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The Steam Turbine Technology Engineering Essay

Steam turbine technology is the almost all of electricity generation power plants from biomass used power generation in the world at present. This technology is well established due to availability of cheap or waste biomass in the world. As an example, USA has the installed capacity of electricity generation from biomass around 7000 MW with efficiency of 20 to 25 percent. The biomass Boiler steam turbine systems are expected to find more applications for electricity generation in the future, particularly in situations where cheap biomass, e.g. agro industrial residues, and waste wood, are available. On the technology side, efficiency of these systems is expected to improve through incorporation of biomass dryers, where applicable, and larger plant sizes as well as higher steam conditions. The steam boiler turbine arrangement, woody biomass is combusted in a furnace of a steam boiler with fluidized bed combustion. Heat released during combustion is utilized to raise high pressure and high temperature steam. This steam is expanded through steam turbine, which in turn drives an electric alternator. Exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed and returned to the boiler. Wood fuel is usually shredded to appropriate size and dried utilizing a part of the flue gas, before the fuel introduced into the furnace. This technology has been in existence in many parts of the world, specifically to produce electricity and motive power in the sugar industry utilising bagasse (residue produced after crushing sugar cane) as the fuel. In this modern version of this technology, wood fuel is shredded into very small pieces and combustion is carried out in a fluidised state. Although this improvement increases the cost of fuel preparation and air supply, it improves the combustion efficiency, thus reducing the operational costs and also reducing stack emission levels. A fluidized bed boiler could accept not only chipped wood but also residues such as rice husk, sawdust etc. This technology is widely used all over the world to generate electrical and motive power from solid fuel. The modern versions have incorporated many new features to improve operational efficiency, thus reducing cost of operation and to reduce emission levels. Some of these improvements are: Increasing the pressure of boiler, increasing the vacuum in the condenser, combustion air pre heating and steam reheating. Figure 11 schematically shows the principle of this conventional system Condenser Flue Gas Figure 11: Boiler-steam turbine system Cogeneration Cogeneration is the process of producing two useful forms of energy, normally electricity and heat, utilizing the same fuel source in an industrial plant where both heat/steam and electricity are needed, these requirements are normally met by using either; 1) Plant-made steam and purchased electricity, or 2) Steam and electricity produced in the plant in a cogeneration system. The second option results in significantly less overall fuel requirement. Steam turbine based cogeneration is normally feasible if electricity requirement is above 500 kW. Biomass based cogeneration is often employed for industrial and district heating applications; however, the district heating option would not be applicable in the tropical countries. A number of studies have been carried out on cogeneration in different agro industries, particularly, sugar mills and rice mills. These show that biomass based cogeneration technology is well established in the pulp and paper industry, plywood industry as well as a number of agro-industries, for example, sugar mills and palm oil mills. Normally, there is substantial scope for efficiency improvements in such cases. For example, bagasse is burnt inefficiently in sugar mills in most developing countries because of a number of reasons, e.g., old and obsolete machinery, disposal problems created by surplus bagasse, lack of incentive for efficient operation etc. Improving the efficiency of biomass-based cogeneration can result in significant surplus power generation capacity in wood- and agro-processing industries; in turn, this can play an important role in meeting the growing electricity demand in developing countries. India has launched an ambitious biomass based cogeneration programme. A surplus power generating capacity of 222 MW was already commissioned by the end of 1999, while a number of projects of total capacity 218 MW were under construction. The total potential of surplus power generation in the 430 sugar mills of the country has been estimated to be 3500 MW. Co-firing Co-firing is set up as an auxiliary firing with biomass energy source in coal fired boilers. The co-firing has been tested in pulverized coal (PC) boilers, coal-fired cyclone boilers, fluidized-bed boilers, and spreader stokers. Due to fuel flexibility of fluidized bed combustion technology, it is currently the dominant technology for co-firing biomass with coal. Co-firing can be done either by blending biomass with coal or by feeding coal and biomass separately and is a near term low-cost option for the efficient use of biomass. Co-firing has been extensively demonstrated in several utility plants, particularly in USA and Europe. Co-firing represents a relatively easy option for introducing biomass energy in large energy systems. Besides low cost, the overall efficiency with which biomass is utilized in co-firing in large high pressure boilers is also high. Current wood production systems in most countries are dispersed and normally can only support relatively small energy plants of capacity up to 5-20 MWe, although dedicated plantations can probably support much bigger plants in the future. Thus, biomass supply constraint also favour co-firing biomass with coal (with only a part of the total energy coming from biomass) in existing co-fired plants in the short term. Whole Tree Energy (WTE) system: The Whole Tree Energy (WTE) system is a special type of wood fired system, in which whole tree trunks, cut to about 25 ft long pieces, are utilized in the process of power generation in an innovative steam turbine technology that uses an integral fuel drying process. Flue gas is used to dry the wood stacked for about 30 days before it is conveyed to a boiler and burnt. Allowing the waste heat to dry the wet whole tree can result in improvement in furnace efficiency with net plant efficiency reaching comparable value of modern coal fired plants. Stirling Engine A Stirling engine is an external combustion engine; working on the principle of the Stirling thermodynamic cycle, the engine converts external heat from any suitable source, e.g. solar energy or combustion of fuels (biomass, coal, natural gas etc.) into power. These engines may be used to produce power in the range from 100 watts to several hundred kilowatts. Stirling engines can also be used for cogeneration by utilizing the rejected heat for space or water heating, or absorption cooling. A number of research institutes and manufacturers are currently engaged in developing biomass fired Stirling engine systems. For example, the Technical University of Denmark is developing medium and large Stirling engines fuelled by biomass. For 36 kWe and 150 kWe systems, the overall efficiency is about 20 percent and 25 per cent respectively. […..] Gasification Gasification is the process of converting a solid fuel to a combustible gas by supplying a restricted amount of oxygen, either pure or from air. The major types of biomass gasifiers are, Fixed bed gasifier, Fluidized bed gasifier, and Biomass integrated gasification combined cycles (BIGCC) Fixed Bed Gasification Fixed bed gasification technology is more than a century old and use of such gasifiers for operating engines was established by 1900. During World War II, more than one million gasifiers were in use for operating trucks, buses, taxis, boats, trains etc in different parts of the world. Currently, fixed bed gasification shows for the most part possible selection into biomass based power generation with capacity up to 500 kW. Although charcoal gasification presents no particular operational problem, the actual acceptance of the technology by potential users is rather insignificant at present, mostly because of low or no cost benefit that it offers. Also, producer gas is less convenient as an engine fuel compared with gasoline or diesel and the user has to have time and skill for maintaining the gasifiers-engine system. However in situations of chronic scarcity of liquid fuels, charcoal Gasifier-engine systems appear to be acceptable for generating power for vital applications. Thus, several gasoline-fueled passenger buses converted to operate with charcoal gasifiers were reported to be in use in at least one province of Vietnam in early 1990s. As reported by Stassen (1993), a number of commercial charcoal Gasifier-engine systems have been installed since early eighties in the South American countries. Wood gasification for industrial heat applications, although not practiced widely, is normally economically viable if cheap wood/wood waste is available. On the other hand, wood gasifiers-engine systems, if not designed properly, may face a wide range of technical problems and may not be commercially viable. Research and development efforts of recent years have been directed towards developing reliable gasifier-engine systems and the technology appears to be maturing fast. Although the demand for wood gasifiers is rather limited at present, a number of gasifier manufacturers appear to have products to offer in the international market. Gasification of rice husk, which is generated in rice mills where a demand for mechanical/electrical power also exists, has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. The rice husk gasifier design that has found quite wide acceptance is the so-called Open Core design that originated in China; this is basically a constant diameter, (i.e. throttles) downdraft design with air entering from the top. The main components of the gasifier are an inner chamber over a rotating grate, a water-jacketed outer chamber and a water seal-cum ash-settling tank. Gasification takes place inside the inner chamber. The char removed by the grate from inside the gasifier settles at the bottom of the water tank. At present, 120 to 150 rice husk gasifiers appear to be in operation in China. A third of the gasifiers are in Jiangsu Province; these include about thirty 160 kW systems and about ten 200 kW systems. A number of rice husk gasifier systems have been shipped to other countries namely, Mali, Suriname, and Myanmar. A husk gasifier system of capacity 60 kW was developed in 1980s to use in smaller mills in the developing countries. This prototype was successfully used in a mill in China, although no other such unit appears to have been built or used. Beside rice husk gasifiers, several other gasifier models have also been developed in China. Presently, more than 700 gasification plants are operating in China (Qingyu and Yuan Bin, 1997). As a result of several promotional incentives and R
Outsourcing Advantages Essay. Introduction Offshore outsourcing or off shoring entails the process of delegating services to either an overseas supplier or a foreign affiliate company. In the recent years, partly due to the digital revolution and increased multilateral relationships, many firms from the developed countries are trading their services in overseas markets. Previously, services such as IT consultancy, e-commerce, manufacturing, and call-centers could not be traded overseas. However, this relatively new phenomenon raises much debate concerning its consequences on the developed economies. In particular, outsourcing raises the possibility of companies undergoing restructuring and move most jobs to low wage countries to cut costs. Much of the discussion focuses on the negative consequences of offshore outsourcing. However, off shoring is likely to be beneficial to the economies of OECD countries through the reduction of costs of services in the process of restructuring. Moreover, since the developed countries, such as the United States, are, in absolute terms, the largest exporters of services, outsourcing would ensure that domestic firms have access to a larger market. International outsourcing presents more benefits to the United States’ economy and the economies of the developing countries. Economic Benefits of Outsourcing Many firms are outsourcing their services to offshore destinations. As the number of companies outsourcing their services increase, the associated risks decrease because businesses become more experienced and develop clearer objectives. Although the opponents of outsourcing cite unemployment as one of the consequences of outsourcing, global outsourcing is only responsible for few job losses in the U.S. (Belcourt 269). Both industrial and developing countries stand to benefit from global outsourcing in many respects. Outsourcing of services allows industrial countries to specialize in areas of their core competencies. Obviously, the main reason for outsourcing of one or more business processes, particularly in IT outsourcing, is cost reduction. Outsourcing allows a firm to focus on improving its core competencies such as technological development while delegating its secondary services, such as e-commerce, to a strategic destination overseas. Additionally, through outsourcing, highly specialized personnel can efficiently conduct their operations in a low cost environment. The efficiency implies a reduced market price of a firm’s products, which improves a firm’s positioning in the global market. The improvement in quality of a firm’s services and products is another important benefit of international outsourcing. Outsourcer companies normally seek vendors offering the best quality services and show more flexibility in their business processes. Additionally, outsourcing creates competition between potential vendors, which results to improved performance and increased flexibility. On that basis, companies outsource services to companies with resources and expertise to offer quality services, reduce risks, and save on costs. In particular, most companies outsource the technology part to specialized companies that are able to offer technological solutions at lower rates. For instance, in the US, IT companies usually outsource the normally labor-intensive software development to foreign firms in India with IT expertise. This allows firms to focus on developing their core priorities and competencies and reduce operating costs significantly. Additionally, there is a significant difference in wage levels between the US and India. Thus, outsourcing allows the US corporations to cut labor costs of up to 50% compared to costs incurred when operating in the United States (Shy, and Stenbacka 203). In the global market, the quality of services and their prices are the key factors that offer a firm a competitive advantage. Thus, the main rationale for outsourcing to middle-income countries is to ensure high quality standards at the lowest costs possible. This gives a company a competitive advantage in the global market. Additionally, middle-income countries, which offer favorable social and economic conditions, are more preferred for outsourcing. These countries have a relatively skilled labor and at the same time, low domestic wage level, hence an attractive destination to outsourcing companies. Benefits of Global Outsourcing to Developing economies Global outsourcing has many potential benefits to the developing economies. Outsourcing contributes to the creation and growth of employment in various outsourced services in developing economies. As aforementioned, most US firms outsource their services, particularly IT services, to India. According to Feenstra and Hanson, India’s business process outsourcing (BPO) sector dominated by US call centers, content development and administration services grew substantially from 42,000 employees in 1999 to 243,000 workers in 2004 (89). This shows the importance of the outsourcing industry to a country’s economy. Outsourcing also increases tourism inflows from the US to developing nations, hence, a source of foreign revenue. In addition, outsourcing opens up new exports for the developing economies. Outsourced services such as software development are a potential source of foreign revenue to the developing countries through exports. Presently, India accounts for most of the global business process outsourcing destination. India’s revenue from export of software services and other BPO services to the US in 2004 accounted for 70% of total exports (Shy and Stenbacka 209). Additionally, developing economies benefit from technology transfer and expertise from the outsourcing firms originating from the US and other developed nations. In India, for example, the Indian companies presently are able to provide value added services and advanced services such as computer chip design, business consulting, and pharmaceutical research among others. This arises partly due to increased investments from the US multinational corporations in research and development. Disadvantages of Outsourcing Although outsourcing presents many benefits to the US and other developing countries, it has risks, normally associated with new business ventures. First is the problem of contracting. Most of the vendor firms may not meet the technological, managerial, and legal requirements, hence, presents an outsourcing risk to the multinational corporations. However, the vendors can become competitive by acquiring appropriate technological and managerial skills relevant to the respective market. The US multinationals should provide decision-support information in order to ensure the vendor’s performance is satisfactory. Second is the political and economic uncertainty in vendor country. Inflation and fluctuation in exchange rates may reduce profit repatriation to the US; additionally, political instability or conflicts may also affect international outsourcing. However, proper government policies can create a favorable environment for international outsourcing like in India. From an economic perspective, global outsourcing of businesses from industrialized nations to developing countries inevitably results to some job loses in the developed nations. However, international outsourcing is a form of resource reallocation to more productive destinations that come with economic globalization. In essence, outsourcing accounts for only small job losses in the US, actually, the rapid machine automation and the changing business cycles being the main causes of job insecurity. Conclusion Offshore outsourcing has led to increased international competition and has caused major adjustments in the labor market. Through outsourcing, firms in the US can offer quality services at lower rates, which give them a global competitive advantage over in-house production. The economies of vendor countries benefit from outsourcing through the creation of employment and foreign revenue. Although international outsourcing causes job losses in the US, this can be avoided through labor liberalization in both developing and developed economies. Works Cited Belcourt, Monica. “Outsourcing – the benefits and the risks.” Human Resource Management Review 16.2 (2006):269-279. Feenstra, Robert, and Hanson, Godwin. Foreign investment outsourcing and relative wages. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996. Shy, Oz, and Stenbacka, Rune. “Strategic outsourcing”. Journal of Economic BehaviorOutsourcing Advantages Essay
UKNA3 – computer science.

Course Name: Quality improvementThe coursework will include system analysis, measurement, business evaluation, continual improvement, report writing and a presentation overviewAssessmentSubmit a technical report – structured, indexed, referenced etc.A proportion on the assigned marks will be allocated to the quality of the course work presentation.Target length for the report will be 20 pages (to include all references, appendix, diagrams etc.). The total emphasis will be on the quality and analysis within the report NOT the quantity.Summarise your report with a PowerPoint presentation (10 – 20 slides)A precision engineering company wants to develop / investigate the sub-contract (end of life, low volume) production of medical implant components – hip joints, knee / elbow / shoulder replacement parts. The company is ISO9001, ISO14001 accredited.Research the Quality Management Systems requirement for this market and compile a business plan for the manufacture of these components.Issues to address should include :-Identification of relevant Quality Management Systems. Process for establishing, verification and auditing of these additional quality systems.Material traceability, storage, issue and management Total process verification, traceabilityOrder management, dispatch. Process map (high level)etc.All case studies and researched material must be fully referenced.Assignment submitted must be the student’s own work
UKNA3 – computer science

Special Purpose Vehicle Project Financing Research Paper

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to examine the requirements for special purpose vehicle (SPV) project financing for a large infrastructure project. The project to be financed is a 200-mile underground railroad that will be used by electric trains in the UK. The project will cost approximately 12 billion pounds. Thus, a special purpose vehicle will be necessary to generate adequate funds to complete the project. In this respect, the paper will discuss the project financing process, advantages of using SPVs, and the requirements for a robust business case for using SPVs. Project financing refers to “the raising of funds on a limited recourse basis for the purposes of developing a large-scale capital intensive project through a special purpose vehicle”. Generally, the borrowed funds are often repaid using the revenue from the project. A special purpose vehicle refers to a firm whose “operations are limited to the acquisition and financing of specific assets or projects”. SPVs are usually established as subsidiaries whose assets and liabilities are structured in a manner that makes their obligations secure irrespective of the financial difficulties of their parent companies. The Requirements for a Robust Business Case Using SPVs is likely to have a robust business case if the following requirements are met. First, the sponsors must demonstrate the financial sustainability of the project to be financed. In particular, the goods or services that are to be provided by the project must have a clear demand in order to justify funding. For instance, the railroad must have adequate demand as a transport system in the UK. This will enable the sponsor to collect adequate revenue to repay the loans that will be used to construct it. Thus, the financial sustainability of the project must be examined by modeling the vulnerability of the projected cash flows to macroeconomic changes such as an increase in oil prices. Second, the lenders and sponsors should be able to identify all the major risks that are likely to affect the implementation of the project. The rationale of this requirement is that an unidentified risk cannot be mitigated. Thus, it will inevitably jeopardise the stability of the project, thereby exposing the lenders and sponsors to the risk of losing their investments. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the major risks that often affect the stability of large infrastructure projects adversely include completion delays, cost overruns, sponsor’s poor credit worthiness, and limited access to feedstock. The Channel Tunnel in the UK is an example of a major project whose stability was negatively affected due to poor identification of risks before implementation. Specifically, the stakeholders did not agree on the key details of the project and contingency measures were not put in place to cater for improvements such as adding the ventilation system. As a result, the project delayed by nearly 19 months, which in turn caused a cost overrun of approximately $3 billion. Third, accessible financing must be available to ensure a robust business case. The financing arrangements must guarantee high leverage and long tenor to improve the economic viability of the project. High leverage is important because it reduces the amount of capital that the sponsor has to invest in the project at the initial stage. Long tenor, on the other hand, ensures that the SPV has adequate time to repay the loan in a sustainable manner. In this respect, sponsors of large infrastructure projects use an elaborate mix of financing instruments to access the desired funds. Some of the major sources of financing that ensures high leverage and long tenor include commercial banks, export credit agencies (ECAs), and the bond market. The City Link in Melbourne, Australia is an example of a large-scale transport infrastructure project that was financed through several sources. The project’s total cost of $2.2 billion was obtained by raising equity capital, bonds, and bank loans. Finally, political stability is necessary to ensure the success of a large-scale infrastructure project. Political risks such as wars often interfere with the implementation of large-scale projects. For example, the construction process is likely to be suspended during a war, thereby causing delays and cost overruns. Therefore, the government must establish long-term political stability to ensure completion of the project and the repayment of the borrowed funds. Reasons and Advantages of Using SPVs Reasons One of the main reasons for using SPVs is to share the risks associated with implementing large-scale infrastructure projects with the financiers. SPVs are often formed as independent legal entities with several shareholders. The common shareholders of SPVs include lenders such as banks, the sponsoring company, institutional investors, and constructors. We will write a custom Research Paper on Special Purpose Vehicle Project Financing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the sponsoring company usually owns just a small percentage of the SPV. As a result, it is able to share the risks associated with the project with other shareholders of the SPV. For instance, in the event that the railroad project fails during implementation, the losses associated with the failure will be shared by the members of the consortium that will implement it. Thus, the overall negative financial impact on the sponsor will be reduced. SPVs are also used because they ensure limited recourse. In particular, the funds borrowed through SPVs can be viewed as limited recourse debts since the creditors have “only limited claims on the loan in the event of default”. The limited claim is achieved by transferring the assets and liabilities acquired using the loan to the SPV’s balance sheet. This means that the creditors’ claims will be limited to only the assets of the SPV if the sponsor fails to meet its debt obligations. Thus, the parent company or the sponsor will avoid the risk of losing its assets to the creditors if it fails to repay the loan. Advantages Using SPVs to access funding for a large-scale infrastructure project has the following advantages. First, it reduces the overall cost of accessing credit and ensures flexibility in financing. SPVs do not depend on the credit lines of their parent companies since they are treated as external entities. As an independent firm, the SPV is expected to establish its own credit lines. In this context, the SPV has to be presented to “the creditors as a stand-alone entity with its own risk-reward characteristics”. Therefore, the sponsoring firm can improve the credit worthiness of the SPV through adequate capital allocation. As a result, the SPV achieves favorable credit rating, which in turn reduces its cost of borrowing. In addition, the after tax cost of capital will reduce significantly if the interest paid on the debt is deductible from the pretax profit. Conversely, the sponsoring company can transfer its debts to the SPV to reduce its debt-to-equity ratio. As a result, the sponsor will be able to access credit easily and at a low interest rate. Apart from borrowing from banks, the SPV can access funding by selling equity to investors. This reduces the cost of capital since the investors will be compensated using the profits generated by the SPV rather than interest. Second, using SPVs facilitates high leverage financing. For instance, the SPV can enable the sponsor to finance up to 90% of the project through debt. The main benefit of high leverage to the sponsor is that it makes the project affordable and less risky. Not sure if you can write a paper on Special Purpose Vehicle Project Financing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, if the SPV that will implement the proposed railroad achieves a 90-to-10 debt-to-equity ratio, the sponsor will require only 1.2 billion pounds to invest in the project. This will not only make the project affordable, but will also reduce the financial risks that the sponsor will take by implementing the project. Third, special purpose vehicle project financing enables the government to achieve fiscal optimisation. In this case, the government uses a public-private partnership (PPP) arrangement to implement a large-scale transport infrastructure project. Specifically, the government uses the PPP to select a private company that finances the project through a special purpose vehicle. As a result, the government shifts the financing responsibility to the private sector, thereby enabling it to avoid tying huge financial resources in a single project. This perspective is based on the fact that the government amortises the cost of the project over its concession period. Fourth, SPVs allow financiers to earn a level of return on investment that is proportional to the risks associated with the project. This perspective is based on the fact that the financiers directly obtain revenue from the services provided by the project. For instance, the investors in the SPV will be compensated by charging users of the railroad a predetermined fee. This ensures cost recovery and a high return on investment, especially, if efficiency is enhanced during the implementation and operation of the project. In addition, charging a user fee improves the success of the project since the users will only pay the fee if the services are excellent. In this regard, the SPV will focus on improving the quality of the project to avoid losing money during the operation phase. The investors in the SPV are also likely to make excess profits if the internal rate of return (IRR) is higher than the cost of capital. Another benefit is that the assets of the SPV act as collateral for borrowed funds. This allows lenders to recover the borrowed funds if the SPV fails to repay. The sponsor, on the other hand, is likely to benefit from low interest rates if the assets of the SPV can provide adequate collateral. Fifth, using SPVs enables the sponsor to collaborate with a variety of investors. This not only ensures access to adequate financing, but also access to the technical expertise that is required to deliver the project. For example, technical risks such as poor workmanship can be eliminated if the contractor is one of the investors in the SPV. The Project Financing Process The project financing process has three main phases namely, the pre-financing stage, the financing stage, and the post financing stage. Each of these stages has specific processes that have to be completed effectively. Pre-financing Stage The first process in this stage is to identify the project to be financed. Since the proposed railroad is a public good, the project will be identified and announced by the government. This will include identification of the services that will be provided by the project, their demand, and users. The second process is identification of risks and developing strategies for mitigating them. In this process, the sponsor should collaborate with consultants or technical advisors to identify and quantify a variety of risks that are likely to derail the implementation of the project. The risk assessment should cover areas such as project completion, pricing, operation, technology, environment, interest rate, and insolvency risks among others. Once the risks are known, effective strategies must be adopted to prevent or minimise their effects on the project to ensure success. The last process involves “conducting technical and financial feasibility studies”. Technical feasibility studies should focus on assessing the suitability of the proposed project location, design, operation, and the equipment to be used. This will help in identifying and correcting technical problems that might lead to failure. Financial feasibility studies, on the other hand, should include a “business model that highlights the projected financial statements with assumptions, the financing structure, internal rate of return, and the net present value”. The pitfalls at this stage include identification of a project whose services have no adequate demand. The Betuweroute in Rotterdam is an example of a major transport infrastructure project whose implementation was highly resisted by the public, thereby causing delays in its completion. The public resisted the project because the technical feasibility study did not consider alternative transport solutions that could have reduced costs, while improving efficiency at the port of Rotterdam. Poor risk assessment is another major pitfall in the pre-financing stage. For example, the lenders and investors in the SPVs that were established by Enron made losses because they could not determine the financial stability of the company. Financing Stage Equity arrangement or allocation is the first process in the financing stage. This process involves identifying the lead sponsor and the co-sponsors. Additionally, the proportion of equity that will be allocated to angle investors, financial institutions, and non-financial institutions has to be specified. Once the equity arrangement is complete, the SPV must embark on negotiations and syndication to access the credit needed to complete the project. The negotiations are often followed by equity and loan disbursements. The main pitfall in this stage is failure to negotiate a favorable price and repayment schedule for the loans. For instance, a high interest rate might lead to financial difficulties in the SPV. Moreover, failure to establish a contractual agreement to guide the relationships among the stakeholders can lead to disagreements that might jeopardise access to funding. Post Financing Stage This stage focuses on monitoring and evaluation to ensure that the project implementation is on schedule and within the planned costs. Therefore, the managers of the SPV must evaluate project status reports and financial reports to identify and correct emerging problems in time to avoid default and project failure. Financial closure is also done at the post financing stage. This involves completing all financial transactions that are associated with the project to ensure that all outstanding invoices are paid before the completion of the project. Repayment of the borrowed funds is also a major process in the post financing stage. Repayment typically begins after the end of the grace period. Based on the contractual agreements between the SPV and the lenders, the loans must be paid in time through quarterly, monthly, or annual installments to avoid penalties. In addition, the investors in the SPV can be compensated through dividends. After the project closure, monitoring efforts should shift to the operation process. Monitoring the operation of the project will facilitate collection of adequate revenue to repay the borrowed funds and compensate the investors. Thus, the main pitfall in the post financing stage is failure to monitor the progress of the project effectively to avoid completion delays. For instance, cost overruns and losses are likely to arise if completion takes longer than planned. Sustainability Aspects First, economic sustainability is necessary to ensure the success of large-scale infrastructure projects that are financed through SPVs. In particular, the project should be able to generate adequate income during the concession period to compensate the financiers effectively. Thus, the services provided by the project should be of high quality. In addition, equity and affordability must be enhanced to ensure adequate use of the project, which in turn leads to revenue maximisation. Second, environmental sustainability is a pre-requisite for the success of large-scale transport infrastructure projects. Large-scale projects often cause environmental degradation through emission of greenhouse gases, destruction of vegetation, pollution of water bodies, and destruction of animal habitats. Therefore, a project can only be successful if its ecological footprint is minimal. For instance, constructing a railroad through a wildlife conservancy or forest can be resisted by the public, thereby causing failure during the implementation stage. Finally, social sustainability has to be ensured to enhance the success of large-scale transport projects. Enhancing social sustainability involves reducing the undesirable effects of the project on the health, leisure, culture, and economic activities of the community in which it is implemented. Generally, a project that improves the welfare of the community is likely to avoid resistance and attract capital from lenders and investors. Therefore, social sustainability has to be addressed to enhance the success of the project. Conclusion A special purpose vehicle should be used to access funding for a large-scale project if there is a clearly defined business case. The main advantage of using SPVs is that they enable the sponsor to access off-balance sheet financing by transferring the assets and liabilities of a credit facility to an independent entity. As a result, the sponsor benefits from low cost of capital. In addition, SPVs enable the sponsor to protect its core business from the risks associated with the credit and the project to be implemented. However, these benefits can only be realised if due diligence is done to identify and mitigate the pitfalls associated with the various stages of the project financing process. References Cantarelli, C. (2011). Cost overruns in large-scale transport infrastructure projects. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology. Fight, A. (2005). Introduction to project finance. London, England: Butterworth-Heinemann. Gardner, D.,

Writer’s Choice

professional essay writers Writer’s Choice. Paper details Einstein Once Wrote: “People like us who believe in physics know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. Time, in other words, he said, is an illusion. Many physicists since have shared this view, that true reality is timeless.” Choose one of the following two topics: 1) In your paper, reflect upon whether the universe we live in is real or whether it is a simulation. OR 2) In your paper, reflect on your view of the world we live prior to this class vs. your view of the world towards the end of the course. Font: Times New Roman Number of Pages: 4-6 (In addition to a Title Page and Reference Pages) Font Size: 12 Line Spacing: DoubleWriter’s Choice

Impact of Technology on the Fashion Industry

Impact of Technology on the Fashion Industry. Background of clothing industry : Textile and clothing manufacturing businesses are one of the most traditional and oldest industries in United Kingdom. The clothing industry dates back to 4000 BC when these textiles were used for decorative beauty as well as to preserve and the balance body heat and the outside environment including protection from injuries.(Niwa,2002). Although this was the original function and purpose, they would also aspire to have fabrics portraying a beautiful appearance forming decorative beauty too. The industry has grown greatly over time, and has since blossomed into an area where supply and demand is high, not just for functional purposes, but for decorative purposes too. With technologies growing too, and demand in the retail area, the clothing industry is booming. “Clothing manufacture is a an assembly oriented activity with a great range of raw materials, product type, production volumes, supply chain, retail market and associated technologies”. (carrImpact of Technology on the Fashion Industry

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discussion replies. I need an explanation for this Nursing question to help me study.

Reply to the following 3 post with 100 words one reference each
Florida’s Policies On Access To Contraception And Abortion For Women

Adis Medina
Throughout the US, abortions present a tremendous medical challenge. One of the primary reasons for this is the correlation between the accessibility of abortions and infant and maternal mortality rates. Therefore, this essay will discuss the prevailing laws and statistics on this subject to find whether these data are interconnected.
Florida laws on abortion and their amendments are numerous. However, “Florida’s unconstitutional and unenforceable law makes any abortion procedure that falls within a broad definition a felony, unless necessary to preserve the life of a woman endangered by a physical disorder, physical illness, or physical injury and every reasonable precaution is taken to preserve the life of the fetus” (Fla. Stat. Ann. §§ 782.30 to .36 (Enacted 2000), as cited by “Florida State Laws,” 2020). It is specifically essential that, even in case of danger described by this law, only those women who have an insurance or a sufficient amount of finance can access this service. Thus, one can expect increased infant and maternal mortality rates among the least wealthy populations.
Dividing the statistics by racial criteria, one can achieve effective evaluation. According to Hodnett & Fredericks, infant mortality in Florida is the highest among the black population (10.7), with Asians, Hispanics, and white ranking from 5.1 to 4.9 (2003). As it is traditionally considered that the black community is also the poorest one, the correlation is evident.
Thus, one can conclude that, in the state of Florida, infant and maternal death rates directly correlate with abortion availability. More specifically, abortion is banned, and in the case of emergency, it is only the part of the treatment that can be guaranteed either by insurance or by finance. Therefore, the most impoverished population of Florida, that of the African American race, is affected the most.
Florida State Laws. (2020). Retrieved January 27, 2020, from…

Hodnett, E., & Fredericks, S. (2003). Support during Pregnancy for Women at Increased Risk of Low Birthweight Babies (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3. doi: doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000198
Nosa Erhabor
The converging policies concerning contraceptives and abortion in Florida are well rebounded in the various debates in other states as well as the national level. The state legislation limiting access to contraceptives and abortion continues to be introduced. Limiting abortion access would mean that the politicians are in for policies that usually help women to avoid unintended pregnancy. However, a senior policymaker in the Guttmacher Institute has legislation that seeks women’s right to abortion services is protected. In this paper, I will majorly look at the state’s maternal and infant mortality rates as well as the factors associated.
The infant mortality rate, which stands for the number of dead infants per 1,000 live births, is a critical marker for the overall health in society. In Florida, infant mortality is estimated to be around 5.8 per 1,000 births (Callaghan, MacDorman, Shapiro-Mendoza, & Barfield, 2017). The major cause for this has not yet changed in the recent past years despite the scientific research conducted and the increased parental care. Infant mortality rate can be
attributed to various factors from accidents, birth defects, as well as infections. The causes include; low birth weight and preterm birth where the kids have trouble in fighting infections as their immune system is not fully formed. Congenital defects affect the baby’s function. Also, sudden infant death syndrome is another cause. Additionally, pregnancy complications, among others.
Maternal mortality rate, which is the number of registered women death due to giving birth or pregnancy complications, has doubled over the past 25 years. It is estimated in Florida that there are 24 maternal mortalities per every 1,000 live births (MacDorman, Declercq, Cabral, & Morton, 2016). This rate has been too high due to complications that can be prevented. The factors causing maternal mortality can be direct or indirect, and they include; postpartum bleeding, obstetric infection, ectopic pregnancy, embolism, among others. Most of these causes can be prevented if well catered for, thus, it is recommendable to avoid some of the cause
Callaghan, W. M., MacDorman, M. F., Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K., & Barfield, W. D. (2017). Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007–2013. American journal of obstetrics and Gynecology, 216(1), 73-e1.
MacDorman, M. F., Declercq, E., Cabral, H., & Morton, C. (2016). Is the United States maternal mortality rate increasing? Disentangling trends from measurement issues short title: US Maternal Mortality Trends. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 128(3), 447.
Yulier Rodriguez-Medina

Spirituality and Decision-MakingNumerous medical attendants are not sure about tending to this part of care, yet the profound needs of patients have a crucial job in nursing and recuperation, state Lisa Pullen and partners
Nursing research has demonstrated that dealing with the profound needs of administration clients is a basic piece of all encompassing practice, and is altogether identified with physical and mental wellbeing, clinical results and personal satisfaction. This article talks about the pertinence of otherworldliness to nursing practice and training, especially in the field of psychological wellness, and to nursing research. t likewise portrays and a few instruments that can be utilized to survey otherworldliness.
Being available to the individual and listening deferentially are frequently the most significant factors in endeavoring to give such needs. Be that as it may, numerous attendants don’t feel enough arranged to survey and recognize these requirements, and they are ineffectively resourced to give intercessions. This has huge ramifications for nursing training and associations. Further research is expected to advance a superior comprehension of otherworldliness and profound consideration in nursing. This could likewise empower fitting nursing intercessions to be planned and executed, curricular materials and chances to be created and skillful instructing and supervision to be completed.
Otherworldliness might be a dynamic in the patient’s comprehension of the infection. For instance, when I was an occupant I saw a multi year-elderly person whose spouse had quite recently left her. She discovered that her significant other had AIDS, and she requested to be tried. At the point when I met with her to disclose to her that the test outcome returned constructive, I attempted to clarify that her disease was analyzed early and that there had been late advances in the treatment of HIV that were permitting individuals to live longer with their sickness. She continued alluding to God and regarding why God was doing this to her. I perceived that we weren’t interfacing, so I got some information about her remarks. She continued to enlighten me concerning being assaulted as a young person and having a premature birth. In her conviction framework, that wasn’t right. I recollect her definite words: “I have been hanging tight for the discipline, and this is it.” She would not like to talk about treatment or preventive consideration, for example, inoculation. I urged her to see a clergyman, which she did routinely. Meanwhile, I continued seeing her, and I conversed with her about her issues of blame and discipline just as some instruction about HIV. Yet, it was not until 1 year later that she was eager to look for treatment. She required time to work out her own issues of blame before having the option to acknowledge her ailment and manage it. Presently, she discloses to me that had I not tended to her otherworldly issues in that first visit, she could never have come back to see me or some other doctor.
In numerous patients’ lives, profound or strict convictions may influence the choices they make about their wellbeing and ailment and the treatment decisions they make. It is important that we as doctors and medicinal services suppliers tune in to all parts of our patients’ lives that can influence their basic leadership and their adapting abilities.
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