencies. She has trained over 2,000 FBI, State, Homicide/Sex crimes detectives, and Attorney General Investigators. She holds a B.S., M.S. in criminal justice and a Ph.D. in criminal justice/forensic science. Dr. Schurman-Kauffin was credited for profiling the BTK serial killer. She also correctly predicted Mumbai India terrorist attacks in 2006. (2008 Dr.Schurman-Kauffin PhD pg 1-2) Katherine Ramsland conducted an interview with Gregg O. McCrary one of the world’s most experienced profilers. With a background in criminal justice and psychology, Gregg O. McCrary conducted research on violent offenders, and after the (NCAVC 1985), he went on to analyzing crime scenes and offender “signatures” in constructing behavioral profiles and teaching the complexities of threat assessment. McCrary consulted on over a thousand domestic and international cases that involved homicide or sexual assault. As an international expert on violence, McCrary’s insights are derived from many years of experience. He was also well known in many different agencies for his work with criminal profiling. ( n.d Gregg O. McCrary Interview pg 1). Many people ask if they have the right kind of mind for criminal profiling, Pat Brown is a Criminal profiler and she believes that a good profiler has a very wide amount of abilities. She says that a very realistic view of human beings bordering on cynical, not without empathy, an ability to spot lairs and frauds, and the belief that all of us have the ability to think like a serial killer or criminal to some degree. To have enough life experience and not be surprised at human behavior in bizarre sex acts. She also believes that you need a good sense of humor, a healthy lifestyle, and you should be in excellent mental health. Pat Brown suggests that in order to gain some experience would be to accept any work in related fields is a must. The experience you learn when working in related fields will help you out and give you a broad perspective on certain situations and a better understanding. (2005 Pat Brown Profiler pg. 1-2). These experts have a lot of experience; they are well educated in the specific field they are in. They both are in high regard with the police and many other agencies. Profiling is there passion and they do it very well and they have a lot of research under their belt. They give a lot of time to research so that criminal profiling becomes very useful in apprehending serial killers and murderers. These experts have a lot of experience with almost every department of law enforcement and they familiarize themselves with every aspect of law, in order to have a wide range of profiling. Many say that the littlest detail is sometimes the biggest detail” that is why the most experienced profilers are very knowledgeable in all departments of law. How Much a Criminal Profiler Makes? The salary of a criminal profiler depends, on experience. In order to become a profiler you must also achieve many different certificates and degrees that will create a higher pay scale. It also may depend on your specialty area such as if you became a forensic psychologist with less than a one year’s experience you can expect a salary from $34,000 to $60,984. If you have five to nine years of experience, the range goes up to $46,176 to $82,895. And with 10 or more years in the field, as a forensic psychologist you see salaries in the range of $59,780 to $106,125. There are Jobs that exist in law enforcement at the state and local level, criminal profilers also work in universities, and research facilities. They may choose to work independently as consultants. (n.d Article by Randy Craig pg. 1) Most Profilers do start off as working with law enforcement, and many times they branch out and work independently. The experience that you obtain working as an independent consultant for the FBI or police or any other agency is immensely more than if working in a department. The independent profiler is able to work more flexible and inconspicuously, but it does come with limits as far as the law Is involved, but you are able to work with every aspect of the law, verses having to follow certain departments and sticking with only some information and following rank. With any job you have to be dedicated and willing to make sacrifices, when one starts a career in profiling you are going to give up a lot. Criminal profilers are said to have one goal in mind and that is to put criminals in jail. Many people have different reasons for becoming a profiler, one being that it is a fascinating and very well rounded career choice and the other is for the money and the adrenalin rush you get when you catch a criminal. Criminal Profilers are at times working 24 hours a day and no days off until the case is solved, that can take a toll on any kind of personal life. Profilers have to like to do their job and give 100% all the time on the job because that is what it will take to become a profiler. Fun Fact There is a lot involved in becoming a Criminal profiler, but in the long run it turns out to be very helpful and useful in this line of work. The T.V show “Criminal Minds” gives you a brief setting on what a criminal profiler for the FBI does. Of course, it is over exaggerated and over dramatic, but it does give you a sense of what is to be expected out of a criminal profiler. This show gives the type of lifestyle a criminal profiler will hope to expect and it gives the aspiring profiler a new appreciation on how much time and effort goes into catching a criminal and being able to profile an unknown person. Though TV shows try to portray the real job, it isn’t as real as the real thing, In real life there are so many challenges that a profiler faces and sometimes it isn’t easily solved like in the show. It sometimes takes days even months to get a full profile on a criminal and though they have all the evidence, it sometimes takes more to complete the profile. Once they have all the information they need they put together a profile and they apprehend there criminal. Conclusion Criminal profiling is used because it “works” in many cases around the world; it is very much used in many cases and is very affective. Police have a high respect for criminal profiling; it helps them apprehend criminals faster and in a more efficient way. The way a criminal profiler works is in a unique and efficient way, they take one little detail of someone’s life and turn it into something of relevance in the case. To think outside the box and to be able to think in all different directions is important in becoming a successful profiler. According to many experts having the experience and the education will be the most helpful in this career field if you choose this path of course. The more I learn about Criminal Profilers the more my interest heightens, I am more in tune with what is involved with becoming a profiler. The sacrifices you would have to make and the long hours along with the things you see and experience along the way. The world needs criminal profilers so that it helps keep all the criminals in line. Profilers have a hard task at keeping the serial killers and murderers off the streets, but they do it well and I hope to be as good as or maybe better than they are so I can join the ranks of Criminal Profilers.
Compose a 5-paragraph persuasive/argumentative essay (a minimum count of 750-1,000 words). Your composition should contain: An engaging introduction A reasonable, specific thesis that is able to be supported by evidence A varied range of evidence from credible sources (a minimum of three in-text citations) Respectful acknowledgment and explanation of opposing ideas A style and tone of language that is appropriate for the subject and audience Acknowledgment of the argument’s limits A conclusion that will adequately summarize the essay and reinforce the thesis
Explain how central banks intervene in the exchange rate markets and critically comment on the Bank of England’s view about the impact of the “past depreciation of the sterling” on the UK economy [1] . Central bank intervenes in the exchange rate markets: To change the relationship between supply and demand by exchanging between domestic currency and foreign currency Interventions can be classified into different types: direct intervention and indirect intervention; sterilized intervention and unsterilized intervention; unilateral intervention and joint intervention etc. Central Bank Intervention: “The buying or selling of currency, foreign or domestic, by central banks in order to influence market conditions or exchange rate movements.” Basically in a free floating exchange rate system, the market supply and demand forces solely determined the rate. Central Bank is using these intervention methods due to many reasons behind this defined scenario. Central Bank often using outside sources to take part in these sort of market manipulation also there are specific periods in which central bank intervenes to raise or lower the exchange rate in the floating market. The central banks are often influenced by outside sources to take part in this type of market manipulation. To adopt this intervention scenario Central Bank main objective is to stabilize exchange rate fluctuations. Because, if exchange rate continuously will change then it will automatically create hurdle in global/international trading and investment decisions in business. Because if traders will not confident against the stability of the exchange rate they will automatically reduce their investment actions due to these uncertain conditions and because of this reason investors normally put pressure on Central bank or Government to intervene if the exchange rate continuously fluctuating too much.Another reason for the central bank’s intervention is as an attempt to stop or reverse a country’s trade deficit. This is because a higher exchange rate will make that countries goods and services cheaper. This will motivate imports while oppressive exports, creating a trade deficit. If the deficit is significant enough the central bank may be convinced to intervene to try to reduce the value of the currency by discarding excessive amounts of it on the market. Therefore intervention usually occurs when countries’ currency is experiencing excessive downward and upward pressure from market players normally entrepreneurs. A momentous decline in the value of a currency has the following negative aspects: Firstly Due to decline in values of money a state which is facing this large current account deficit means buys more goods and services than it sells from abroad that is dependent upon foreign inflows of capital may undergo a hazardous hold back in the financing of its deficit, which will require increasing interest rates in the market to maintain the value of the currency and, could risk serious ramification on growth. Secondly It increases the price of imported goods and services and ultimately causes inflation and automatically it will push the central bank to increase interest rates, which will probably harm asset markets and ultimately on economic growth, and it can also lead to additional losses in the currency. Thirdly it also pushes up the exchange rate of the country’s trading associates and drive up the price of their exports in the international market place. This will also activate serious economic slowdown, especially for those countries which are mainly dependent on export. On the other hand central banks also intervene to curtail excessive appreciation of their currency, which give more focused on the balance of payments and makes exports less attractive. Today Foreign exchange interventions have now obtained numerous forms and shapes. Some of them are discussed below; Intervention occurs when representatives from the Ministry of Finance, central bank or other traders talk up or talk down a currency. This is either done by threatening to commit real intervention (actual buying/selling of currency), or simply by indicating that the currency is undervalued or overvalued. This is the cheapest and simplest form of intervention because it does not involve the use of foreign currency reserves. Nonetheless, its simplicity doesn’t always imply effectiveness. A nation whose central bank is known to intervene more frequently and effectively than other nations is usually more effective in verbal intervention. Operational Intervention: Generally on behalf of Ministry of Finance or Treasury this is the actual buying or selling of a currency by a country’s central bank. Concerted Intervention: It occurs when different nations coordinate in raising/driving up or down any currency using their own foreign currency reserves. Its success is dependent upon its extent (number of countries involved) and intensity (total amount of the intervention). Concerted intervention could also be verbal when administrators from several nations unite in expressing their concern over a continuously falling/rising currency. Sterilized Intervention: When a central bank fumigates its interventions, it compensates these actions through its monetary policy practices (open market operations or interest rate targets adjustments). Selling a currency can be sterilized when the central bank sells money market instruments (short term securities) to drain back the excess funds in circulation as a result of the intervention. FX interventions only go unsterilized (or partially sterilized) when action in the currency market is in line with monetary and foreign exchange policies, i.e. when the case for intervention is urgent. This occurred in the concerted interventions of the “Plaza Accord” in September 1985 when G7 collaborated to stem the excessive rise of the dollar by buying their currencies and selling the greenback. The action eventually proved to be successful because it was accompanied by supporting monetary policies. Japan raised its short-term interest rates by 200 bps after that weekend, and the 3-month euro rate soared to 8.25%, making Japanese deposits more attractive than their US counterpart. Another example of unsterilized intervention was in February 1987 at the “Louvre Accord” when the G7 joined forces to stop the plunge of the dollar. On that occasion, the Federal Reserve engaged in a series of monetary tightening, pushing up rates by 300 bps to as high as 9.25% in September. Mostly Use Approaches of Intervention: There are two intervention approaches the central bank may take. The direct method involves intervention by buying or selling currency in an attempt to manipulate the market. Whereas indirect approaches, attempt to make changes the domestic money supply. Direct Method: The direct method is a more obvious method of intervention. The central bank can reduce the value of a currency by flooding the market with it. A raise in the supply of a specific currency will lead to its depreciation n value. Conversely, the central bank can raise the value of a currency by purchasing large amounts of it. The increased demand of the currency will cause it to appreciate. The long-term effect of this direct intervention is limited. Eventually the market will stabilize and resume its previous trends. Indirect Method: The indirect method of intervention attempts to change the exchange rate through changes in the money supply. By increasing the supply of money the value for that currency will decrease. Similarly if the money supply is decreased the value for it will increase. This approach is effective but often takes several weeks to have an impact. This is because it must traverse all market operations before affecting the exchange rate. Another disadvantage of this method is that it also requires the central bank to alter the domestic interest rate to compensate for the change in money supply. Intervention in the foreign exchange market is done sparingly because of the long-term effects it may have on other domestic factors. For example, changing the money supply will affect interest rates and price levels. This will contribute to a higher inflation rate, higher unemployment rates, and less gross domestic product growth in the long run. To avoid these long-term effects, a sterilized intervention may be used. Sterilized intervention is intended to change the exchange rate without changing the money supply or interest rates. This type of intervention happens when the central bank offsets its direct intervention by making a simultaneous change in the domestic bond market. Studies have shown that a sterilized intervention of the foreign exchange market will yield short-term temporary results but ultimately have no lasting effects on the county’s currency value. A more lasting effect can be possible if the intervention leads to investors changing their future expectations in the market. Intervention Impact on Current Market: Before listing the determinants of a successful FX intervention, it is important to define “success”. Thus, a central bank that spends about $5 billion (medium-size) on intervention and manages to raise/lift the value of its currency by about 2% against the major currencies over the next 30 minutes is said to be successful. Even if the currency ends up losing its gains over the next two trading sessions, the proven ability of that central bank to move the market in the first place gives it some kind of respect for the next time it “threatens” to step in. Size Matters: The magnitude of the intervention is usually proportional to the resulting move of the currency. Central banks equipped with substantial foreign currency reserves (usually denominated in dollars outside the US), are those that command the most respect in FX interventions. Timing: Successful FX interventions depend on timing. The more surprising the intervention, the more likely it is that market players are caught off-guard by a large inflow of orders. In contrast, when intervention is largely anticipated, the shock is better absorbed and the impact is less. Momentum: In order for the “timing” element to work best, intervention is more ideally implemented when the currency is already moving in the intended direction of the intervention. The large volume of the FX market ($1.2 trillion per day) dwarfs any intervention order of $3-5 billion. So central banks usually try to avoid intervening against the market trend, preferring to wait for more favourable currents. This may be done through verbal posturing (jawboning), which sets the general tone for a more fruitful action when the actual intervention begins. Sterilization. Central banks engaging in monetary policy measures in line with their FX actions (unsterilized intervention) are more likely to trigger a more favourable and lasting change in the currency. Broadly speaking, there are 03 main channels through which central bank intervene: 01- Portfolio channel: To bring the large swings in the exchange rates, changes in the desired allocation of currencies in the investor’s portfolio are made. Central bank can reduce the fluctuations to desired level by providing necessary supply of currency. 02- Signaling Channel: An intervention provides signals about the future course of monetary policy, which in turn affects asset prices. For example, when intervention is undertaken to avoid depreciation, the next step would be to tighten monetary policy, which should strengthen the domestic currency. 03- Information channel: Authorities transmit certain information to the market via an intervention and its announcements. More uncertain the market gets by information, the more fluctuation results in exchange rates. Bank of England’s view about the impact of the “past depreciation of the sterling” on the UK economy The Bank of England expects that the “past depreciation of the sterling” could lead to higher prices and inflation may range between 4% and 5%, while remaining well above 2.0 percent in the upcoming two years., As for growth, the bank previously estimated growth to have fallen 0.50 percent during the fourth-quarter of 2010, according to the preliminary GDP report, due to heavy snow, output is broadly flat, but growth in 2011 first quarter is likely to receive a boost on rebounding activities. Question No 02: Use theory and empirical evidence to evaluate what explains the swings in the current account balance over time. The current account balance is the sum of four separate balances The balance of trade in goods The balance of trade in services Net investment income from overseas assets Net transfers of money between people and between governments A current account surplus increases a country’s net foreign assets by the corresponding amount, and a current account deficit does the reverse. The net balance of trade in goods and services are by far the biggest factor in determining the current account. If there is a deficit on the current account, there will be a surplus on the current account or financials to compensate for the net withdrawals. Methods to reduce Current Account Deficit: 01- Increasing exports or decreasing imports: It can be done through import restrictions, quotas, or duties Influencing the exchange rate to make exports cheaper for foreign buyers 02- Promoting investor friendly environment It can be done through Foreign direct investments To favor domestic suppliers Current Account Deficit: Current Account Deficit occurs when a nation’s total imports of goods, services and transfers are greater than the nations’ total export of goods, services and transfers. This situation makes a country a net debtor for the rest of the world. But many developing counties may do a current account deficit for shorter time to increase local productivity and exports in the future. Few countries like the UK may become an attractive destination for long term investment in other words Capital inflows and this makes a current account deficit easier to finance. Therefore it may depend on the size of the country and also the people which having confidence in investing their investments as global trade. For example a developing economy may find it more difficult to attract capital flows but developed economy can easily take participation in this sort f trading in rate is stable not much fluctuating. What does a current account deficit tell us about the performance of an economy? A current account deficit is not necessarily or automatically a bad thing! The UK has run a deficit since 1998 but its overall macroeconomic achievements have been good Germany has run a sizeable and growing surplus in recent years but has suffered from slow growth and high unemployment Japan has enormous current account surpluses but has had three recessions in the last twelve years Much depends on The causes of a current account deficit Whether or not the deficit is likely to correct itself as an economy moves through a normal cycle Whether or not the deficit can be easily financed through attracting sufficient capital inflows Question 03: Analyse the UK’s balance of payments for a period of 10 years (data given in Tables 1 and 2). The analysis should include examinations (presentations of statistical data with discussion based on theory, journal articles, and examples from the market) of the current account balance and capital/financial account balance. Document the trends and investigate the causes. Analyses of UK balance of payment reveals following: Surplus on trade in services over period of time starting from 23 (Billion $) in 1997 to 74 (billion $) in 2009 Increase in deficit on trade in goods over a period of time starting from 20 (Billion $) in 1997 to 128 (Billion $) in 2009 Exports of goods and services started with positive balance in 1997, however, afterwards deficit was reported over a period of time and reached to 94 billion deficit in 2007 and then 89 billion in 2008, whilst in 2009 deficit reduced to the extent of 55 billion Taken as a whole, the current account deficit was over 37 billion What does the current account deficit tell us about the UK? Consumption: Partly the deficit is the result of a period of sustained economic growth and strong consumer demand for goods and services – our manufacturing sector is not large enough to meet all of the demand for consumer goods and durables, so we must import to satisfy this excess demand UK consumers have a high marginal propensity to import as income rises Many imported manufacturing goods are relatively cheaper than UK substitutes – this causes a substitution effect towards overseas output The long run decline of manufacturing limits the choice of domestic supplier for us to choose Strength : The trade deficit in goods has been affected by the strength of the UK exchange rate e.g. the appreciation in the value of pound Services: Trade surplus in services is improving, it reflects comparative advantage in many service industries Investment Income: This is quite volatile from year to year – but uk surplus reflects a large amount of overseas investment by UK businesses over recent years (including investing in new plant, retail outlets and acquisitions of foreign owned businesses). This helps to stabilize balance of payments, without it the current account deficit would be much more of a problem Day to day the current account deficit is not a major problem for the UK owing to following reasons: It is now easier to finance a current account deficit because of globalization and international financial market liberalization. Even if a country is running a current account surplus, provided there is a capital account surplus, there is no fundamental economic constraint. The UK has found it fairly easy to attract these capital flows Why? Interest rates: Short term interest rates are higher than in for example the Euro Zone and the United States. This attracts inflows of money into our banking system seeking a favorable rate of interest FDI: Britain’s economy remains a favored venue for inflows of foreign direct investment – supply side reasons including a more flexible labor market and low cost and wage inflation help explain this Investment in markets: Foreign investors are keen to buy into competitive UK product markets including communication industries, transport, and financial services The current account deficit is not a fundamental problem for Britain – not when it is only 2 – 2.5% of our GDP. And Slower growth: At some point the British economy will experience a phase of slower growth and weaker consumer spending – this will dampen down the demand for imported goods and services. For example there is already widespread evidence of a slowdown in the housing market following the recent series of small increases in official interest rates by the Bank of England A lower pound: The exchange rate may start to depreciate in the coming years providing a boost those UK industries exposed to competition in international markets But there are grounds for worrying about the current account deficit The deficit reflects an unbalanced economy with consumers spending beyond their means The deficit reflects a loss of cost and price competitiveness in export sectors some of which is the result of a poor supply side performance in terms of low productivity, insufficient research and development and a lack of innovation and other forms of non-price competitiveness A rising current account deficit may lead to increasing import penetration in domestic markets, which threatens jobs and living standards in the medium term There is no guarantee that the free flow of capital into a country will continue this will then create a “financing problem” for the UK. It is a bit like the bank deciding to stop lending you money when you keep going back to them to ask them to give you another extension to your overdraft or loan!

Meaning of Musical Ekphrasis Report (Assessment)

Art is the means of expressing reality in all its completeness. Art was invented by humans as a way of reconstructing reality and the phenomena of the objective reality in a picturesque form. Some scholars keep to the point of view that the notion of art is similar to that of culture, thus identifying art with culture. There are various forms of arts in the world; some of them are called classical, some others are called modernist or neoclassical. Among the kinds of art can be distinguished the following ones, as the most important and the most popular among people: visual arts (including painting and drawing), literature (prose, poetry), sculpture, architecture and of course various kinds of music. Seeing that there are so many different kinds of art, we must clearly understand that they do not exist in complete isolation from each other. All kinds of arts interact with each other and are in close connection to those ones that are the closest to them. This means that arts developed closely connected and nowadays, more and more pieces of art are being created not by a single kind of art but by the combination of them that provides the reader or the listener or the spectator with the fullest image of this or that artistic idea. This can be exemplified by the films made after some literary works, like “Hamlet” or “Da Vinci Code,” or poetry created as the completion of a certain painting, like the painting and a poem titled “Hunters in the Snow,” or a musical creation which is a response to some literary work or painting. The latter is just the case that we are going to discuss in the current essay – this is called the phenomenon of musical ekphrasis. In order to avoid any possible ambiguity of the terms in this essay, we should start our analytical work by defining the notion of musical ekphrasis. Musical ekphrasis – is the musical (sound) reflection of a certain piece of graphic or visual art. The musical ekphrasis is created by an artist other than the creator of the original work. One way to explore the ability of music to render works of visual art is to arrange instruments chosen by the composer in a single work of ekphrasis using an imagined scale between, at the one end, the iconic and, at the other end, the allusive. Another term that demands definition is the term of the program music and the musical ekphrasis. Program music is the kind of music that narrates or paints, represents, or suggests stories or scenes (or even events or characters) that exist or are not out there but enter music from the composer’s point of view and from his/her mind. The sphere of application for the notion “program music” is wide, ranging from the emotional expression associated with nature, through the description of a historical or literary hero, up to the musical impression of a philosophically viewed “world” (Bruhn, 2008). The musical ekphrasis, on the contrary, depicts a fictional reality created not by the composer of the piece of music: a painter or a poet. Ekphrastic music often relates not only to the plot of the conveyed fictional reality but to the form and style of its representation as well. After the terms are defined, we can move to the analysis of the chosen works of art from the point of view of ekphrasis. These works are the painting Die Zwitschermaschine (Twittering Machine) by the famous German painter Paul Klee, and the musical works under the same title executed by the well-known German composer Giselher Klebe and the Lithuanian composer Rytis Mažulis who is considered to be the “intellectual” artist. The painting itself presents the image of a twittering machine, i. e. a thing consisting of thin lines and some springs. It is operated with a movable handle and is supposed to produce certain twittering sounds. Looking at the painting by Klee, every spectator imagines these sounds, but no one can say definitely they are exact or not. It is where the idea of the painting lies – it gives the audience possibility and space for uncontrollable work of imagination and inventing its own ideas. The challenge for any composer who would try to represent this painting in the sound form was the task of producing the sounds that would coincide with what the audience imagined while looking at the picture and what the painting’s author planned to say. The results of the work of the two above-mentioned worldwide famous composers will be discussed and compared below. The instrumental interpretation of the work by the German composer Giselher Klebe presupposes the whole range of depictive means of the musical language. Some moments in this work can be considered close to onomatopoeia. Sounds throughout the piece of music really resemble the movements of a certain machine consisting of metal details and needs oiling. This machine produces twittering sounds, which do not allow any alternative when the listener perceives the work. The sound is exactly what the vast majority of the spectators of the respective painting expected to hear from the machine. While music is called “a language,” we know that it cannot describe directly simply saying “red” or “black.” In order for the listener to understand how music responds to the piece of art, it is necessary for the beholder to be well acquainted with the stimulus. The importance of the listener’s familiarity with the original work of art grows proportionately to the level at which a composer establishes links between musical and extra-musical content of that original work. In this case, listening to Klebe’s work, we would not be able to imagine exactly the machine painted by Klee if we had not seen the painting earlier than heard the piece of music (Bruhn, 2008). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the second piece of music composed by Rytis Mažulis, we imagine an absolutely different picture. The thing is that Mažulis’ work was completed over twenty years later than the work by the German composer, and this fact found its reflection in the music. The means of music production changed since the first work was done, so did the idea of machinery and the sounds it produces. The people’s minds pictured different images of the Twittering machine created by Klee. In this case, we can listen to the music from the computer age, which is executed by a super-pianist who plays with a great many hands. This piece of art also possesses some features of onomatopoeia, but now it represents the sounds of a modern machine which is the product of technological progress. So, the comparison of these two musical works based upon the image created by Paul Klee at the beginning of the 20th century presents a lot of interesting material for thinking. We can clearly observe how art and people’s ideas of it changed with the course of time and the technological development of mankind. To make the logical conclusion of this comparative essay, we should say that creating the work of art that is planned to be a response to some other piece of painting or a literary work; composers often set themselves the challenge to represent not only the plot of the story, but also the artistic language in which this plot was first expressed, its form, and sometimes stylistic and other details of the original representation (Bruhn, 2008). The musical works by Giselher Klebe and Rytis Mažulis represent exactly this case of musical ekphrasis, and that is why these works are considered to be real masterpieces of art in the whole world. References Bruhn, Siglind. A Concert of Paintings: “Musical Ekphrasis” in the Twentieth Century. Web. Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine (Die Zwitschermaschine). 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Writing the Grant Part 2: Methodology and Evaluation Plans

best essay writers Writing the Grant Part 2: Methodology and Evaluation Plans. I don’t know how to handle this Writing question and need guidance.

For this Assignment:
Review the Final Project Guidelines provided in this module’s Learning Resources.
Carefully review your Gitlin & Lyons text, the University of Wisconsin-Extension resource, and the Community Tool Box resource as well as other Learning Resources that focus on methodology and evaluation. You may also find additional online information from reputable grant-related organizations, such as Foundation Center and individual private funders.
Remember that this content must demonstrate that it addresses funder interests as well as the grantee perspective.
In 3–5 pages, provide your Methodology and Evaluation Plans.
In developing the methodology for your project, keep these thoughts in mind:
A project should undertake only activities that will move it toward the objectives.
If any activities are not necessary for reaching the objectives, do not include them in the proposal.
The methodology includes the day-to-day, week-to-week, and/or month-to-month activities that will be carried out during the project period.
Writing the Grant Part 2: Methodology and Evaluation Plans

Post University Political News Kroger Employees Fired Despite Civil Rights Discussion

Post University Political News Kroger Employees Fired Despite Civil Rights Discussion.

Find a current political news story that highlights a perceived violation of a civil right and/or civil liberty. Provide a brief summary of the article / topic. Then answer the following question: Do you believe there has been a breach of civil rights / liberties? What connections can you make to laws or court cases that support your belief? Make sure to provide the link to the article in your thread and change your subject line to indicate the topic being reviewed and discussed. A news story can only be used once by the entire class, therefore “first come, first serve.” When responding to your classmates, make sure to read their shared article and debate whether you believe there has been a violation of civil rights / liberties.
Post University Political News Kroger Employees Fired Despite Civil Rights Discussion

George Washington Thomas Jefferson Contribution to American Revolution Essay

George Washington Thomas Jefferson Contribution to American Revolution Essay.

I’m working on a history writing question and need support to help me study.

Write a 6 to 8-page double-spaced essayIn identifying the changes in Jefferson’s ideas about slavery, race, and freedom, be sure to explain how his ideas also influenced other Americans who debated over the future of slavery after Jefferson’s retirement from public life.Must select at least (but not limited to) FIVE sources to analyze in support of your thesis answering the question. Your source selections depend entirely on the available evidence at your disposal—the Units 1-5 Primary Source ReadersIntro paragraph is where you introduce the topic and answer the historical question for a final. Briefly describe the type of evidence you’ll be relying upon. Present your thesis statement that firmly answers the question. The body makes up the vast majority of your essay. Analyze your primary sources and utilize the strongest quotes from that evidence for the purpose of supporting your thesis. Two approaches to how you could organize and present your evidence analysis: 1.Strict chronological approach—present your evidence in chronological order and analyze each source for the purpose of supporting your thesis. Enables you to clearly show historical change over time. 2.Thematic approach—organize your sources under key themes, analyzing the sources to address those themes, which in some way support your thesis. But even as you present these key themes, they need to be organized in a proper chronological fashion. The concluding paragraph would be where you reassert your arguments, summarizing how the evidence supports that you as the historian. The concluding paragraph is also a good space to remind the reader of the broader significance of your essay topic and your contributions to understanding it.
George Washington Thomas Jefferson Contribution to American Revolution Essay

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