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The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner Research Paper

William Faulkner is certainly one of the best American writers of the 20th century. His ability to capture the zeitgeist of the American South contributes substantially to the cultural understanding of that specific time and place. However, his narrative style has always been characterized as notoriously difficult, and for that reason, most readers can enjoy his splendid language and cultural imagery but remain unable to grasp the key messages of his texts. In this paper, I will try to present Sartre’s view that Faulkner’s narrative technique illustrates his idea about time and Doreen Fowler’s Lacanian interpretation of the character of Caddy in Sound and Fury. To grasp the significance of Faulkner’s work for the 20th-century literature, one only needs to consider the fact that one of the best-known philosophers of that century, Jean-Paul Sartre, was profoundly interested in the novel Sound and Fury and wrote a very influential piece of criticism on it. Sartre’s thesis is in that essay is that the non-chronological narrative in the Sound and Fury is not merely a matter of style or aesthetic preferences but the fundamental elements of the novel’s content (Sartre 229). The broken chronology is not how Faulkner delivers his vision of the world – it is his vision of the world. In other words, according to Sartre, Faulkner is trying to break out of the artificially created the illusion of linearity of time (Sartre 229). The existence of clocks and other forms of measuring time perpetuate this illusion. The following quote from the novel illustrates this quite well, “time is dead as long as it is being clicked off by little wheels, only when the clock stops does time come to life” (Faulkner 104). Faulkner tries to dismantle the distinction between the past, the present, and the future. He disturbs this temporal structure by removing the future completely and blurring the boundary between the past and the present. The events of the future fly into the characters in a completely deterministic fashion. Even events like suicide that often seem well-contemplated are completely fixed. Sartre (230) writes, “all Faulkner’s art aims to suggest to us that Quentin’s soliloquy and his last walk are already his suicide” (Sartre 230). By removing the possibility of the future from the novel, the present itself becomes completely confusing as the events of the present keep the protagonist in a state of surprise. Ironically, the past is the only domain in which the character has any freedom as he or she can recreate it and reinterpret it. A person only lives in their memory. Sartre’s view of the novel is very profound and useful as a tool for interpreting, sometimes very confusing, narrative in the text. For instance, the first part in which the reader is presented with the thoughts of Benji becomes truly clear and effective once one takes this perspective advocated by Sartre. In this part of the book, the events from the present are narrated in such a way that they resemble purely sensory experience, something that does not truly enter Benji’s mind. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In parallel, Benji’s thoughts about some of his memories appear, and Beni seems to be living through his past rather than the present events. Again, this idea of the present merely falling upon us while the past remains open for our reappraisal and reinterpretation plays the key role. Next, different theoretical perspectives that inform literary critics have also produced very interesting interpretative insights about Faulkner’s writing. Coming from a Lacanian perspective, Fowler (34) argues that the character of Caddy is the key to understanding the novel Sound and Fury. Even though there is no separate section that is devoted to presenting her thoughts and her perspective on the events in the family, Caddy is certainly the thread that ties the other narratives together. According to Fowler (35), Caddy slips through these different stories and is constantly on the move. There is no way for other characters to take hold of her even though Jason attempts to do so quite aggressively. In this poststructuralist theoretical strand, Caddy would be the perfect example of an entity whose presence is crucial to give meaning to the text, and yet, it is absent. In much the same way as Lacan thinks that alienation from the mother is crucial for the child’s identity formation, mother’s presence is also necessary as a reference point for the child to know about what is his or her identity defined. In other words, to understand the meaning of anything, we need something that is at the same time present in the defined thing and absents from it. Fowler (35) argues that Caddy’s simultaneous presence and absence in the novel defines its meaning. Caddy’s is also the central figure of all three individual narratives as she is the object of this presence/absence ambivalence that defines the lives of all three male figures. Caddy plays the role of the displaced biological mother of all three characters – the mother that is both intrusively present with her demanding character and completely absent in her emotional alienation. Caddy, on the other hand, is the desired mother-like figure to all three characters. Fowler (40) illustrates this quite well about Quentin. Quentin’s desire for Caddy is the defining tension of his identity; however, the consummation of that desire negates his identity, and he ends up committing suicide. Fowler (40) writes, “This equation of sex and death is extended to include Caddy because for Quentin sex with Caddy, a displaced mother figure, images a return to an imaginary unity before the onset of alienation and identity.” In other words, the moment Caddy becomes radically present in his life, he, paradoxically, loses her and, consequently, loses himself as well. The analysis offered by Fowler is very interesting and elegant one. In particular, the explanation for, seemingly unmotivated, Quentin’s suicide is truly enlightening. Also, the reader does have the sense that Caddy is somehow the key to the understanding of the novel as the image of her is constantly in the background of the story, and only rarely does it come to the forefront. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, without these theoretical insights from Lacanian psychoanalysis, one cannot have a framework within which to try to explain her status. Fowler’s success is in unifying the Lacanian theory and Faulkner’s mysterious style and thereby showing the brilliance of both. In conclusion, Faulkner’s narrative technique is in the service of portraying his philosophical view about the nature of time. The complete disregard for the future and focus on the past is the reflection of Faulkner’s belief that the events of the present and the future are completely fixed, and we can only experience the past. Next, the character of Caddy is the key to understanding many events in the novel if it is analyzed from the Lacanian perspective. Caddy’s absence is necessary as a reference point for the identity formation of each character. The negation of that absence, as is illustrated by the case of Quentin, results in the character’s self-annihilation. Works Cited Faulkner, William. The sound and the fury: the corrected text, New York: Vintage Books, 1990. Print. Fowler, Doreen. Faulkner: the return of the repressed, Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1997. Print. Sartre, Jean-Paul. “Time in Faulkner: the sound and the fury.” William Faulkner: Three Decades of Criticism. Ed. Frederick Hoffman and Olga Vickery. Harcourt: Brace
College of Central Florida Cultures and Nonverbal Communication Discussion.

1. Movie ClipCultures vary greatly on the appropriate ways to greet another individual. Take a look at the links below and relate them ALL to what the text says about the Synchrony of Nonverbal Communication Codes.
New Zealandhttps://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vivoId=5994e50a3cec…
Indiahttps://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vivoId=e4e0f3137bad…
Greecehttps://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vivoId=fc24b38803e5…
Japanhttps://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vivoId=21b280371e8f…
Philippineshttps://online.fiu.edu/videos/?vpvid=3193d9e0-3c5a…2.Interesting Fact & IdeaDid you know that in Mexico it is considered a challenge when you put your hands on your hips? That in France, when you kiss someone’s cheeks, you should start on the right side? That in Britain and Thailand people point with their heads? That in Poland is acceptable for a stranger to join you at your restaurant table for dinner? That winking has no meaning in Japan? Or that yawning is considered rude in Argentina? Did you know that in Hong Kong it is rude to beckon to people with your finger? That in Korea it is rude to speak with your hands in your pockets? That in Spain you can clap by snapping your fingers? Or that in Brazil you can express doubt by pulling down your right eyelid? Why are there such cultural differences in nonverbals around the world?3. The GlobePlease check to see if the Image(s) you are being asked to review has a title. If there is a title, then I expect you to click on the title and read the corresponding document about the image and phrase your answer in a way that demonstrates your comprehension of this document as it relates to the theory in the text.Go to The Globe. Locate the Country of Afghanistan (in Asia). Take a look at the photographs. The text discusses Appearance and Attire as a category of nonverbal communication. One of the items listed in this category is clothing.
What is the traditional woman’s dress of Afghanistan? Explain briefly what the link says about it4. World of GesturesGestures create the potential for strong cultural conflicts and misunderstandings. Many gestures have one meaning in one culture and a completely different meaning in another culture.
Identify 3 U.S. gestures that have a different meaning in another culture. Describe the gesture, give the American meaning, state the other culture it is used in, and the meaning in that culture.
College of Central Florida Cultures and Nonverbal Communication Discussion

CHM 2210 organic chemistry

CHM 2210 organic chemistry.

I I need help with a simple discussion board as following usually strongly recommend that you use molecular models for this course. If all the molecular model kits on Earth suddenly disappeared (poof!), come up with some alternative materials and sources for modeling or examining structures in three dimensions (not just flat representations). Once again, be creative (but since that’s the purpose of the assignment, nothing extra this week–I’m still recovering from last week’s creations). You will have to post before you see your classmates’ responses. Comments and responses encouraged, but not required.Fun Fact: The Darling models I recommend don’t have that name because they’re cute. They were actually created by Stephen Darling at the University of Akron, where I attended graduate school. Since Akron is the “Rubber/Polymer Capitol” of the world, making them in a flexible plastic was on point. I use them because you can a) rotate bonds easily, and b) put together some really strained ring conformations, and you can see that strain. And no, I don’t get any affiliate money from this. I just like them.
CHM 2210 organic chemistry

Fire Management Practices Research Paper

best essay writers Introduction Fire is one of the biggest factors that determine management and development taking place in forests around the world. Evolution of certain forest ecosystems has been associated with frequent fires resulting from either human or natural causes while other ecosystems are impacted negatively by forest fires. Cases of massive destruction of forests from fire are recorded every year leading to huge economic losses. The losses occur owing to the fact that livelihoods, timber, housing, environmental and other recreational facilities are destroyed . Most of the wildfires occurring in forests nowadays are caused by the wrong use of fire in transforming forests into useful agricultural land, sustaining grazing activities, hunting, preparing land for mineral extraction and establishment of industries among other uses. Land conflicts and negligence such as dropping cigarettes may also be another source of forest fires. Forest fires have been deemed as the single most channel through which great destruction of forests occur but it also serves as an important method of checking the health composition of certain ecosystems. The conventional perspective that fire is destructive and should be fought immediately leads to the view that it is in fact possible for fire to be used as a management tool in some acceptable ecological conditions. Background of Kuwait Oil Wells In February 1938, discoveries were made that the Burgan field in Kuwait was rich in oil. The desert part of Kuwait had been observing unusual black patches but it was not until investigations were done that it was discovered that great wealth lay underground. In 1921, the country was under the leadership of a visionary and resourceful leader in the name of Sheikh Ahmad who was to take the country through the difficult moments (KPC, 2009). As the 1930s approached, there was a decline in trade and the new ruler together with the people of Kuwait were aware of the prospects of oil mining in other neighboring countries like Saudi Arabia. In 1932, the discovery of oil in Bahrain made Kuwait pregnant with expectations that the surface deposits indicated that there was underground supply of a commodity capable of boosting the economy of the country. In 1934, the ruler of Kuwait signed the Kuwait Oil Concession Agreement intended at increasing the wealth of Kuwait (KPC, 2009). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Initial drilling of oil started in Bahrain but later recommendations were made to take the process to Burgan. Studies were conducted and drilling in this area was carried out in 1937 and 1938 which led to the discovery of oil. The quantity of oil in this region was high that it gushed out in such a manner that it could not be controlled. There was no adequate mud to block the hole that had been drilled and this necessitated the use of alternative methods to control the situation. In 1946, Sheikh Ahmad steered plans to start exporting oil to other countries. This elevated Kuwait and was ranked among the world famous oil producers. The same year saw the first shipment of oil from Kuwait, something that was highly celebrated. The year 1976 marked the onset of a new era when the oil industry in Kuwait was nationalized. Just as the rest of Arab countries that were producing oil, Kuwait started deliberating with its counterparts in a bid to gain full control over its oil resources. The state continued increasing its share in the biggest oil company in the country until it eventually gained full control. Kuwait signed an agreement with Gulf and British Petroleum according the country complete control over its oil resources (KPC, 2009) Classes of Fires With regard to the processes involved in putting off fires, they are normally classified into various classes. The different classes of fires are on the basis of the fuel that ignites the fire, a factor that further gives the criteria for choosing the most suitable agent to be used in extinguishing the fire. On the basis of the type of fuel that causes fire, there are four different types of fires. Fires Resulting from Ordinary Combustibles This class of fires is the most prevalent type occurring as a result of heating, ignition and subsequent combustion of organic materials, rubber, plastics and cloth. The fire goes on burning on condition that heat, oxygen, fuel and chemical reactions exist to sustain the process. This class of fire is considered un-harmful as long as it is used in uncontrolled circumstances. For example, a cap fire where the source of heat is a different fire or natural availability of oxygen and a link of the three chemical reactions. Since the fire is only limited to wood and there are no other flammable substances, it is not dangerous. We will write a custom Research Paper on Fire Management Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, if a fire of this type is left to burn in an unrestricted environment, it can be dangerous since it can spread to other flammable substances causing it to be difficult to control. When its control becomes a problem then techniques of firefighting are essential. Containing and putting off fire in this class is relatively easy since it can be extinguished by simply cutting the supply of oxygen, heat, fuel or better still disrupting the chemical reaction that facilitates the process. The most elementary way of eliminating the heat is by spraying water to the burning substances. Oxygen supply to the fire can be removed using a fire extinguisher. Since this type of fire is the most common, it is important for firefighting departments to have equipment for fighting it in order to prevent damages (Melbourne University, 2004). Fires Resulting from Gases and Flammable Liquids This class of fires is caused by gases and liquids that are flammable and capable of undergoing combustion. Just like it has been mentioned in the case of class A fires, this class of fires require fuel, oxygen, heat and chemical reactions for burning to take place. The difference in the fuels that cause fires is that fires from this class are caused by liquids that are highly flammable such as gasoline and natural gas. Water should not be used to extinguish this type of fires since this has the impact of scattering the fire and making it possible to spread to other places. The fires in this category are extinguished by use of halon and dry chemical extinguishing agents. These agents make it difficult for the chemical reactions to go on hence depleting the fire (Hassam, 2011). Fires Resulting from Electrical Equipments This class of fires is of electrical natures which involve electrical equipment which have the potential of being energized. They occur in the event of short circuiting or when electrical cables become overloaded. These types of fires are very dangerous and cannot be extinguished by use of water since water itself is a good conductor of electricity hence has the potential of making the fire spread fast. These types of fires are extinguished by using extinguishing agents like Carbon dioxide, FM-200 and extinguishers that use dry powder of a chemical nature. Fires Caused By Metals This class of fires is caused by ignition of flammable metals such as lithium, sodium and potassium among others. The above mentioned metals ignite at once after their exposure in the air following a reaction with atmospheric oxygen. Among the metals, sodium is the most flammable and its exposure in the air produces sparks hence the safest way of storing it is dipping it in kerosene. Not sure if you can write a paper on Fire Management Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fire resulting from metals can be dangerous unless measures of control are taken immediately. Just like the electrical fires, using water to extinguish them can worsen the fire hence they require their unique extinguishing agents to put them off (Hassam, 2011). Traditional Methods of Extinguishing Oil Well Fires The first traditional method of fighting fire in oil wells is by spraying water on the fire. This method has one benefit in that it initiates a cooling effect on the burning oil. However, the method is not very effective when it comes to fighting oil well fires. Water and oil are immiscible and this ensures that the oil does not get wet hence the oil being heated is not adequately cooled. The second traditional method used in extinguishing oil well fires is the use of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide does not burn and its density is higher than that of air while it is in the gaseous form so it blankets the fire when sprayed. However, the methods used to deliver the carbon dioxide in oil wells are usually not effective. This is because the fire is in an oil well where pressurized combustible fluid normally facilitates the fire. The best way to extinguish this fire is to initiate a cooling effect in the surroundings and cutting the supply of oxygen till the fire is extinguished (CIAF, 2011). The third traditional method used in extinguishing oil well fires is the use of cold fire. This is a chemical associated with plants and once there is presence of heat, it undergoes endothermic reactions. It also surrounds the source of the fuel to ensure that there is no additional burning. Since oxygen, fuel and heat are the key components that cause fire, cold fire takes care of these three components. The traditional products used extinguish the fire by eliminating oxygen through smothering it in different ways. Some of the traditional methods are messy and usually cause blisters to the skin. For example, the halon extinguisher eliminates oxygen not only for the fire but also in the surroundings posing a danger to human life. The fourth traditional method used in extinguishing oil well fires is digging diverting wells and completely destroying the main well. This is a dangerous procedure since it puts the operators at grave danger and risks losing the well completely. This deprives the country of a gainful natural resource. It is also a risky method since poisonous gases and radiation pose a risk to the people putting off the fire (CIAF, 2011). Modern Methods of Extinguishing Oil Well Fires As a result of the recurrent fires in Kuwait oil wells, it was discovered that the traditional methods that were being used to fight the fires were not sufficient. This crisis necessitated the adoption of new methods of extinguishing fires. Exploding the wells with Dynamite This method involves the use of a large pipe through a boom erected on a bulldozer to exactly locate where the well is in order to conduct accurate inspection. After doing this, a drum containing dynamite is suspended at the end of the boom to a bulldozer sprayed with water and then positioned well. The burning well is then sprayed with water with the intention of reducing the temperature. The bulldozer which is fitted with a galvanized iron shed and a tiny hole for the driver to peep through is then moved towards the source. Dynamite earlier deposited at the source is exploded followed by detonation of the charge. Explosion of dynamite consumes all the available oxygen hence putting off the fires. This method of extinguishing oil well fires is similar to the traditional method of cold fire which also eliminates oxygen hence putting off the fire (Husain, 1995). Raising the Plume Raising the plume is another modern method used to extinguish fire in oil wells in Kuwait. This method involves using a metal casing of between 30 and 40 feet high which is erected above the blown head making the flame to rise above the ground. This is followed by a constant pumping of water or liquid nitrogen in the casing hence depleting the fire of oxygen supply. The result of this process is the putting off the fire completely. In some cases, wet jet was used to replace the liquid nitrogen. Directing Water Jets on Water Heads This is another modern method used to extinguish oil well fires by directing water stream jet towards the source from a safe distance. Various methods are used prominently among them being the big wind method used in Hungary which extinguished the fire within 30-40 seconds. The other conventional methods took a bit longer in jetting the water to extinguish the fire with temperatures ranging 300 to 400 degrees piling up in the area around the wells. Accomplishing New Oil Well Extinguishing Methods and their Impact The new methods of extinguishing oil well fires were accomplished through various ways. For instance, use of dynamite was accomplished by heaping dynamite at the source of the wells then blowing it off. This had the impact of depleting all the available oxygen hence extinguishing the fire. Raising the plume had the effect of elevating the flames high above the ground such that the flames could not destroy the wells. In accomplishing these new methods, specialists and people with expertise in the fields were used to ensure to ensure the effectiveness of the methods. Finances were also mobilized to meet the high costs involved in the shift from traditional methods into these modern methods (Husain, 1995). The new methods had a great impact on traditional methods of fire management. Some of the traditional methods that were in place had been described as being ineffective in extinguishing oil well fires. This problem was solved by the new methods. The new methods also eliminated the risks such as contact with poisonous materials associated with traditional fire fighting methods. Environmental Influence of Gulf War and Oil Fire The gulf war and oil fire led to numerous environmental influences in the affected areas. There was no clean up in the entire area affected by the oil fires hence sediments of oil remained long after the oil fires had been stopped. Another influence on the environment is that the salt marshes are still present in areas that were affected by the oil fires. The mangroves and the rocky shores are the only features that have recovered from the aftermath of the oil fires (CIAF, 2011). One of the human influences of the gulf war and the oil fires is the air pollution caused. The black smoke from burning oil fuels obscured the sun causing people not to see well. This smoke carries with itself dangerous air pollutants that are harmful to human beings. The gulf war and oil fires also had a human influence of making difficult the living conditions of many people. This is because oil is an important economic commodity for Kuwait and its destruction had significant economic implications. The war also led to deterioration of the countries’ economy making the lives of the people difficult. Conclusion Fires can be detrimental in that they cause great losses both to individuals and countries. Whether they are oil well fires or other forms of fires, it is crucial to come up with and implement excellent ways of fire management to avert the losses caused. Quick responses in cases of fire outbreaks should be implemented to ensure that whenever fires break they do not spread so easily to other places. Oil wells should also be designed in such a way that it is not easy for them to catch fire. The design should also be in such a way that the wells can be accessed easily once there are fire outbreaks. Governments should also come up with policies that restrict some of the practices that may lead to fires. Implementing these strategies will ensure that fires that often have negative implications are reduced. Reference List CIAF. (2011). Fundamentals of Fire Fighter Skills. New York: Jones

Socio-autobiography

Socio-autobiography. Paper details This essay is about applying sociological concepts to my world. And there are some concepts listed in the documents. We must choose three concepts among them. So briefly introducing I’m a female student studying psychology at University and I’m 20 years old currently located in other country, not my own country. And the requirements ask me to use at least three peer-reviewed journal articles to substantiate the writing.Socio-autobiography

How Perceptions of Lower SES and Control Influence Lottery Ticket Purchases

How Perceptions of Lower SES and Control Influence Lottery Ticket Purchases. Not Winning at Life? Play the Lottery!: How Perceptions of Lower SES and Control Influence Lottery Ticket Purchases Abstract “All you need is a dollar and a dream” is a catchy advertisement for the New York State Lottery. This quote represents why the lottery is popular; all players have an equal chance of winning. In contrast, who plays the lottery is not equal. Individuals of low SES disproportionately play the lottery more than other classes. The current research looks to examine what factors most influence lottery play, especially among the poor. We hypothesize that participants will purchase the most lottery tickets after first being primed to feel “poor” through negative financial social comparison, and then playing an uncontrollable, or unwinnable rigged game. Which will increase external locus of control. These two factors, social comparison and perceived control, will work together and have the greatest influence on whether participants choose to purchase lottery tickets. The results could help improve pathological gambling interventions by providing a better understanding of underlying triggers. Not Winning at Life? Play the Lottery!: How Perceptions of Lower SES and Control Influence Lottery Ticket Purchases “What would you do if you won the lottery?” This question has been a fun conversation starter ever since the lottery was created. The average person approaches the topic of winning the lottery like they approach the topic of time travel – as a fantasy, something that is intriguing to think about, but will most likely never happen. Unfortunately, many people view the lottery as a viable option for improving quality of life. These people believe that they have a better chance of improving their life through winning the lottery then they do by other, more feasible options, such as saving money. This is a fallacy of logic. But what causes this fallacy to happen, and what demographic is most affected by the lottery? The current study aims to explore what reasons cause people to fall prey to the lottery pipedream, and what factors influence lottery ticket purchases. The current research will also examine if people can be induced to purchase more lottery tickets depending on their current mental state. To better understand the relationship between people and the lottery we will begin with a brief history of the lottery and then delve into the categories of: lottery ticket sales statistics, financial coping strategies, and the relationship between social comparison and lottery ticket purchases. Lottery History The earliest consideration of a lottery, gambling, has been around since the 1600s. During the formation of the 13 colonies, the states began instigating lotteries in order to encompass more people and generate revenue for the state. But, the first modern government-run US lottery was established in Puerto Rico in 1934. This was followed, decades later, by the New Hampshire lottery in 1964. Then finally, instant lottery tickets, also known as Scratchers, were introduced in the 1970s and account for the majority of lottery ticket sales (California State Library, 2010). With the introduction of Scratchers, revenue generated from the lottery has skyrocketed. As of November 2018, lotteries have been established in 45 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands; the most recent U.S. state to legalize a lottery is Mississippi. Ticket sales for the Mississippi Lottery are expected to begin in 2019 (Isidore, 2018). All of this demonstrates not only how entrenched the lottery system has become within American culture, but also that the lottery is expanding and evolving. Lottery ticket sales statistics provide a deeper look into how much is spent on the lottery, and who is doing the spending. Lottery Ticket Sales Statistics The lottery has steadily evolved from its humble origins. Recently lottery ticket sales are on the rise from $58.25 billion in 2009 to $80.55 billion in 2016. In total, Americans spend more money on lottery tickets, than on any other form of entertainment (e.g. sports tickets, movies, music, ect) (NASLP, 2016). Pathological gambling, which includes playing the lottery, has become a problem within the United States; it is most prevalent within those with low income and low education. Also, 54% of lottery ticket sales are made by 5% of the population (Lorenz, 1990). This means that those most often playing the lottery, who are more likely to be pathological gamblers, appear to be of low income and low education. To push this issue further, households that make less than $10,000 a year, spend on average $597 a year on lottery tickets – roughly 5% of their yearly income. Which, when looking at relative income, is the largest amount out of any other income bracket. At the same time, individuals with less than a high school education spend $700 a year on lottery tickets (Clotfelter, Cook, Edell,How Perceptions of Lower SES and Control Influence Lottery Ticket Purchases